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Debian package

The extension .deb is used to signify a collection of files managed by the Debian packages management system.

So, deb is an abbreviation for Debian package, as opposed to source package.

You can install a downloaded Debian package using dpkg in a terminal:

dpkg -i *.deb (where *.deb is the path and name of the package you downloaded).

But if you are running Debian, it is strongly suggested to use a package manager like aptitude or synaptic to download and install packages, instead of doing so manually.

See also:

CategorySystemAdministration | CategoryPackageManagement | CategoryRedundant; merge with other PackageManagement pages, only keep info about .deb/disambiguation