Packaging with Git
For help converting Subversion repositories created by svn-buildpackage to git, see the svn-buildpackage conversion subpage.
You should also read about pristine-tar support below.
This page describes the workflow using the commands from the git-buildpackage package. Alternatively there is also git-dpm.
It is easiest to first create the first version of a package, outside of Git. Once this is done, you should import the package using the git-import-dsc tool. The directory in which it is called will be the parent directory of the new Git repository.
$ git-import-dsc /path/to/package_0.1-1.dsc
This will give output of its progress and make a few commits. Afterwards, you will have some new files and directories:
$ ls package/ package_0.1-1.orig.tar.gz
Looking in the new repository shows git-buildpackage has done the following:
Imported the package files (but not debian/ directory) into the upstream branch
This has then been tagged upstream/0.1 where 0.1 is your package's version number
Imported the debian/ directory into master as well as upstream's files
Tagged the last commit as debian/0.1-1 as it assumes the package is finished.
Further packaging workflow
Now you can work in the master branch to edit the package. Commit with:
$ git commit -a
and build the package with:
Once you have produced a release-ready package, you should tag it, in the following way:
$ git-buildpackage --git-tag
Make sure that your debian/changelog file is correct, as that is what will be used to create the tag. The tag will be named debian/0.1-2 where 0.1-2 is the Debian version.
Upgrading to new upstream version
When a new upstream version comes out, use the git-import-orig tool to add it to the repository.
Using a debian/watch file (recommended)
$ git-import-orig --uscan
Using a tarball file
$ git-import-orig /path/to/new-upstream.tar.gz -u 0.2
where 0.2 is the new upstream version number.
If the upstream tarball is already in the form packagename_version.orig.tar.gz (E.g. package_0.2.orig.tar.gz), then the -u option is not required.
Merging a debian-experimental branch into master for sid
Lets assume you have have the following branches:
latest upstream in development
upstream's 1.5 series, considered stable
branch for building packages for sid
branch for building packages for experimental
- You are importing each point release into upstream-1.5 and merging to master
- You are merging each beta release (1.6~beta) into upstream and merging to debian-experimental
At some point, you want to move the work from debian-experimental to the master branch and release it to unstable.
First, it is necessary to make sure debian-experimental has everything correct in debian/* - maybe you committed something on master and didn't cherry-pick it to debian-experimental. You can compare the debian/ subtrees like this:
git checkout master git diff debian-experimental debian
If necessary, cherry pick any changes onto debian-experimental. The next merge will obliterate everything on master and replace it with the contents of the debian-experimental branch. The only thing that is kept is debian/changelog because it needs to reflect the change history within sid and does not need to contain details of individual releases to experimental. Here is how we do it (make sure master is a clean workspace):
git checkout master git clean -fd && git checkout . git merge -s ours debian-experimental git diff --binary debian-experimental | git apply -R --index git reset debian/changelog git checkout debian/changelog git commit -m 'Merge 1.6.0~rc1 from debian-experimental' --amend
After doing this, it is strongly suggested that you inspect the merge with gitk and with git diff before you push to alioth or any other developer. For example,
git diff debian-experimental
invoked in master should only show the changelog, because everything else on master should now be identical to debian-experimental.
That is all to the basics of building packages with Git! I would recommend making copies of packages and trying out the tools on temporary repositories, to start with. Once you feel you have mastered it, there are other options that should be looked at.
To use pbuilder, you must simply change builder in either ~/.gbp.conf or /etc/git-buildpackage/gbp.conf to /usr/bin/git-pbuilder
/usr/bin/git-pbuilder can be edited to use additional options, such as --builddir and --debsign-k...
On calling either of the git-import-dsc or git-import-orig tools, the following options may be used:
- Whether to sign tags
- With what gpg key to sign tags with
git-buildpackage also supports the use of pristine-tar, a new tool developed by Joey Hess to recreate identical tarballs from a small delta file and the files in the current directory.
If you enable pristine-tar, delta files are committed to a pristine-tar branch if you call git-import-dsc or git-import-orig. When you build the package using git-buildpackage, the exact tarball is regenerated using pristine-tar.
On calling either of the git-import-dsc or git-import-orig tools, the --pristine-tar option may be used. On calling git-buildpackage, the --git-pristine-tar option may be used. You may also enable the pristine-tar option /etc/git-buildpackage/gbp.conf.
Using Git for Debian Packaging by Russ Allbery