Differences between revisions 50 and 91 (spanning 41 versions)
Revision 50 as of 2005-12-20 06:47:44
Size: 5163
Editor: PeMac
Comment:
Revision 91 as of 2021-12-30 20:23:11
Size: 2758
Comment:
Deletions are marked like this. Additions are marked like this.
Line 1: Line 1:
["USB"]
-----
This page is about boot Linux via ["USB"] pendrives in any computer with or without USB-BIOS capability (in this last case, using a BootFloppy). You can install Linux in your USB pendrive or buy it installed.
## page was renamed from BootUsb
#language en
~-[[DebianWiki/EditorGuide#translation|Translation(s)]]: English - [[de/USBBoot|Deutsch]] - [[it/BootUsb|Italiano]] - [[ru/BootUsb|Русский]] -~
----
Line 5: Line 6:
This page is about booting Linux via [[USB]] pendrives in any computer with or without USB-BIOS capability (in this last case, using a [[BootFloppy]]). You can install Linux in your USB pendrive or buy it preinstalled.

If you don't want to learn about the internals but just have Debian on a bootable USB stick, check out [[DebianLive]]
Line 6: Line 10:
There are two common BIOS methods for direct USB booting:
Line 7: Line 12:
There are two common BIOS methods for direct USB booting:
* One method is called the "USBHDD" method and it is used to support the booting of standard USB mass storage devices that are configured like a normal PC hard drive.
 * The other method is called the "USBZIP" method and it supports booting from a USB storage device that behaves like the original IOMEGA ZIP drive with USB support.
 * One method is called the "USBHDD" method and it is used to support the booting of standard USB mass storage devices that are configured like a normal PC hard drive. The vast majority of machines work this way these days.
 * The other method (necessary on some older machines) is called the "USBZIP" method and it supports booting from a USB storage device that behaves like the original IOMEGA ZIP drive with USB support.
Line 11: Line 15:
Most computers (just about all Dells, for example) made today have a BIOS that supports the USBHDD method so it's expect that this will eventually become the standard way to boot a USB device. However, many motherboards will support BOTH methods, and many older motherboards have USBZIP support.

You need a USB device with standard mass storage interface and with, '''at least, 128 MBytes''' (the distros uses generally 50 -64 MB) to work with Linux.
You need a USB device with a standard mass storage interface and with '''at least 128 MB''' storage capacity (the distros generally use between 50 and 64 MB) to work with Linux.
Line 17: Line 19:

=== Warning ===
The following instructions refer to /dev/sda. However, if you have serial-ATA harddisks, then the pendrive will probably be /dev/sdc. Do NOT accidentally write to the wrong drive, or you will destroy your main operating system or data!
Line 18: Line 24:
Most USB pendrives are located at device node /dev/sda after they are plugged into the USB port.
Line 19: Line 26:
Most USB pendrives are located at device name ["sda"] after they are plugged into the USB port. However, you can verify this location by typing this command inside a [[TerminalEmulator|terminal emulator]] window:
Line 21: Line 28:
However, you can verify this location by typing this command inside a [[terminal]] window: {{{dmesg | grep scsi -A 3}}}
Line 23: Line 30:
      dmesg | grep scsi -A 3 and it should tell you the device name for your USB (SCSI emulated) devices, along with the vendor name.
Line 25: Line 32:
and it should tell you the device name for your USB (SCSI emulated) devices and vendor name. See: [[dmesg]].
Line 27: Line 34:
See : ["dmesg"]. If you cannot find it, you have to load the [[USBStorage]] module. In a [[TerminalEmulator|terminal emulator]], type:
Line 29: Line 36:
If you cannot find it, you have to load the UsbStorage ["module"] (type in a ["terminal"] ''modprobe usb-storage'') and ["mount"] the usb FileSystem s (''mount -t usb-devfs none /proc/bus/usb ). {{{
modprobe usb_storage
}}}
and mount the usb filesystems
Line 31: Line 41:
=== Format the USB key ===
Store your USB pendrive data and the ["root"] used must format it with ["fdisk"] (the USB key must not be mounted).
{{{
mount -t usb-devfs none /proc/bus/usb
}}}
Line 34: Line 45:
Press P to see the list of all ["partition"]s and D to exclude the first partition. Unmark all partitions and clean them. Create a new partitin pressing N , P and L . Make it a boot partition selecting the A option (t > 6 create a FAT16 partition, that detects upto 4 GB volumens) and finally press W to store and exit from fdisk. === Writing an image onto the USB key ===
Line 36: Line 47:
Using fdisk on SuSE (probably other as well):
Press P to see the list of all ["partition"]s. Use D repeated to delete all partitions.
Create a new partition pressing N, P, 1 and accept all defaults concerning the size (minimum partition size necessary will be around 60 MB).
Set bootable flag with A, press T, 6 to create a FAT16 partition and press W to store and exit from fdisk.
Enter mkdosfs /dev/sda1 at the prompt to create a filesystem because otherwise installation described later under 'Unburned using DSL' won't work.
The current released versions of Debian Install images and Debian Live
images are built using isohybrid techniques, which means using them
with a USB key is simple and easy, using "dd". See
[[http://www.debian.org/CD/faq/#write-usb|the Debian CD FAQ]] for more
information.
Line 42: Line 53:
Older Debian images were not so easy to use with USB keys and needed a
lot of instructions. Those instructions are no longer helpful, so have
been removed from this page.
Line 43: Line 57:
=== Installation methods ===
There is two installation methods:
----
Line 46: Line 59:
 * Burned: from a LiveCD using the utility Install to USB.
 * Unburned: downloading the files and installing them in the USB pendrive. There is two file types : ISO and other types.


==== Unburned using DSL ====
To install DamnSmallLinux download the ISO image and as ["root"] user go the directory with the dsl-0.9.2.iso file and :

  mkdir dsl_temp
  
  mkdir dsl_usb
 
  mount -o loop dsl-0.8.3.iso dsl_temp

  cp -a dsl_temp/* dsl_usb

  cd dsl_usb

  mv boot/isolinux/* ./

  rm -Rf boot
 
  mv isolinux.bin syslinux.bin

  mv isolinux.cfg syslinux.cfg

  cd..
 
  mkdir usb_pen

  mount -t vfat /dev/sda1 usb_pen
  
  cp -a dsl_usb/* usb_pen
 
  umount usb_pen

  syslinux /dev/sda1
  

  

See also BootUsb2, IsoBuster, ["Isolinux"], ["Grub"] .


=== USB Debian distros ===

 * Debian:
  * DamnSmallLinux, that uses FluxBox , where the majority of Debian USB distros are based .
  * Flonix : based on DamnSmallLinux, but uses IceWM instead of FluxBox .
 * Fedora / RedHat:
  * PuppyLinux , that uses FVWM-95 graphical environment.
 * Gentoo :
  * SPB-Linux , with XFCE4 environment
=== More information ===
 * [http://damnsmalllinux.org/usb.html USB pendrive with Linux preinstalled].
 * http://br-linux.org/noticias/000156.html
 * http://indiboi.com/history/2003/11/18/2887223
 * http://www.qbik.ch/usb/devices/
 * http://www.linux-usb.org/
=== More aditional links ===

 * [http://d-i.alioth.debian.org/manual/en.powerpc/ch04s04.html Preparing Files for USB Memory Stick Booting] : but use ["zcat"] boot.img > /dev/sda1 ; if the stick doesn't boot, ["cat"] mbr.bin > /dev/sda
 * [http://www.pcquest.com/content/linux/104010505.asp Booting Linux off USB Storage].
 * [http://d-i.pascal.at/Installing Debian Sarge from a USB memory stick (USB key)].
 * http://fuzzymunchkin.dyndns.org/tdot/usbkeyfob/index.php
 * [http://rz-obrian.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/knoppix-usb/ Boot KNOPPIX from an USB Memory Stick].
 * [http://lists.debian.org/debian-boot/2004/11/msg01601.html Reboot from USB].
 * [http://www.damnsmalllinux.org/wiki/index.php/Main_Page Damn Small Linux USB boot].
 * [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/bootflashlinux Mail list about booting Debian from a USB flashdrive].

See also:
 * BootingFromFloppyToUsb .
 * ["growisofs"].
 
CategoryInstall CategoryHardware

Translation(s): English - Deutsch - Italiano - Русский


This page is about booting Linux via USB pendrives in any computer with or without USB-BIOS capability (in this last case, using a ?BootFloppy). You can install Linux in your USB pendrive or buy it preinstalled.

If you don't want to learn about the internals but just have Debian on a bootable USB stick, check out DebianLive

BIOS and USB standard mass storage interface

There are two common BIOS methods for direct USB booting:

  • One method is called the "USBHDD" method and it is used to support the booting of standard USB mass storage devices that are configured like a normal PC hard drive. The vast majority of machines work this way these days.
  • The other method (necessary on some older machines) is called the "USBZIP" method and it supports booting from a USB storage device that behaves like the original IOMEGA ZIP drive with USB support.

You need a USB device with a standard mass storage interface and with at least 128 MB storage capacity (the distros generally use between 50 and 64 MB) to work with Linux.

See StandardPendrive.

Warning

The following instructions refer to /dev/sda. However, if you have serial-ATA harddisks, then the pendrive will probably be /dev/sdc. Do NOT accidentally write to the wrong drive, or you will destroy your main operating system or data!

USB pendrive location and mount

Most USB pendrives are located at device node /dev/sda after they are plugged into the USB port.

However, you can verify this location by typing this command inside a terminal emulator window:

dmesg | grep scsi -A 3

and it should tell you the device name for your USB (SCSI emulated) devices, along with the vendor name.

See: dmesg.

If you cannot find it, you have to load the USBStorage module. In a terminal emulator, type:

modprobe usb_storage

and mount the usb filesystems

mount -t usb-devfs none /proc/bus/usb

Writing an image onto the USB key

The current released versions of Debian Install images and Debian Live images are built using isohybrid techniques, which means using them with a USB key is simple and easy, using "dd". See the Debian CD FAQ for more information.

Older Debian images were not so easy to use with USB keys and needed a lot of instructions. Those instructions are no longer helpful, so have been removed from this page.


?CategoryInstall CategoryHardware