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Note: GTK, QT are not languages, they are gui toolkits.
- GNAT is an Ada compiler. It supports all versions of the language, i.e. Ada 2012, Ada 2005, Ada 95 and Ada 83 (however at the time of writing there are troubles with compiling Ada 2012 code)
Algol 68 Genie - All you need to write Algol 68 programs which run at the command line.
FreeBasic (libfreebasic already packaged, fbc not yet. Very Microsoft QBasic compatible (graphics))
python3-pcbasic GW-BASIC compatible basic interpreter
opencc (from Open64.net, not yet packaged)
cpp (this is really just the pre processor)
C# and .NET
Mono - open source implementation of Microsoft's .NET Framework (mono)
Vala - self-hosting and statically typed language with C#-like syntax that compiles to C, based on GLib and GObject, useful with GTK+ and GNOME (valac)
.NET Core - Microsoft's new open source .NET framework which works natively on Debian. An installation guide is available on the .NET Core Website.
gdc - Supports D version 2. D compiler utilizing GCC infrastructure. As of GCC 9 integrated into official GCC sources.
ldc - Supports D version 2. D compiler utilizing LLVM infrastructure. Separate to LLVM and Clang projects.
Both compilers work very well, utilize same D language parsers and frontend (same as dmd2). gdc supports more architectures at the moment. Both packages also depend automatically on appropriate package providing Phobos (D standard library).
dmd2 - https://dlang.org/download.html , available for i386 and amd64 for few operating systems. As of now sources are fully open source, but not all components of dmd2 are free software, due to optimization passes, backend, machine code generation having complex license. Not packaged in Debian.
openf95 (from Open64.net, not yet packaged)
golang - Metapackage for Go programming language. (golang)
golang-go - Compiler for Go programming language. (golang-go)
golang-doc - Official documentation for Go programming language. (golang-doc)
golang-src - Source code of Go programming language. (golang-src
gccgo - Go compiler using gcc as backend to generate optimised code. (gccgo)
gobjc (from GCC)
OCaml (i.e. Objective Caml)
fpc - Dependences for FreePascal SDK. (fpc)
fp-compiler - Debian's FreePascal compiler. (fp-compiler)
fp-docs - Official documentation for FreePascal. (fp-docs)
lazarus - Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for FreePascal. (lazarus)
LAMP - Linux Apache MySQL PHP framework
gprolog - GNU Prolog compiler (gprolog)
swi-prolog - SWI-Prolog compiler and libraries (swi-prolog)
rustc - Compiler for Rust programming language (rustc)
rust-doc - Official documentation for Rust programming language . (rust-doc)
rust-src - Source code of Rust programming language . (rust-src)
cargo - A tool that allows to build Rust projects with declared dependencies (cargo)
Verilog like VHDL are hardware description languages. These may be used for programmable hardware like FPGA for which a completely free toolchain has emerged, see FPGA/Lattice.