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# For a Debian Squeeze on i386 target
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ls -l /var/cache/pbuilder/squeeze-i386/result/nano_2.2.6-1_i386.deb
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 569906 11 mai 20:33 /var/cache/pbuilder/squeeze-i386/result/nano_2.2.6-1_i386.deb
# Ubuntu a Hardy on amd64 target
sudo DIST=hardy ARCH=amd64 pdebuild
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===== Optionnal ====== ===== Optionnal =====

cowbuilder

This is the tutorial for cowbuilder. See also qemubuilder.

Usage

Initialization

Create the base image:

sudo cowbuilder --create

And a new and shiny build image is created in /var/cache/pbuilder/base.cow/

Every day usage

Update the base image

sudo cowbuilder --update

Build a package:

sudo cowbuilder --build somepackage.dsc

Tips

Bash and SVN tips

Setup your .bashrc according to: http://upsilon.cc/~zack/blog/posts/2007/09/svn-cowbuilder/

Building your package for many distributions at once

cowbuilder is really handy to build your pet project for many distributions at once. If you have got an amd64 system, you can easily build a package for i386 and amd64 architectures and for say stable, sid and lucid.

  • The first step involves creating as many basepaths as you need. I chose to put them in /var/cache/pbuilder/$DIST-$ARCH/base.cow.

sudo mkdir  /var/cache/pbuilder/squeeze-i386/
  • Then creating them base image :

sudo cowbuilder \
--create \
--basepath /var/cache/pbuilder/squeeze-i386/base.cow\
 --distribution squeeze\
 --debootstrapopts --arch --debootstrapopts i386

Creating an ubuntu base path which is trickier because one must :

  • import ubuntu signing keys
  • use a backport of the latest cdebootstrap if you use etch and install pbuilder > 0.174

  • exclude packages of priority important in /usr/share/cdebootstrap/generic-ubuntu/packages

  • add universe to complete creation of chroot because the cowdancer package is in universe.

$ DIST=gutsy sudo cowbuilder --create --distribution gutsy --components "main universe" --basepath /var/cache/pbuilder/gutsy-amd64.cow --mirror http://apt:9999/ubuntu --debootstrapopts --exclude=udev,pcmciautils,initramfs-tools
  • Then create a ~/.pbuilderrc file to this purpose. You can use the example of the Ubuntu pbuilder howto.

  • Then you can build up a package. For instance a backport of nano for squeeze:

dget http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian/pool/main/n/nano/nano_2.2.6-1.dsc
cd nano-2.2.6
# For a Debian Squeeze on i386 target
sudo DIST=squeeze ARCH=i386 pdebuild
# Ubuntu a Hardy on amd64 target
sudo DIST=hardy ARCH=amd64 pdebuild

The result will be available in: /var/cache/pbuilder/squeeze-i386/result

Optionnal
  • Once everything is set up, you can use a script in a debian source package directory to build it for every distribution.

set -e

RESULTDIR=$1
[ -d $RESULTDIR ] || mkdir $RESULTDIR

DISTLIST=$(ls -d /var/cache/pbuilder/*.cow)

for chrootdir in $DISTLIST
do
    sudo cowbuilder --update --basepath $chrootdir
    DIST=$(basename $chrootdir | cut -d'-' -f1)
    [ -d $RESULTDIR/$DIST ] || mkdir $RESULTDIR/$DIST
    DIST=$DIST pdebuild --pbuilder cowbuilder\
                        --buildresult $RESULTDIR/$DIST\
                        -- --basepath $chrootdir
done
  • You can use an apt cache to reduce the downloads on mirrors, so if the mirror is http://apt:9999/debian or http://apt:9999/ubuntu.

( you shoud then add --mirror http://apt:9999/debian 

Troubleshooting

Slow copying and removing of the COW directory

What cowbuilder does is:

cp -al /var/cache/pbuilder/base.cow /tmp/new
rm -rf /tmp/new

Of course cowbuilder uses a different location than /tmp/new. You need to optimize those 2 commands on your computer. They should take around 0.2s each. If not, try to use the ext3 filesystem, for more details, see our benchmarks.