Vagrant is an application that manages virtualized environments (boxes) allowing to control the creation and provisionning of virtual machines, which may share some resources (folders) with the host.
Vagrant supports different virtualization engines (providers), among which VirtualBox is historically the most popular.
Debian Vagrant base box
There is an ongoing effort to provide official Teams/Cloud/VagrantBaseBoxes, hosted in Atlas, Vagrant's cloud product. Although not yet official, you can already use these boxes
vagrant init debian/jessie64 vagrant up vagrant ssh
Creating Debian vagrant boxes
You also may wish to create your own Debian boxes, instead of relying on ones provided by a third party.
Several tools may be used to do so :