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= Preguntas y Respuestas - FreedomBox =
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<<TableOfContents()>> Las preguntas y respuestas se han movido a [[https://discuss.freedombox.org/t/frequently-asked-questions/1906|los foros de debate]].
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== INTRODUCCIÓN GENERAL ==

=== ¿Qué es FreedomBox? ===

    !FreedomBox es un servidor personal que proteje tu privacidad. Fabricado solo con software libre, usa un subconjunto del sistema operativo universal Debian. Se puede instalar en una variedad de hardware barato y energéticamente eficiente. !FreedomBox está diseñado para ser facil de configurar y operar, al nivel de un teléfono inteligente.<<BR>><<BR>>

    Continua leyendo en la página de [[es/FreedomBox/Introduction|Introducción]].

=== ¿Qué hace FreedomBox? ===

    !FreedomBox intenta protejer tu vida privada contra compañías anunciantes y tu anonimato cuando navegas por Internet o en tu red local. Te permite proveer servicios (tales como compartición de archivos y enlaces, almacenamiento remoto, chat, wiki/blog) a tu familia y amistades. !FreedomBox configura y actualiza automaticamente la seguridad de estos servicios. Puedes conectar de modo seguro a tu !FreedomBox cuando estés fuera de tu hogar para acceder a tus servicios y saltar a ordenadores o dispositivos electrónicos de terceros. Puedes decidir enrutar el tráfico de tu teléfono movil a través de tu !FreedomBox usando la conexión a internet de to hogar. También puedes hacer chats en grupo y usar !BitTorrent, incluso en hardware muy simple.

=== ¿Puede FreedomBox proporcionar un servidor de correo electrónico seguro? ===

    Entre las funcionalidades previstas para un futuro están el servidor de correo electrónico seguro, redes sociales distribuídas, login único sin contraseña y asistente para navegación (segura). Los contribuyentes activos están trabajando en ello. También trabajan en que !FreedomBox soporte más hardware.

=== ¿Necesito conocimientos técnicos para empezar a usar FreedomBox? ===

    No, no se requieren conocimientos técnicos para operar una !FreedomBox a alto nivel. Hay disponible un sistema !FreedomBox de Olimex completo (hardware con su software preinstalado) para comprar.

=== ¿Cual es la relación entre Debian y FreedomBox? ===

    !FreedomBox es una "variante pura" (osea, un subconjunto empaquetado) de Debian - disponible bien como imagen pre-instalada para algunas placas o como meta-paquete para instalarlo sobre un Debian previo.

=== ¿Cómo puedo preguntar aquí? ===

    Eres libre de añadir tu pregunta en ésta página (o alguna respuesta si la tienes) usando la opción ''Editar'' que se muestra cuando te registras en el wiki. La mayoría de las respuestas vienen de los [[http://lists.alioth.debian.org/pipermail/freedombox-discuss/|archivos de las listas de correo]] de !FreedomBox. Lee también, por favor, la página [[es/FreedomBox/Support|ayuda en vivo]].

=== ¿Cómo me comunico con usuarios de fuera de mi FreedomBox? ===

    Las aplicaciones de mensajería y redes sociales de !FreedomBox son sistemas federados; si tienes una cuenta en un servidor, puedes hablar con cualquiera en cualquier otro servidor. El sistema federado más común es el correo electrónico. Igual que puedes enviar correos a usuarios de otros servidores puedes interactuar por mensajería instantánea y redes sociales con usuarios de otros servidores federados. Por ejemplo, ''ejabberd'' y ''Matrix Synapse'' son sistemas federados de mensajería, mientras que ''diaspora*'', ''Pleroma'', ''Mastodon'' etc. son sistemas de red social federados.

== HARDWARE (SBC) ==

=== ¿Qué hardware (SBC) recomienda Freedombox? ===

    OLinuXino A20 https://www.olimex.com/Products/OLinuXino/A20/open-source-hardware

    <<BR>>Other alternatives:<<BR>><<BR>>

    Cubieboard / Cubietruck http://cubieboard.org/buy/ <<BR>>
    Beaglebone Black http://beagleboard.org/black <<BR>>
    APU / ALIX http://www.pcengines.ch/order.htm <<BR>>

=== ¿Que es una computadora monoplaca (SBC = Single Board Computer)? ===

    A single board computer (SBC) is a "mini pc" based on a single circuit board that allows a reduction of overall cost. Most of them are cheap with low energy consumption. !FreedomBox is developed towards Open Source SBCs providing plug-in cards.<<BR>><<BR>>

    You can check [[https://www.fsf.org/resources/hw/single-board-computers|Single-board computers]] page on from the the Free Software Foundation (FSF)'s hardware database.

=== El concepto de Open Hardware me es nuevo. ¿Qué hace abierto al Open Hardware? ¿Hay algo que tenga que tener en cuenta? ==

    Please use the more specific term "Open Source Hardware" or OSHW. OSHW is a definition intended to ensure your ability to "fork" a piece of hardware - i.e. pay a different factory to produce identical or derived hardware. Imagine a certain antenna vendor going bankrupt but you've created a business soldering their very particular antenna onto spaceships - when you have the "source code" for their hardware, you can pay a different vendor to produce identical antennas - and even modify them (e.g. if some particular chip inside has gone out of fashion and you want to replace it with another than requires different wiring).<<BR>><<BR>>

    "Open Hardware" is a vague term (ab)used to mean several different things related to openness of hardware. Some hardware vendors promote their boards as "open" and provide a PDF of their board design - which may be good enough to make an identical copy but not enough to fork (it is complex to rewire when you don't have the source for ''computing'' the layout of electrical wiring).<<BR>>

    [[http://lists.alioth.debian.org/pipermail/freedombox-discuss/2015-November/006943.html|See discussion]] on the !FreedomBox list.

=== ¿Necesito una computadora monoplaca como una Cubietruck o una Raspberry Pi? ===

    Not necessarilly. !FreedomBox may be used on any computer which you can install Debian; it may be installed via the freedombox-setup package. But don't worry - the !FreedomBox team provides images for some of the more common single board computers and for VirtualBox to make it easier for people to get up and running.

=== ¿Qué nivel de rendimiento se debe esperar de FreedomBox sobre SBCs? ===

    Performance is not the only consideration with !FreedomBox on single-board computers. The "high performance" computers ''may'' also consume much more energy and operate much hotter, require a fan, and therefore be noisier and potentially have a shorter operational lifespan. Different ARM devices may perform differently given the same amount of energy. For example, Allwinner-based boards of the same grade (e.g. Cubietruck and LIME2 both built around Allwinner A20) roughly perform the same, whereas Sitara-based boards (like the !BeagleBone Black) are rumored to operate more efficiently in certain bases even if superficial specs may appear lower. Performance may be less important on a server than on a desktop system. The FreedomBox team believes that the Olimex A20-OLinuXino-LIME2 is currently the best option, based on its balance between performance, memory, openness and other factors. If price is more of a concern, consider the Olimex A20-OLinuXino-LIME; it has similar but slightly lower specifications of the LIME2 at a reduced price point.<<BR>><<BR>>

    If you're looking to compare the LIME and MICRO performance, both being Allwinner A20 board from OLIMEX, see this [[http://sebsauvage.net/paste/?d288bbb18da0089a#0FfV6oYQKEfuD+kGqhaUVpYHPi2yhDjvSECnMZNcpnk=|technical benchmark]] (it seems to mostly depend on whether you're willing to pay 20 EUR for an extra 512 MB RAM.)<<BR>><<BR>>

    In my experience running on a !BeagleBone Black, it is capable of running most day to day needs (mail, website, PHP...) except for big PHP applications like Apache+WordPress or ownCloud. They can run but are a bit sluggish. Apache and MySQL will definitely need to be tuned to use less CPU/memory.<<BR>><<BR>>

    Although a bit pricer than others, the APU 1D is probably the fastest single board computer tested so far. It has an AMD G series dual core APU, 3 Gigabit Ethernet controllers and uses Coreboot firmware.<<BR>><<BR>>

    [[http://lists.alioth.debian.org/pipermail/freedombox-discuss/2015-November/006943.html|See discussion]] on the !FreedomBox list.

=== ¿Podéis recomendar un adaptador WiFi que use firmware libre? ===

    You can take a look at the wiki page [[FreedomBox/Hardware/USBWiFi|USB WiFi]] for separate devices that do not require non-free firmware.<<BR>><<BR>>

    The MOD-WIFI-R5370-ANT from Olimex works really well, but needs a non-free firmware blob. The antenna is a bit fragile and on the MICRO, so you ought to connect it to an extension cable as the plug is quite large. If you are willing to pay more, take a look at: [[http://www.fsf.org/resources/hw/endorsement/respects-your-freedom|fsf.org]], [[https://tehnoetic.com/tehnoetic-wireless-adapter-gnu-linux-libre-tet-n150|tehnoetic.com]] and [[https://www.thinkpenguin.com/|thinkpenguin.com]]<<BR>><<BR>>

    The [[https://www.olimex.com/Products/USB-Modules/MOD-WIFI-AR9271-ANT/|MOD-WIFI-AR9271-ANT]] from Olimex appears to employ a Free Software driver without the need for non-free firmware.

== DESCARGA E INSTALACIÓN ==

=== General ===

==== ¿Qué significa "grabar una tarjeta SD"? ====

    A Secure Digital (SD) card is a portable memory/flash card used for storage and transfer of data. An SD card uses flash memory (NOR and NAND types) that can be erased and reprogrammed. In our case, flashing an SD or microSD card means reading a binary file from your host computer and writing the file out to the card. The binary file that is written to the card will be read automatically by the bootloaded on the target computer in which the card is inserted.

==== ¿Es FreedomBox un sistema por si mismo o tengo que instalar Debian en una computadora monoplaca? ====

    The FreedomBox image is a full system image for most computer architectures. It may be installed post-Debian-install if desired.<<BR>><<BR>>

==== ¿Cual sería el beneficio de instalar Debian primero y luego los paquetes FreedomBox? ====

    A typical use case could be using hardware as a desktop/laptop and having !FreedomBox run on the side. In this case, installing !FreedomBox on Debian is a good fit. It is recommended that you install !FreedomBox on a fresh Debian installation instead of an existing setup.

==== ¿Que debería saber acerca de instalar FreedomBox sobre SBCs? ====

    You should know that you should gather and read a lot of documentation about a first boot on your hardware. You can find documentation on the !FreedomBox wiki or searching the net. Single Board Cards (SBC) have their own booting system, similar to the BIOS in x86-based computers. You should then study pre-requirements in addition to the use of !FreedomBox image file. Some SBCs suffer from a lack of official documentation.

==== ¿La tarjeta SD no se detecta mediante USB u OTG en una Cubietruck SSD edition. Se me ha pasado algo por alto? ====

    Cubietruck SSD has a !TransFlash (TF) slot meant to insert microSD cards on the device. SD cards will not be detected when inserted into USB based SD card readers. Cubietruck SSD with metal is tricky: please use your finger nail or any sharp object to insert the microSD card that will then latch in and lock. To release it, press again the same way.

==== ¿Que tal es el soporte oficial para la Olimex A20-OLinuXino-LIME2? ====

    Official FreedomBox images are available for A20 OLinuXino LIME2 and MICRO since mid-October 2015. Please see [[http://lists.alioth.debian.org/pipermail/freedombox-discuss/2015-November/007007.html|discussion and download links]].

==== ¿Dónde puedo encontrar alguna documentación acerca del primer arranque de la Cubietruck? ====

    You can find a document called "[[http://linux-sunxi.org/Cubieboard/FirstSteps#First_startup|Cubieboard/FirstSteps]]" on [[http://linux-sunxi.org/Main_Page|linux-sunxi.org]]. The Linux-sunxi community is "an open source software community dedicated to providing open source operating system support for Allwinner SoC based devices." A system-on-a-chip (SoC) is a microchip that handle computer memory used (like RAM) to store information for immediate use. Allwinner is a particular brand of SoC processors.

==== ¿La imagen que descargué del sitio web parece corrupta. Puedo construir una imagen por mi misma? ====

    Yes, you can build your own `FreedomBox` images using the tool called [[https://salsa.debian.org/freedombox-team/freedom-maker|freedom-maker]]. Please refer to the [[https://salsa.debian.org/freedombox-team/freedom-maker/blob/master/README.md|README.md]] file on how to build images yourself. Freedom-maker builds unstable images by default. You can pass your desired distribution by adding the command-line option `--distribution` (e.g. `--distribution=testing`).

==== Nombre de usuario y contraseña ====

    !FreedomBox doesn't come with a default user account. You have to connect to your !FreedomBox over the network by typing the address "freedombox.local" into your web browser and create your user account from the web interface.

=== ¿Cómo? ===

==== Desinstalar FreedomBox ====

    To uninstall !FreedomBox, you need to remove freedombox-setup, plinth packages and other programs you have setup using Plinth user interface. Even after that currently, not 100% will go back to normal.

==== Configurar un router para que use DNS dinámico ====

    1. Find out the mac address and current local IP of your device running

    2. Open your router admistration web interface.

    3. Set Up an exception for your device as a static local IP.

    4. Create a port forwarding for 80 (http server) and 443 (https secure server) ports to your !FreedomBox IP (made static).

    5. Leave the router interface; your public IP should now provide a direct access to your !FreedomBox (use http://myip.datasystems24.de to find out your public IP).

==== Crear un nombre DNS con GnuDIP ====

    Please read the manual and the [[FreedomBox/Manual/DynamicDNS|recap on that question]] at the end of section.

==== Actualizar FreedomBox de stable a testing ====

    !FreedomBox is a Debian pure blend. The process for upgrading !FreedomBox from stable to testing is the same as that for Debian

    ''Steps:''

    Login to your !FreedomBox via ssh as a user who has administrative privileges.

    {{{
    $ sudo apt edit-sources
    }}}

    Choose an editor among the options provided.

    Replace all instances of stable or stretch (or buster) with testing. Save and exit.

    {{{
    $ sudo apt update
    $ sudo apt dist-upgrade
    }}}

=== Resolución de problemas ===

==== Tras la instalación solo puedo entrar por ssh con la cuenta que tenía antes de ejecutar el script de configuración de FreedomBox. ¿Cómo lo arreglo? ====

    You will need to edit /etc/security/access.conf either remove or comment out the line with "-:ALL EXCEPT root fbx (admin):ALL".

==== Tengo problemas ejecutando FreedomBox sobre una BeagleBone Black. La última release arranca una vez pero tras el reboot inicial ya no. ====

    If first boot setup is causing the further boots to fail then most likely the flash-kernel script in freedombox-setup is the reason. You can create a fresh SD card, mount it then disable by the flash-kernel script by creating a empty file in /var/freedombox/dont-tweak-kernel. Once the flash-kernel is disabled, the image should be usable and should give better chance to debug the issue for future kernel upgrades.

==== Estoy intentando instalar FreedomBox sobre mi Raspberry Pi 2B y el interfaz plinth no se instala correcamente. ====

    You are running on Debian oldstable (jessie) which is too old to support !FreedomBox. Also no one has tested !FreedomBox on Raspbian yet. You have two options to run FreedomBox: Use the !FreedomBox image for [[https://wiki.debian.org/FreedomBox/Hardware/RaspberryPi2|Raspberry Pi 2]] or Upgrade your existing image to [[https://wiki.debian.org/FreedomBox/Hardware/Debian|Debian testing or unstable]] and then follow the !FreedomBox installation process for Debian.

==== http://freedombox.local/ dice "server not found" y nmap (0 hosts up). ¿Que se me pasa por alto? ====

    If you are logged into !FreedomBox machine, you can find out the IP address directly by typing 'ip addr list'. Then connect to http://<ipaddress>/. Further more, I hope you have followed the instructions in [[https://wiki.debian.org/FreedomBox/Hardware/Debian]]. Pay particular attention to the troubleshooting item 2.

==== ¿POr qué no puedo entrar con mi usuario? He seguido las instrucciones para instalar freedombox en Debian sid y estoy atascado con un login tty que me deniega el permiso de acceso. ====

    After running freedombox setup, it will lock out all users except: root, sudo users (in latest version), and users belonging to admin user. You can remove this restriction by removing the last line of /etc/security/access.conf No nee to run some update command after editing /etc/security/access.conf

==== ¿Hay alguna razón para que la Raspberry Pi 1 no conste en https://www.freedombox.org/download/stable/ pese a que las imágenes FreedomBox están disponibles para Pi 1 en el servidor FTP de FreedomBox? ====

    We could list the Raspberry Pi 1 image, but there are a few problems to be aware of:
        * There isn't a Debian-packaged kernel for the Raspberry Pi 1. Users must run the rpi-firmware-update script on a regular basis.
        * It's armel, so it's slow compared to e.g. Raspbian.
        * Snapshots won't be usable, so Raspbian is recommended for running FreedomBox rather than the Raspberry Pi 1 FreedomBox image.

==== He roto la instalación de una aplicación. ¿Puedo reinstalarla de algún modo? ====

    There are two parts to uninstalling an application.
        * Removing the application.
        * Convince !FreedomBox that the application is not installed.

    <<BR>><<BR>>'''An example with ejabberd'''<<BR>><<BR>>

    Remove the application first.

    {{{
    $ sudo apt remove ejabberd
    }}}

    You can add a `--purge` before the ejabberd argument if you want to drop the database.
 
    Then install the utility `sqlite3` to edit Plinth database file.
    {{{
    $ sudo apt install sqlite3
    }}}

    Remove the application's record from !FreedomBox's database.

    {{{
    $ sudo echo "delete from plinth_module where name='ejabberd';" | sudo sqlite3 /var/lib/plinth/plinth.sqlite3
    }}}

    Now, go back to the !FreedomBox web interface and install the application.

==== Una aplicación FreedomBox ha desaparecido de testing/stable. ¿Cómo la instalo a mano? ====

    You can temporarily switch to Debian unstable, install your application and go back to your previous Debian version.<<BR>><<BR>>

    SSH into your !FreedomBox and run the following command to edit apt configuration.

    {{{
    $ sudo apt edit-sources
    }}}

    Replace `testing` or `stable` in the file with `unstable`. Comment out the lines containing `testing-updates` or `stretch-backports`.

    {{{
    $ sudo apt update
    }}}

    Now install the application from !FreedomBox web interface.

    Going back

    {{{
    $ sudo apt edit-sources
    }}}

    Replace `unstable` with whatever Debian version you had before. Don't forget to uncomment the updates or backports lines that were commented earlier.

    {{{
    $ sudo apt update
    }}}

    Done.

== USO Y APLICACIONES ==

=== General ===

==== Mostrar la versión de FreedomBox en el Interfaz de Usuario ====

    Click "?" (Help), then About.

=== Administración de Redes ===

==== Acceder a tu FreedomBox desde Internet ====

    You can access your !FreedomBox from the Internet after activating the Tor application. Use the given .onion address and a [[https://www.torproject.org/download/download-easy.html.en|Tor browser]] for computer or a Tor app for mobile phones. You can also access your FreedomBox outside of the Tor network by using a standard IP address (http). To configure the access from a regular http address, you need some additional setup. From your !FreedomBox administration interface, go to "System Configuration" page, then "Configure" page to enter a "Domain Name". Your domain name has to be a static IP address. If your ISP does not provide you a static IP address, activate and configure "Dynamic DNS Client" in !FreedomBox apps. Read the Q&A related to [[https://wiki.debian.org/FreedomBox/QuestionsAndAnswers#How_to_configure_my_router_in_case_of_dynamic_DNS.3F|setting up your router and a DNS name]].

==== Acceder a Plinth desde fuera de la red local ====

    Access to Plinth is restricted to LAN IP addresses by default. (Note: This restriction does not apply when using a Pagekite or .onion address.) The list of restricted addresses can be found in /etc/apache2/sites-available/plinth.conf. If needed, you can add an IP address block to the <!RequireAny> section, and then reload the apache2 service for it to take effect.

==== Cómo tener una página principal en https://freedombox.local/ o en la IP publica ====

    The default page is set on your machine in /etc/apache2/conf-available/freedombox.conf (the RedirectMatch). You can can configure this file to make freedombox.local direct to a specific landing page. It will redirect any connections that don't specify a /path.

==== Quisiera configurar mi red en modo estático por ahora. ¿Cómo lo hago en la configuración "Redes"? ====

    If you want LAN side to be configured statically, you can add a connection and choose: 1 IPv4 Addressing Method, see the [[FreedomBox/Manual#System|manual]]. 2 If you want WAN side to be configured statically, you can do same but settings for default gateway and DNS Server are missing.<<BR>><<BR>>

    A page showing the current network-settings will be available in the future, [[https://github.com/freedombox/Plinth/pull/230|see here]].

==== Cambiar el rango y la clase de la IP por defecto ====

    Give the following command to the network device which is configured as 'shared'.
  #nmcli connection modify $CONNECTION_ID ipv4.addresses "192.168.1.0/16".
  $CONNECTION_ID is the id allocated to the device and to check the ID give this command. #nmcli con. IP range is determined by first IP that we allocate to the device and one can adjust the subnet too.

==== Mostrar las direcciones IP alquiladas ====

    /var/lib/misc/dnsmasq.leases is the location to find all the IP addresses leased by !FreedomBox.

==== Intefaz por Linea de Comandos: Redirección de Puertos en FreedomBox ====

    The two steps which are required for enabling port forward in !FreedomBox. [To make these changes permanent add --permanent to the end of both the commands.]

    {{{
    firewall-cmd --zone=external --add-port=2233/tcp
    firewall-cmd --zone=external --add-forward-port=port=2233:proto=tcp:toport=22:toaddr=192.168.1.4
    }}}

    For a detailed described check this link: [[https://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/Fedora/19/html/Security_Guide/sec-Configure_Port_Forwarding-CLI.html|"Configure Port Forwarding using the CLI"]].

=== Servidor SIP (repro) ===

==== ¿Alguien sabe en qué puerto hay que configurar SIP? ====

    5060 and 5061, both TCP and UDP.

=== Servidor Chat (XMPP) ===

==== Añadir un nuevo usuario XMPP ====

    Entering a standard user in plinth (not part of wiki nor admin group) makes the user ready to use his username@domain and password to start in any XMPP client.

==== Cambiar la contraseña de un usuario XMPP ====

    That is done through Plinth interface (Users -> select user -> Change Password form). Users will be able to connect to Plinth for an external IP address from !FreedomBox version 1.0.
 
== ACERCA DE LA COMUNIDAD FREEDOMBOX ==

=== Contactar con los contribuyentes a FreedomBox ===

    By writing to the mailing list or connecting to the IRC channel, you are addressing all the people contributing to !FreedomBox. If you wish to talk to the active contributors, I suggest joining the monthly VOIP [[FreedomBox/ProgressCalls|progress calls]].

=== ¿Qué diferencia hay entre llamadas ''progress'' y ''hack''? ===

    The original idea was that the hack call would be less formal than [[FreedomBox/ProgressCalls|progress calls]]. So we might have a topic of interest during hack calls, but it doesn't need to follow a set agenda.

=== ¿Cómo puedo ayudar a traducir FreedomBox a mi idioma? ===

    Please visit [[FreedomBox/Translate|Localization landing page]] for newcomers.<<BR>><<BR>>

    !FreedomBox's user interface (UI) translation process is held on [[https://hosted.weblate.org/projects/freedombox/plinth/|Weblate platform]]. The manual is created on english [[https://wiki.debian.org/FreedomBox/Manual|wiki pages]] and you can translate it from these documents creating local pages linked to these global pages.

== NEGOCIO ==

=== ¿Puedo usar el logo FreedomBox? ===

    La certificación por parte de la fundación para distribuir software !FreedomBox no está lista todavía. Presenta tu pregunta en la lista de correo o asistiendo a las reuniones online del equipo. Técnicamente puedes leer la documentation "[[https://github.com/freedombox/Plinth/blob/master/static/themes/default/FreedomBox-Identity-Manual.pdf|FreedomBox-Identity-Manual.pdf]]".

Las preguntas y respuestas se han movido a los foros de debate.


CategoryFreedomBox