Go is a programming language developed at Google circa 2007 and announced to the public in November of 2009. It was designed by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson. The Go language is distributed under a BSD-style license.
The proper name of the language is Go, but it is often referred to as golang because of its domain name (and golang is a more effective search match).
Unlike interpreted languages like Python, Go is compiled, often into a single large "statically linked executable" (aiming to avoid library dependency issues).
Go in Debian