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Kommandozeilenwerkzeuge in Debian

Das Durchsehen von Upstream-Paketen zum Schreiben von debian/copyright-Dateien ist eine mühselige, aber wichtige Handarbeit. Sie wird während der anfänglichen Paketierung und nach jeder neuen Veröffentlichung der Originalautoren durchgeführt.

Die Erleichterung der anfänglichen Erstellung von Copyright-Dateien und die anschließende Überprüfung/Aktualisierung wird die Software-Qualität von Debian verbessern.

Beginnend mit Stretch (Debian 9) gibt es gegenüber früheren Veröffentlichungen deutlich verbesserte Werkzeuge, die helfen sollen.

licensecheck

licensecheck aus dem Paket licensecheck (und ältere Versionen aus dem Paket devscripts) kann den Quellcode scannen und gefundene Urheberrechtsinhaber und bekannte Lizenzen melden.

Sein Ansatz besteht darin, Lizenzen mit einem Datensatz (Im Mittel:~200 reguläre Ausdrücke) von Muster regulärer Ausdrücken und Schlüsselformulierungen (Teilen) aufzuspüren und diese in erkannte Lizenzen regelbasiert wieder zusammenzusetzen.

In diesem Sinne ähnelt dies in gewisser Weise den kombinierten Ansätzen von Fossologie/Nomos und Ninka (siehe unten für diese Werkzeuge).

Es erkennt auch Copyright-Aussagen.

Es gibt die Ergebnisse in einfachem Text (mit anpassbarem Trennzeichen) oder in einem Debian-Copyright-Dateiformat (DEP-5) aus. Es ist in Perl geschrieben.

 licensecheck --check '.*' --recursive --deb-machine --lines 0 *

licensing

licensing aus dem Paket licenseutils dient in erster Linie dazu, Lizenz-Vorlagen zu neuem Code hinzuzufügen, kann aber auch den Quellcode scannen und gefundene Lizenzen melden.

Es ist in 'C' geschrieben.

licensing detect *

(2020-09-19 - Bug #970580 aufgegeben)

scan-copyrights

scan-copyrights aus dem Paket libconfig-model-dpkg-perl kann eine vorhandene Copyright-Datei durch erneutes Scannen der Quelle aktualisieren.

Es kann auch eine von Grund auf neu erstellen.

Es ist in Perl geschrieben und nutzt licensecheck.

cme

Config::Model kann Debian copyright files mit dem cme Kommando (aus dem Pakete cme or libconfig-model-dpkg-perl less than 2.063) aktualisieren Es in geschrieben in Perl und nutzt licensecheck.

cme update dpkg-copyright

die Nutzung wird ausführlich auf Config::Model wiki beschrieben.

licensecheck2dep5

A script from cdbs can create a copyright file by tidying output from licensecheck. Written in Perl, using #licensecheck.

licensecheck --check '.*' --recursive --copyright --deb-fmt --lines 0 * | /usr/lib/cdbs/licensecheck2dep5

license-miner

A script from cdbs can extract structured metadata embedded in binary content, for subsequent parsing by #licensecheck and suffix stripping by #licensecheck2dep5. Written in Perl, using Image::ExifTool and Font::TTF.

find -type f -name '*.png' -print0 | perl -0 /usr/lib/cdbs/license-miner
licensecheck --check '.*' --ignore '.+\.png$' --recursive --copyright --deb-fmt --lines 0 * | /usr/lib/cdbs/licensecheck2dep5
find -type f -name '*.png.metadata' -delete

CDBS

A makefile from cdbs can automate selection, mining, parsing, and cleanup, comparing previously autogenerated file debian/copyright_hints included with source package with freshly autogenerated instance and warning about newly introduced (but not disappearing) changes to discovered hints, using #license-miner and #licensecheck and #licensecheck2dep5 under the hood. Written in make.

Typical use is by shipping a package-specific script `debian/copyright-check with source package and executing that script manually (not as part of normal build) when sources change:

export DEB_COPYRIGHT_EXTRACT_EXTS="icc pdf png ttf"
export DEB_COPYRIGHT_EXTRACT_PATHS_EXIF="Resource/Font/"
export DEB_COPYRIGHT_CHECK_IGNORE_EXTS="cat ico xls pcl xps"
export DEB_COPYRIGHT_CHECK_IGNORE_PATHS="doc/.*\.htm"
export DEB_COPYRIGHT_CHECK_MERGE_SAME_LICENSE=yes

make -f /usr/share/cdbs/1/rules/utils.mk pre-build || true
make -f /usr/share/cdbs/1/rules/utils.mk clean DEB_COPYRIGHT_CHECK_STRICT=1

license-reconcile

license-reconcile compares the existing copyright with the source code and reports discrepancies. Written in Perl, using licensecheck.

debmake

debmake -k also compares the existing copyright with the source code and reports discrepancies.

debmake -cc generates a new copyright file from the source code.

decopy

decopy is a tool that "automates creating and updating the debian/copyright files." It also "aims to detects as many licenses as possible" which makes it a tool for license detection too. It uses python-debian to handle Debian machine readable copyright files. Its approach to detect licenses is the same as license-checker. Written in Python, using python-debian.

licensee

licensee from ruby-licensee checks LICENSE files and returns known license names. This is the tool used by Github to provide a summary license indication on a repository main page. Its approach is to search for typical LICENSE file names or some package manifest (NPM, Bower, Gemfile, etc) and perform an exact or approximate license text matching against the set of common licenses texts as published at https://choosealicense.com (small: ~20). It output results in YAML format. Written in Ruby.

check-all-the-things

Wrapper for some of the other tools listed here.

check-all-the-things -f copyright

cargo-lichking

Automated license checking for rust. cargo lichking is a Cargo subcommand that checks licensing information for dependencies, based on David A. Wheeler's compatibility graph.

cargo lichking check

Libraries in Debian

python-debian

python-debian has support parsing and creating copyright files (and any Debian-style files such as description, control, Sources, Packages, etc.) Written in Python.

Command-line tools not in Debian

license_finder

LicenseFinder is a tool that "Find licenses for your project's dependencies." It does so by running application-specific package management tools and detecting package manifests to collect license-related metadata (e.g. Gemfile, etc) and detect licensing using regex against a set of common license texts (small: ~20). It output results in CSV, HTML and other report format. Written in Ruby.

licensed

licensed has been recently released by ?GitHub to check the licenses of the dependencies of a project. Modern language package managers (bower, bundler, cabal, go, npm, stack) are used to pull the dependency chain of a specific project. Licenses can be configured to be either accepted or rejected, easing the developer task of identifying problematic dependencies when importing a new third-party library.

scancode-toolkit

ScanCode is a tool "to scan code and detect licenses, copyrights and more". Its approach is to detect licenses using a dataset of plain license texts (large:~1,500 texts) and plain text notices (large:~15,000 notices and mentions) and finds exact and approximate matches in source and binaries using full text alignments. It can also return the exact matched text. It also detects copyright statements and collects license metadata from package manifests (e.g Maven, Pypi, etc.). It output results in JSON, HTML or SPDX format. Written in Python.

apache-rat

Apache Creadur rat is a "tool to improve accuracy and efficiency when checking releases." . Its goal is to help Apache Foundation projects to comply with the release policy including detecting licenses. Its approach is to use a key sentences dataset (small: ~20). Written in Java.

Other tools that need further detailing and review

Applications

fossology

FOSSology is a open source license compliance software system and toolkit that can (in version 3.1) generate DEP5 copyright files. Its approach is to detect licenses with a either large (large:~2500 regexes) dataset of regex patterns (nomos) or a full string comparison against license full texts (large: ~400 text) (monk). It also detects copyright statements and does also integrate with Ninka (see below). This is a complete database-backed web application with some command line support written in C/C++ with a PHP frontend.

Obsolete code

OSLC

OSLCv3 Open Source License Checker 3.0 is a "risk management tool for analyzing open source software licenses." It detects licenses using key sentences and diffs using a dataset of license texts (small: ~50). It is developed in Java and seems no longer under development since 2009.

ninka

Ninka is a "license identification tool for Source Code". Its approach is to detect licenses from text sentences using a dataset of key license sentences (large: ~600) and assemble the results based on the matched sentences. It output results in CSV format. Written in Perl. Unmaintained since 2017.

jninka

jninka is a port from Perl to Java of ninka. Written in Java. Unmaintained/retired project.

slic

gerv/slic "Speedy LIcense Checker and associated tools". Written in Python. No longer maintained since the death of its author.

dlt

dlt has support for parsing and creating Debian machine readable copyright files. Written in Python. Unmaintained/retired project.

See also