Hacking Lintian 101

This document aims to give a quick guide and a few hints to understanding Lintian.

Using Lintian from git

Lintian can be used directly from git; this allows developers to skip the boring build/install phase when testing the development version on real packages. With Lintian 2.5.18, all frontends will automatically detect when they are run from a source tree and configure themselves accordingly. Earlier versions required manually setting LINTIAN_ROOT (or --root) for lintian to work. The following script can be used for this:

   1 #!/bin/sh
   2 # ONLY FOR 2.5.17 OR EARLIER!  2.5.18 will DTRT without this script.
   3 LINTIAN_ROOT="<INSERT PATH TO LINTIAN GIT DIR>"
   4 export LINTIAN_ROOT
   5 # With Lintian >= 2.5.13 you may want to add "--user-dirs" to the line below.
   6 exec "$LINTIAN_ROOT/frontend/lintian" "$@"

Save that as run-lintian, make it executable, put it in your PATH and you are good to go.

Caveat 1: (Only for 2.5.17 or earlier) If LINTIAN_ROOT is not set, lintian will try to use the installed version of lintian, which most likely does not have the changes you would like to test.

API docs

Lintian does not have a stable API at the time of writing (2.5.13). That said, Lintian do have some API documentation that may be useful. This documentation can be extracted by building the "api-doc" target. In the Lintian source tree, run:

   1 $ debian/rules api-doc

This will generate the API docs in doc/api.html (e.g. sensible-browser doc/api.html/index.html). This documentation also includes tutorials (see the Lintian::Tutorial document) on writing checks.

Running tests

There are a number of ways to run (parts of) the Lintian test suite. To run the entire test suite, simply use:

$ debian/rules runtests

It is also possible to run only a subset of the tests by using the "onlyrun" variable.

$ debian/rules runtests onlyrun=$test

Here $test can be one of:

For more information, please refer to the Lintian::Tutorial::?TestSuite document in the Lintian API docs.

Writing a new check

In this tutorial, we will write a sample check called "illegal". This check will issue the tag "illegal-name", if the version of a binary package contains "foo" or "bar". We start by creating a "desc" file for the check, which has to be "checks/illegal.desc":

Check-Script: illegal
Author: Your Name <you@example.com>
Abbrev: ill
Type: binary
Info: Checks for illegal names

Tag: illegal-version
Severity: important
Certainty: certain
Info: The package version contains "foo" or "bar", which is not allowed.

Let us go over the fields of the first paragraph:

One or more "Tag" paragraphs follows the first paragraph. In this example we only have one:

After filling out this file, lintian-info will recognise the "illegal-version" tag.

# note lintian-info < 2.5.2 will use "N:" instead of "E:" on the first line
# note with Lintian < 2.5.17, you will need to set LINTIAN_ROOT=.
/path/to/lintian.git-dir$ frontend/lintian-info -t illegal-version
E: illegal-version
N:
N:   The package version contains "foo" or "bar", which is not allowed.
N:
N:   Severity: important, Certainty: certain
N:
N:   Check: illegal, Type: binary
N:

However, lintian does not know how to emit the tag yet. Time to write the actual check. Open "checks/illegal" and write:

   1 # This check was written by Your Name <you@example.com>
   2 #  copyright and license info etc.
   3 package Lintian::illegal;
   4 
   5 use strict;
   6 use warnings;
   7 
   8 use Lintian::Tags qw(tag);
   9 
  10 sub run {
  11   my ($pkg, $type, $info) = @_;
  12   # $pkg is the package name
  13   # $type is the package type - for this check it will always be "binary"
  14   # $info is a Lintian::Collect object for the package
  15   #  - for this check it will be a Lintian::Collect::Binary
  16 
  17   # Fetch a field from the control file in the control.tar.gz from the deb.
  18   # This also works on udeb, source and changes packages.
  19   # For source and changes, this will be a field from the ".dsc" and the ".changes" file
  20   my $version = $info->field('version');
  21   # Note fields are "undef" if they are not present; do not assume the presence of any field.
  22   if (defined($version)) {
  23      if ($version =~ m/(foo|bar)/) {
  24         # Issue the illegal-version tag, giving the actual version as "extra" info.
  25         tag 'illegal-version', $version, 'contains', $1;
  26      }
  27   }
  28 }
  29 
  30 1;

The rationale for using the $info (Lintian::Collect) object, is that it abstracts away the underlying lab (and allows lintian to better cache things). The Lintian::Collect API is a bit behind (at time of writing) and some checks still have to directly look in the lab. The Lintian::Collect API is based on the information extracted by "collection" scripts. The API docs for each method will generally have one line like this:

Needs-Info requirements for using field: none
  - OR -
Needs-Info requirements for using unpacked: unpacked
  - OR -
Needs-Info requirements for using binary_relation: Same as binary_field

The first one declares that the method "field" requires no collections at all and the second one means that the method "unpacked" requires the "unpacked" collection to have been run. So to use the second one, the check would need to declare a "Needs-Info: unpacked". The third one mains that the method "binary_relation" needs "whatever the binary_field method needs" (in the API docs, this will be a link). This is mainly to avoid having to keep transitive dependencies up to date and can only be used inside the Lintian::Collect classes.

With this lintian will be able to emit the tag, so lets try it on a deb:

# note with Lintian < 2.5.17, you will need to set LINTIAN_ROOT=.
/path/to/lintian.git-dir$ frontend/lintian -i --no-override \
    -C illegal /path/to/deb/version-0foo.deb
E: somepackage: illegal-version 0foo contains foo
N: 
N:    The package version contains "foo" or "bar", which is not allowed.
N:    
N:    Severity: important, Certainty: certain
N:    
N:    Check: illegal, Type: binary
N: 

Finally, you just need to add the check to a profile. If it should be added to the debian/main profile, just run:

/path/to/lintian.git-dir$ debian/rules profiles

Otherwise you may have to alter private/generate-profiles.pl to exclude it from debian/main and add it to the right profile.

Summing it up: In this tutorial, we created a new check by creating a "desc" file with that tag information, a perl module to check and emit the tag and finally we updated the profiles.

For more information on writing checks, please refer to the Lintian::Tutorial::?WritingChecks document in the API docs. In particular, please read the section "Avoiding security issues".

Writing tests (test suite)

The test-suite generally consists of building a number of packages, running Lintian on them and comparing the output to the expected results. There are 5 "sub" test suites named "scripts", "debs", "changes", "source" and "tests". The scripts sub suite consists of perl tests used to unit test parts of lintian and will not be covered here. The rest are used to test if Lintian can diagnose tags correctly.

Generally the "tests" subsuite (in t/tests) should be used. The "source", "changes" and "debs" suites are used to hand-make special packages to test edge-cases (like missing required fields). Please consult t/$suite/README for how to write a test in each of the suites.

perltidy & perlcritic

Lintian enforces a perltidy/perlcritic profile which can be found in the files .perlcriticrc and .perltidyrc, respectively. Either run perlcritic with the correct profile manually our execute the test 01-critic/checks.

tests to run before submitting patches

In addition to running the new or existing tests for the tags you worked on, make sure that the following execute successfully:

debian/rules runtests onlyrun=01-critic/checks
debian/rules runtests onlyrun=check-descs
debian/rules runtests onlyrun=implemented-tags