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DebianReleases > Backports


你正在运行 Debian稳定版 因为你宁愿选择debian稳定版分支。它运行的很好,但是只有一个问题:与其他发行版相比,它的软件有一点过时了。这是backports出现的原因.

Backports are recompiled packages from testing (mostly) and unstable (in a few cases only, e.g. security updates), so they will run without new libraries (wherever it is possible) on a stable Debian distribution. It is recommended to pick out single backports which fit your needs, and not to use all backports available.

This article illustrates how to:

For official instructions on how to use Debian Backports, visit http://backports.debian.org/Instructions/. See also the BuildingFormalBackports page.

If you want to create a non-official backport of a package you need, visit the SimpleBackportCreation page.

On Sept. 5th, 2010, Backports became an official service (see announcement).

If your system is already configured to use backports.org, you may want to Migrate from backports.org to backports.debian.org.


Configuring your stable system

Adding the repository

Using Synaptic

  • Open Synaptic
  • Go to "Settings -> Repositories":

backports_synaptic_1.png

  • In the following dialog box, select the tab "Third-Party Software" and click on the "Add..." button in the lower left corner:

backports_synaptic_2.png

  • Copy the repository below, then hit the "Add Source" button:

deb http://backports.debian.org/debian-backports squeeze-backports main contrib non-free

backports_synaptic_3.png

  • Finally, hit the "Reload" button in Synaptic's main panel to update the repository information on your system.

Using the command line

Become root and open the file /etc/apt/sources.list in your favorite editor:

human@debian:~$ su
Password:
debian:/home/human# nano /etc/apt/sources.list

Add the following lines:

# Backports repository
deb http://backports.debian.org/debian-backports squeeze-backports main contrib non-free

If you are a free software enthusiast, you might want to remove the contrib and non-free sections. (See Debian sections for details.)

Now that you have added the repository, update APT's cache to include the backports in the list of available packages:

debian:/home/human# aptitude update

Done.

Using backports

Finding backports

There are a several different ways to find out if a backport of a certain Debian package exists. A pretty convenient one is using Debian's web-based package search (packages.debian.org). If you are running Iceweasel, simply use the built-in search plugin (Deb Search).

Installing backports on the command line

The backports repository is deactivated by default. So, if you want to install a backported package, you will have to state that explicitly.

For example:

debian:/home/human# aptitude -t squeeze-backports install iceweasel

The -t option here specifies squeeze-backports as the target release. This would install Iceweasel 3.5 from Backports instead of version 3.0 from the Debian stable release.

FAQ

Reporting bugs

Because of limitations in the Debian Bug Tracking System, any bugs relevant to backported packages still have to be reported to the debian-backports list.

Migrate from backports.org to backports.debian.org

On Sept. 5th, 2010, Backports became an official service (see announcement).

Systems configured to use backports.org should reconfigured to use the new repository/URL (in /etc/apt/source.list*), since backports.org service will be stopped at some point.

  1. replace backports.org with backports.debian.org in /etc/apt/source.list*.

  2. run aptitude update

  3. remove the backports.org key from your keyring. Depending how you installed it...
    • apt-get purge debian-backports-keyring
      or

    • apt-key del 16BA136C

GnuPG archive key

Backports is now an official service residing at backports.debian.org. Previously, when the service was hosted at backports.org, users were required to install the debian-backports-keyring package in order to verify the integrity of downloaded backports before installation. This is no longer necessary.

External links