Sound playback, recording, and mixing in Debian is generally by provided by ALSA and a sound server. These sound-related services can, for the most part, be run in parallel without conflicts, and interconnected.
For a list of sound applications, see Multimedia
ALSA - Advanced Linux Sound Architecture is a part of the Linux kernel that provides a low-level interface (API) for sound card device drivers.
PulseAudio - Provides a more advanced application interface and can glue ALSA, jackd, phonon together
JACK - professional sound server that provides real-time, low-latency connections for audio and MIDI between applications
BluetoothUser - how to setup Bluetooth audio devices
MIDI - communication protocol to connect electronic musical instruments, computers, and audio devices
SoundFormats - information about various audio file formats/codecs
OSS (Legacy) - used to be the default sound subsystem before Linux 2.4
No sound: go through these steps while audio is playing in an application (music player, web browser...):
Check that the audio playback program is unmuted/volume is raised, from inside the application, and in the system audio mixer (eg. PulseAudio volume control or alsamixer.
Check that your soundcard is visible, enabled, and is selected as default in the Configuration tab of the audio mixer
- Disable any other output devices like HDMI, only enable the desired output
Check that your soundcard is detected by ALSA: aplay -l
- Check proper connection of the output jack
- Check that your amplifier/speakers are powered on and working
A list of all pages related to Sound playback and recording:
Portal refactoring/merging in progress below this point