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Revision 1 as of 2013-05-24 13:57:57
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Editor: warmsun0220
Comment: 新建的中文backport wiki
Revision 8 as of 2013-06-19 12:30:44
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Editor: warmsun0220
Comment: 修正翻译错误,补充翻译
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~-[[DebianWiki/EditorGuide#translation|Translation(s)]]: [[Backports|English]] - [[fr/Backports|Français]] - [[it/Backports|Italiano]] - [[de/Backports|Deutsch]] - [[ru/Backports|Русский]]-~ ~-[[DebianWiki/EditorGuide#translation|Translation(s)]]: [[Backports|English]] - [[fr/Backports|Français]] - [[it/Backports|Italiano]] - [[de/Backports|Deutsch]] - [[ru/Backports|Русский]] - 简体中文-~
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You are running [[DebianStable|Debian stable]] because you prefer the stable Debian tree. It runs great, there is just one problem: The software is a little bit outdated compared to other distributions. That is where backports come in. 你正在运行 [[DebianStable|Debian稳定版]] 因为你宁愿选择debian稳定版分支。它运行的很好,但是只有一个问题:与其他发行版相比,它的软件有一点过时了。这是backports出现的原因.
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Backports are recompiled packages from [[DebianTesting|testing]] (mostly) and [[DebianUnstable|unstable]] (in a few cases only, e.g. security updates), so they will run without new libraries (wherever it is possible) on a stable Debian distribution. It is recommended to pick out single backports which fit your needs, and not to use all backports available. Backports是从[[DebianTesting|testing版本]] (大部分)和 [[DebianUnstable|unstable版本]] (可能性极小,例如:安全更新等)重新编译的软件包,因此他们在稳定的debian发行版中不需要新的库就可以运行(无论如何,这是可能的)。推荐你挑选一个能够满足你需求的单个的backports软件源,不要使用所有可用的backports源。
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This article illustrates how to:
 * configure your stable system to use the Backports repository
 * find a specific backport
 * install packages from the repository
 * have your backports upgraded automatically
 * 配置你的稳定版系统来使用backports软件库
 * 找到一个特定的backport
 * 从软件库安装软件包
 * 让你的backports自动升级
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For official instructions on how to use Debian Backports, visit [[http://backports.debian.org/Instructions/]]. See also the BuildingFormalBackports page. 关于如何使用Debian Backports的官方说明文档,请访问 [[http://backports.debian.org/说明文档/]] 。 See also the BuildingFormalBackports page.
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If you want to create a non-official backport of a package you need, visit [[SimpleBackportCreation|the SimpleBackportCreation page]]. 如果你想创建一个你所需软件包的非官方backport 请访问 [[SimpleBackportCreation|the SimpleBackportCreation page]]
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= Configuring your stable system = = 配置你的稳定系统 =
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== Adding the repository == == 增加软件库 ==
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=== Using Synaptic ===
 * Open Synaptic
 * Go to "''Settings -> Repositories''":
=== 使用新立得(Synaptic ===
 * 打开新立得(Synaptic
 * 转到 "''设置 -> 软件库''":
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 * In the following dialog box, select the tab "''Third-Party Software''" and click on the "''Add...''" button in the lower left corner:  * 在接下来的对话框中,选择标签 "''Other Software''" 并且单击左下角的 "''Add...''" 按钮:
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 * Copy the repository below, then hit the "''Add Source''" button:  * 复制下面的软件库,然后单击 "''添加源''" 按钮:
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 * Finally, hit the "''Reload''" button in Synaptic's main panel to update the repository information on your system.  * 最后, 单击新立得主面板上的 "''刷新''" 按钮来更新你的系统中的软件库信息。
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=== Using the command line ===
Become root and open the file {{{/etc/apt/sources.list}}} in your favorite editor:
=== 使用命令行 ===
变成root并且使用你最顺手的编辑器打开文件 {{{/etc/apt/sources.list}}} :
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Add the following lines: 增加以下几行:
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If you are a free software enthusiast, you might want to remove the {{{contrib}}} and {{{non-free}}} sections.
(See [[http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch-system.de.html#s-stable|Debian sections]] for details.)
如果你是开源软件的狂热爱好者,你可能会想要移除 {{{contrib}}} and {{{non-free}}} 两个部分.
(详情参见 [[http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch-system.de.html#s-stable|Debian sections]] .)
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Now that you have added the repository, update APT's cache to include the backports in the list of available packages: 既然你已经增加了软件库, 更新APT的缓存来包含在backports目录列表中的可用软件:
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= Using backports = = 使用backports软件源 =
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== Finding backports == == backports中查找软件 ==
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There are a several different ways to find out if a backport of a certain Debian package exists. A pretty convenient one is using Debian's web-based package search ([[http://packages.debian.org|packages.debian.org]]).
If you are running Iceweasel, simply use the built-in search plugin (Deb Search).
有几种不同的方法来发现backports总是否存在某个特定的软件包。一个相当方便的方式就是使用debian基于网络的包查询系统 ([[http://packages.debian.org|packages.debian.org]]).
如果你在使用Iceweasel, 可以直接使用内建的搜索插件(Deb Search).
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== Installing backports on the command line == == 在命令行下安装backports ==
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The backports repository is deactivated by default. So, if you want to install a backported package, you will have to state that explicitly. backports软件库默认是不启用的.因此,如果你想安装一个backport软件包, 你必须清楚的说明.
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For example: 例如:
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The {{{-t}}} option here specifies {{{squeeze-backports}}} as the target release. This would install Iceweasel 3.5 from Backports instead of version 3.0 from the Debian stable release. 这里{{{-t}}}参数指定{{{squeeze-backports}}} 作为目标发行版. 这会安装Iceweasel 3.5 从 Backports而不是debian稳定发行版中的3.0版本.
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= FAQ =
== Reporting bugs ==
Because of limitations in the Debian Bug Tracking System, any bugs
relevant to
backported packages still have to be reported to the
[[http://lists.debian.org/debian-backports/|debian-backports]] list.
= 常见问题 =
== bugs反馈 ==
[[http://lists.debian.org/debian-backports/|debian-backports]] 列表.
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== Migrate from backports.org to backports.debian.org ==
On Sept. 5th, 2010, Backports became an official service (see [[http://www.debian.org/News/2010/20100905|announcement]]).
== backports.org迁移到backports.debian.org ==
2010年9月5日,backports成为官方服务(参见 [[http://www.debian.org/News/2010/20100905|announcement]]).
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Systems configured to use backports.org should reconfigured to use the new
repository/URL (in {{{/etc/apt/source.list*}}}), since backports.org
service will be stopped at some point.
系统配置为使用backports.org应该重新配置使用新的软件仓库/网址 (in {{{/etc/apt/source.list*}}}), 由于 backports.org 服务会在将来某个时候停止。
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 1. replace {{{backports.org}}} with {{{backports.debian.org}}} in {{{/etc/apt/source.list*}}}.
 2. run {{{aptitude update}}}
 3. remove the backports.org key from your keyring. Depending how you installed it...
 1. 在 {{{/etc/apt/source.list*}}}中使用 {{{backports.debian.org}}}替换 {{{backports.org}}} .
 2. 运行 {{{aptitude update}}}
 3. 从你的密匙环中移除 backports.org 密钥. 这要看你是怎么安装它的...
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Backports is now an official service residing at [[http://backports.debian.org|backports.debian.org]]. Previously, when the service was hosted at [[http://backports.org|backports.org]], users were required to install the [[DebianPkg:squeeze-backports/debian-backports-keyring|debian-backports-keyring]] package in order to verify the integrity of downloaded backports before installation. This is no longer necessary. Backports现在是官方服务属于[[http://backports.debian.org|backports.debian.org]]. 以前,当服务被托管在[[http://backports.org|backports.org]], 用户需要安装 [[DebianPkg:squeeze-backports/debian-backports-keyring|debian-backports-keyring]] 软件包为了在安装前验证下载backports包的完整性。这已经不需要了.
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= External links =
 * [[http://backports.debian.org/|backports.debian.org]] for more information
= 外部链接 =
 * [[http://backports.debian.org/|backports.debian.org]] 可以取得更多的信息。

Translation(s): English - Français - Italiano - Deutsch - Русский - 简体中文

DebianReleases > Backports

你正在运行 Debian稳定版 因为你宁愿选择debian稳定版分支。它运行的很好,但是只有一个问题:与其他发行版相比,它的软件有一点过时了。这是backports出现的原因.

Backports是从testing版本 (大部分)和 unstable版本 (可能性极小,例如:安全更新等)重新编译的软件包,因此他们在稳定的debian发行版中不需要新的库就可以运行(无论如何,这是可能的)。推荐你挑选一个能够满足你需求的单个的backports软件源,不要使用所有可用的backports源。


  • 配置你的稳定版系统来使用backports软件库
  • 找到一个特定的backport
  • 从软件库安装软件包
  • 让你的backports自动升级

关于如何使用Debian Backports的官方说明文档,请访问 http://backports.debian.org/说明文档/ 。 See also the BuildingFormalBackports page.

如果你想创建一个你所需软件包的非官方backport, 请访问 the SimpleBackportCreation page

On Sept. 5th, 2010, Backports became an official service (see announcement).

If your system is already configured to use backports.org, you may want to Migrate from backports.org to backports.debian.org.




  • 打开新立得(Synaptic)
  • 转到 "设置 -> 软件库":


  • 在接下来的对话框中,选择标签 "Other Software" 并且单击左下角的 "Add..." 按钮:


  • 复制下面的软件库,然后单击 "添加源" 按钮:

deb http://backports.debian.org/debian-backports squeeze-backports main contrib non-free


  • 最后, 单击新立得主面板上的 "刷新" 按钮来更新你的系统中的软件库信息。


变成root并且使用你最顺手的编辑器打开文件 /etc/apt/sources.list :

human@debian:~$ su
debian:/home/human# nano /etc/apt/sources.list


# Backports repository
deb http://backports.debian.org/debian-backports squeeze-backports main contrib non-free

如果你是开源软件的狂热爱好者,你可能会想要移除 contrib and non-free 两个部分. (详情参见 Debian sections .)

既然你已经增加了软件库, 更新APT的缓存来包含在backports目录列表中的可用软件:

debian:/home/human# aptitude update




有几种不同的方法来发现backports总是否存在某个特定的软件包。一个相当方便的方式就是使用debian基于网络的包查询系统 (packages.debian.org). 如果你在使用Iceweasel, 可以直接使用内建的搜索插件(Deb Search).


backports软件库默认是不启用的.因此,如果你想安装一个backport软件包, 你必须清楚的说明.


debian:/home/human# aptitude -t squeeze-backports install iceweasel

这里-t参数指定squeeze-backports 作为目标发行版. 这会安装Iceweasel 3.5 从 Backports而不是debian稳定发行版中的3.0版本.



由于debian的bugs追踪系统的局限性,任何与backports有关的bugs仍然必须报告给 debian-backports 列表.


在2010年9月5日,backports成为官方服务(参见 announcement).

系统配置为使用backports.org应该重新配置使用新的软件仓库/网址 (in /etc/apt/source.list*), 由于 backports.org 服务会在将来某个时候停止。

  1. /etc/apt/source.list*中使用 backports.debian.org替换 backports.org .

  2. 运行 aptitude update

  3. 从你的密匙环中移除 backports.org 密钥. 这要看你是怎么安装它的...
    • apt-get purge debian-backports-keyring

    • apt-key del 16BA136C

GnuPG archive key

Backports现在是官方服务属于backports.debian.org. 以前,当服务被托管在backports.org, 用户需要安装 debian-backports-keyring 软件包为了在安装前验证下载backports包的完整性。这已经不需要了.