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DebianReleases > Backports


你正在运行 Debian稳定版 因为你宁愿选择debian稳定版分支。它运行的很好,但是只有一个问题:与其他发行版相比,它的软件有一点过时了。这是backports出现的原因.

Backports是从testing版本 (大部分)和 unstable版本 (可能性极小,例如:安全更新等)重新编译的软件包,因此他们在稳定的debian发行版中不需要新的库就可以运行(无论如何,这是可能的)。推荐你挑选一个能够满足你需求的单个的backports软件源,不要使用所有可用的backports源。

这篇文档将举例说明如何:

关于如何使用Debian Backports的官方说明文档,请访问 http://backports.debian.org/说明文档/ 。 See also the BuildingFormalBackports page.

如果你想创建一个你所需软件包的非官方backport, 请访问 the SimpleBackportCreation page

On Sept. 5th, 2010, Backports became an official service (see announcement).

If your system is already configured to use backports.org, you may want to Migrate from backports.org to backports.debian.org.


配置你的稳定系统

增加软件库

使用新立得(Synaptic)

  • 打开新立得(Synaptic)
  • 转到 "设置 -> 软件库":

backports_synaptic_1.png

  • 在接下来的对话框中,选择标签 "Other Software" 并且单击左下角的 "Add..." 按钮:

backports_synaptic_2.png

  • 复制下面的软件库,然后单击 "添加源" 按钮:

deb http://backports.debian.org/debian-backports squeeze-backports main contrib non-free

backports_synaptic_3.png

  • 最后, 单击新立得主面板上的 "刷新" 按钮来更新你的系统中的软件库信息。

使用命令行

变成root并且使用你最顺手的编辑器打开文件 /etc/apt/sources.list :

human@debian:~$ su
Password:
debian:/home/human# nano /etc/apt/sources.list

增加以下几行:

# Backports repository
deb http://backports.debian.org/debian-backports squeeze-backports main contrib non-free

如果你是开源软件的狂热爱好者,你可能会想要移除 contrib and non-free 两个部分. (详情参见 Debian sections .)

既然你已经增加了软件库, 更新APT的缓存来包含在backports目录列表中的可用软件:

debian:/home/human# aptitude update

Done.

使用backports软件源

从backports中查找软件

有几种不同的方法来发现backports总是否存在某个特定的软件包。一个相当方便的方式就是使用debian基于网络的包查询系统 (packages.debian.org). If you are running Iceweasel, simply use the built-in search plugin (Deb Search).

Installing backports on the command line

The backports repository is deactivated by default. So, if you want to install a backported package, you will have to state that explicitly.

For example:

debian:/home/human# aptitude -t squeeze-backports install iceweasel

The -t option here specifies squeeze-backports as the target release. This would install Iceweasel 3.5 from Backports instead of version 3.0 from the Debian stable release.

FAQ

Reporting bugs

Because of limitations in the Debian Bug Tracking System, any bugs relevant to backported packages still have to be reported to the debian-backports list.

Migrate from backports.org to backports.debian.org

On Sept. 5th, 2010, Backports became an official service (see announcement).

Systems configured to use backports.org should reconfigured to use the new repository/URL (in /etc/apt/source.list*), since backports.org service will be stopped at some point.

  1. replace backports.org with backports.debian.org in /etc/apt/source.list*.

  2. run aptitude update

  3. remove the backports.org key from your keyring. Depending how you installed it...
    • apt-get purge debian-backports-keyring
      or

    • apt-key del 16BA136C

GnuPG archive key

Backports is now an official service residing at backports.debian.org. Previously, when the service was hosted at backports.org, users were required to install the debian-backports-keyring package in order to verify the integrity of downloaded backports before installation. This is no longer necessary.

External links