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DebianWheezy 的 GNOME 桌面环境包括了下列软件包: DebianJessie 的 GNOME 桌面环境包括了下列软件包:

Translation(s): English - Français - Italiano - Русский - Melayu - 한국어 - 简体中文


GNOME 是什么?

GNOME 是一个既漂亮又实用的桌面环境,是 GNU/Linux 操作系统上最广泛使用的桌面环境之一,GNOME 是免费的。

Debian 的 GNOME 版本

在 Debian 里安装 GNOME 有四种选择:

安装选项

如何安装

描述

"GNOME 桌面"

tasksel 见下文

Debian 选择安装的软件包 (含有新装系统时默认安装的软件,它会安装一些不集成在 GNOME 桌面的应用程序,比如 LibreOffice 和 iceweasel 等。)

GNOME (Debian)

gnome 软件包

完整的 GNOME 桌面环境,包括一些上游的 GNOME 项目里没有的应用程序,这是 Debian 建议安装的 Gnome 环境。

GNOME (上游)

gnome-desktop-environment 软件包

GNOME 项目上游包含的组件,只少一些包,这是最接近 GNOME 项目官方建议的安装方式。从 Jessie 开始不再提供本软件包.

GNOME 简易版

gnome-accessibility 软件包

包括一些使 GNOME 更为易用的组件,比如鼠标工具、放大镜等。

GNOME 核心组件

gnome-core 软件包

这是一个最小化安装的 GNOME 桌面环境,需要自行加装自己需要用到的用户应用程序,以上几种安装方式,均会安装这些核心组件。

  • {i} 注意那些建议的软件包(及其依赖包),你可能用不到它们。

开发者:

  • gnome-core-devel - 从源码编译依赖 GNOME 的软件的开发包。

  • gnome-devel - 一个开发基于 GNOME 桌面环境应用的完整开发套件。

  • gnome-api-docs -所有 GNOME 程序库的完整 API 文档。

  • gnome-dbg - 所有 GNOME 软件包的有效调试符。

"GNOME 桌面"安装任务

Debian 安装程序默认安装的桌面安装选项将会安装 GNOME 桌面,除非你自己选择了另一个桌面环境。

  • 要选择此安装方式,先装上 taskselaptitude

    apt-get install aptitude tasksel
    然后, 安装 GNOME 桌面任务(如权限合适的话,此命令执行后安装会马上开始):
    tasksel install gnome-desktop --new-install
  • --new-install 选项会确保装完的组件和 Debian 安装程序的一样。

“GNOME 桌面”安装任务实际上是 tasksel 常用桌面和选中的 gnome-desktop 的总和。

  • #tasksel -t install gnome desktop
    aptitude -q --without-recommends -o APT::Install-Recommends=no -y install ~t^desktop$ ~t^gnome-desktop$

DebianJessie 的 GNOME 桌面环境包括了下列软件包:

Include: Nothing found for "^##TAG:TASK_PLGLIST_START"!

Include: Nothing found for "^##TAG:TASK_PLGLIST_END"!

Translation(s): English - español - Français - Italiano - 한국어 - Melayu - Português (Brasil) - Русский - 简体中文


Screenshot

What is GNOME?

The GNOME Desktop is an attractive and useful desktop environment. GNOME is both free and one of the most widely used desktop environments on the GNU/Linux operating system.

GNOME in Debian

GNOME is one of the DesktopEnvironment options in the DebianDesktopHowTo.

Versions

The meta-gnome3 metapackage is not a good indication of the version of the overall desktop, particularly in development distributions.

Options

There are three options to install GNOME in Debian:

How to install

Description

GNOME desktop task

tasksel see below

Debian's selection of applications
(This is what is installed on a freshly installed system. It includes some applications that do not really integrate with GNOME, like LibreOffice and Firefox)

GNOME (Debian)

gnome package

The full GNOME environment, including applications that are not officially part of the Upstream GNOME releases.
It provides the recommended GNOME environment for Debian.

GNOME (core only)

gnome-core package

Only the official “core” modules of the GNOME desktop. Above packages depend on this one.

  • {i} Watch out recommended packages (i.e. packages dependencies) !
    (you might or might not want to install them).

For developers:

  • gnome-core-devel - The development packages to compile GNOME dependent packages from source.

  • gnome-devel - A full development suite for developing GNOME-based applications.

  • gnome-api-docs - The complete API documentation for all GNOME libraries

Installing "GNOME Desktop" task

The GNOME Desktop task is what is installed by Debian-Installer's Desktop "task" (unless you picked another DesktopEnvironment!).

You can install it manually using apt:

# apt-get install task-gnome-desktop

Content

The "GNOME Desktop" task is the combination of tasksel's common desktop (task-desktop) and tasksel's GNOME desktop (task-gnome-desktop) meta-packages.

Configuration

Most configuration of the GNOME desktop is done via its various GUI utilities. The location of these varies depending on version, but common utilities include networking, themes, sounds and much more. It is also possible to configure (read/write) settings using the command line with gsettings(1).

The equivalent of gsettings(1) in much older versions of GNOME was gconftool(2). This is no longer used by GNOME itself, but might still be useful to configure very old applications.

Change cursor theme

Using GNOME on Xorg, it is possible to change the cursor theme by executing

# update-alternatives --config x-cursor-theme

Improve animations on AMD CPU systems (and some others)

Although Gnome developers are working to improve the situation, as of Gnome 3.30 animations are still heavily reliant on a single thread processed by the CPU.

The default CPUFreq scaling governor (Ondemand) which is used by AMD CPUs, older Intel CPUs, and many other CPUs, drops core frequency significantly between each animation frame (the issue is amplified by the nature of Gnome's engine only rendering frames as required) and this can result in jolty/laggy/slow animations. If you are experiencing this you may find the situation can be greatly improved by adjusting Ondemand's "sampling_down_factor" setting.

You can test if this improves animation smoothness on your system by executing the following command:

# echo -n 50 > /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/ondemand/sampling_down_factor

If you see an improvement and would like to make the setting persistent through reboots you can install sysfsutils:

# apt install sysfsutils

Then create the file /etc/sysfs.d/ondemand.conf and place inside the following:

devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/ondemand/sampling_down_factor = 50

Note: This tweak can result in a minuscule increase to your CPU's power consumption and heat generation.

See also

About GNOME for Debian:


CategoryDesktopEnvironment | CategorySoftware

配置

大多数的 GNOME 桌面配置可以通过各种 GUI 工具来实现,这些工具的配置和具体使用的 Gnome 版本有关,常见的工具包括网络、主题、声音等等,还可以使用gconftool(2) 提供的命令行来配置(读/写)这些设置。

参见

关于 Debian 的 GNOME:


CategoryDesktopEnvironment