Translation(s): none

(!) ?Discussion

/!\ ToDo: update for the Backports change


Hermes I, Prism 2/2.5/3, Spectrum24 Trilogy devices (orinoco)

This page describes how to enable support for WiFi devices based on the Hermes I (Lucent/Agere), Prism 2/2.5/3 (Conexant, formerly Intersil) and Spectrum24 Trilogy (Symbol) chipsets; using the Orinoco driver on Debian systems.

This page is about the Orinoco driver. See Wikipedia for information about the ORiNOCO brand.

Driver

The Orinoco driver is a collection of modules providing support for various 802.11b devices, based on the Hermes I, Prism 2/2.5/3 or Spectrum24 Trilogy chipsets:

<!> USB devices are not supported (for Hermes, see orinoco_usb; for Prism, see linux-wlan-ng).

While Prism 2/2.5/3 chipsets are supported, use of the hostap driver is generally preferred.

As of Linux kernel 2.6.28-rc1, downloading of firmware to volatile memory (RAM) and WPA support is available for Hermes I-based devices. For WPA support, firmware version 9.42 (or later) is required. The Orinoco driver will attempt to download firmware from userspace during device initialization.

Firmware is required to be provided for Spectrum24 Trilogy-based devices without flash memory (e.g. Intel WPC2011BWW, Socket Communications WL6000-320).

Installation

The Orinoco driver is included in the mainline Linux kernel since 2.4.3. It is included as modules in Debian kernel images.

Lenny

Using Etch? Skip to the Etch section.

WPA (Hermes I only)

You can skip this section if WPA support is not required, or if your device has a Prism or Spectrum24 Trilogy chipset.

For WPA support, Linux 2.6.28 or later is required. Firmware is also required to be installed prior to driver operation.

  1. Add the Debian Backports repository to /etc/apt/sources.list, also including the "non-free" component. For example:

    # Backported packages for Debian Lenny
    deb http://www.backports.org/debian lenny-backports main contrib non-free
  2. Update the list of available packages and install the lenny-backports/debian-backports-keyring package:

    # aptitude update
    # aptitude -t lenny-backports install debian-backports-keyring

    As your system does not yet have the GnuPG archive key of the backports.org repository installed, you will be asked to confirm installation of a package from an untrusted repository. Enter Yes when prompted.

  3. Install a 2.6.32 kernel image appropriate for your system, along with the lenny-backports/firmware-linux-nonfree package. For example:

    # aptitude update
    # aptitude -t lenny-backports install linux-image-2.6-$(uname -r | sed 's,.*-,,') firmware-linux-nonfree
  4. Restart your system and boot with the newly installed kernel, then continue with the procedure below.

General

  1. Install the wireless-tools package:

    # aptitude install wireless-tools
  2. For users with Spectrum24 Trilogy-based devices only:

    Firmware is required for devices without flash memory. This can be downloaded and extracted using the get_symbol_fw script available from orinoco-fwutils:

    $ su
    # aptitude install unzip
    # exit
    $ wget 'http://downloads.sourceforge.net/orinoco/orinoco-fwutils-0.3.tar.gz?download'
    $ tar xvf orinoco-fwutils-0.3.tar.gz
    $ cd orinoco-fwutils-0.3
    $ ./get_symbol_fw
    $ su
    # mkdir -p /usr/local/lib/firmware
    # mv symbol_sp24t_prim_fw symbol_sp24t_sec_fw /usr/local/lib/firmware
  3. If not already performed, connect the device to your system.
  4. The necessary kernel modules should be automatically loaded. If necessary, the required modules can be loaded manually with one of the following commands (depending on your device's host interface):

    # modprobe airport

    or

    # modprobe orinoco_cs

    or

    # modprobe orinoco_nortel

    or

    # modprobe orinoco_pci

    or

    # modprobe orinoco_plx

    or

    # modprobe orinoco_tmd

    or

    # modprobe spectrum_cs
  5. Verify your device has an available interface:

    # iwconfig
  6. Raise the interface to activate the radio, for example:

    # ifconfig eth1 up
  7. Configure your interface as appropriate. See also known issues.

Troubleshooting

Etch

  1. Install the wireless-tools package:

    # aptitude update && aptitude install wireless-tools
  2. For users with Spectrum24 Trilogy-based devices only:

    Firmware is required for devices without flash memory. This can be downloaded and extracted using the get_symbol_fw script available from orinoco-fwutils:

    $ su
    # aptitude install unzip
    # exit
    $ wget 'http://downloads.sourceforge.net/orinoco/orinoco-fwutils-0.3.tar.gz?download'
    $ tar xvf orinoco-fwutils-0.3.tar.gz
    $ cd orinoco-fwutils-0.3
    $ ./get_symbol_fw
    $ su
    # mkdir -p /usr/local/lib/firmware
    # mv symbol_sp24t_prim_fw symbol_sp24t_sec_fw /usr/local/lib/firmware
  3. If not already performed, connect the device to your system.
  4. The necessary kernel modules should be automatically loaded. If necessary, the required modules can be loaded manually with one of the following commands (depending on your device's host interface):

    # modprobe airport

    or

    # modprobe orinoco_cs

    or

    # modprobe orinoco_nortel

    or

    # modprobe orinoco_pci

    or

    # modprobe orinoco_plx

    or

    # modprobe orinoco_tmd

    or

    # modprobe spectrum_cs
  5. Verify your device has an available interface:

    # iwconfig
  6. Raise the interface to activate the radio, for example:

    # ifconfig eth1 up
  7. Configure your interface as appropriate. See also known issues.

Troubleshooting

Squeeze

WPA (Hermes I only)

You can skip this section if WPA support is not required, or if your device has a Prism or Spectrum24 Trilogy chipset.

Firmware is required to be installed prior to driver operation.

  1. Add a "non-free" component to /etc/apt/sources.list, for example:

    # Debian Squeeze (testing)
    deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian squeeze main contrib non-free
  2. Update the list of available packages and install the firmware-linux-nonfree package:

    # aptitude update && aptitude install firmware-linux-nonfree
  3. Continue with the procedure below.

General

  1. Install the wireless-tools package:

    # aptitude install wireless-tools
  2. For users with Spectrum24 Trilogy-based devices only:

    Firmware is required for devices without flash memory. This can be downloaded and extracted using the get_symbol_fw script available from orinoco-fwutils:

    $ su
    # aptitude install unzip
    # exit
    $ wget 'http://downloads.sourceforge.net/orinoco/orinoco-fwutils-0.3.tar.gz?download'
    $ tar xvf orinoco-fwutils-0.3.tar.gz
    $ cd orinoco-fwutils-0.3
    $ ./get_symbol_fw
    $ su
    # mkdir -p /usr/local/lib/firmware
    # mv symbol_sp24t_prim_fw symbol_sp24t_sec_fw /usr/local/lib/firmware
  3. If not already performed, connect the device to your system.
  4. Hermes I and WPA, Spectrum24 Trilogy-based devices without flash memory:

    As the driver may already be loaded, reinsert the relevant module to access installed firmware (depending on your device's host interface):

    # modprobe -r airport ; modprobe airport

    or

    # modprobe -r orinoco_cs ; modprobe orinoco_cs

    or

    # modprobe -r orinoco_nortel ; modprobe orinoco_nortel

    or

    # modprobe -r orinoco_pci ; modprobe orinoco_pci

    or

    # modprobe -r orinoco_plx ; modprobe orinoco_plx

    or

    # modprobe -r orinoco_tmd ; modprobe orinoco_tmd

    or

    # modprobe -r spectrum_cs ; modprobe spectrum_cs
  5. Verify your device has an available interface:

    # iwconfig
  6. Raise the interface to activate the radio, for example:

    # ifconfig eth1 up
  7. Configure your interface as appropriate. See also known issues.

Troubleshooting

Known Issues

WPA

WEP

<!> This encryption method is deprecated and not recommended for use.

Monitor Mode

For Hermes I-based devices, Lucent/Agere firmware versions 7.xx and 8.xx are buggy with respect to monitor mode operation. The Orinoco driver will refuse to change to monitor mode if requested (e.g. via iwconfig(8)). Firmware versions <= 6.16 are required for this feature (see Other Notes regarding firmware flashing).

Monitor mode operation can be forced on buggy firmware versions by supplying force_monitor=1 as an option to the orinoco module:

echo options orinoco force_monitor=1 >> /etc/modprobe.d/local.conf

Other Notes

The station firmware on Hermes I-based devices can only be permanently upgraded/downgraded (flashed) through utilities available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. Some Agere firmware revisions are available here. With respect to the AirPort Card, its firmware can be indirectly flashed during installation of some Mac OS X operating system versions.

Installation of the hostap-utils package will blacklist the Orinoco driver modules. This package should be purged from your system if not required.

Supported Devices

airport

The AirPort Card (not AirPort Extreme) is supported. This is an optional networking accessory for the following Apple systems:

orinoco_cs

The page HowToIdentifyADevice/PC_Card explains how to identify a PC Card device.

orinoco_nortel

The page HowToIdentifyADevice/PCI explains how to identify a PCI device.

The following list is based on the alias fields of  orinoco_nortel on Lenny.

orinoco_pci

The page HowToIdentifyADevice/PCI explains how to identify a PCI device.

The following list is based on the alias fields of orinoco_pci on Lenny.

orinoco_plx

The page HowToIdentifyADevice/PCI explains how to identify a PCI device.

The following list is based on the alias fields of orinoco_plx on Lenny.

orinoco_tmd

The page HowToIdentifyADevice/PCI explains how to identify a PCI device.

The following list is based on the alias fields of orinoco_tmd on Lenny.

spectrum_cs

The page HowToIdentifyADevice/PC_Card explains how to identify a PC Card device.

Unsupported

All ORiNOCO-branded USB devices, including:

The above devices are supported by a USB-specific fork of the Orinoco driver.

See Also


CategoryHardware | CategoryWireless