Packaging with Git
- Git branch naming
- Upstream import methods
- Getting started
- Further packaging workflow
- Handling debian patches
- Upgrading to new upstream version
- Merging a debian/experimental branch into debian/latest for sid
- Further options
- See also
- External Links
Packaging with Git
For help converting Subversion repositories created by svn-buildpackage to git, see the svn-buildpackage conversion subpage.
You should also read about pristine-tar support below.
Git branch naming
There is a standardized naming scheme for the branches used in packaging. It it described in DEP-14: Recommended layout for Git packaging repositories. This page follows that standard, but there are still many packages that do not. The most common old pattern is using master instead of debian/latest for the main packaging branch, and upstream instead of upstream/latest for the branch with the most recent upstream code.
Upstream import methods
There are two main ways to import the upstream code into the debianized repository:
One can import upstream release tarballs into a Debian-specific repository. This creates one commit per release. This is generally done with the gbp import-orig command. This is the most general method, because it assumes ONLY that upstream is releasing tarballs.
If upstream is using git to manage their source, the debianization repository can live in a branch off of the main upstream tree. Clearly this can work only with some upstreams, but the big upside is that the relationship between the debianization and the upstream code is VERY clear. Patching and releasing are much more natural. Since the Debian APT repositories still use tarballs you still have to manage those with this setup, but pristine-tar exists for that purpose.
There's also a third option, which is a combination of the two: gbp import-orig --upstream-vcs-tag. This is useful primarily when the orig tarball is not identical to the upstream release tag, which can happen if for instance
- the tarball was repacked (to remove non-DFSG pieces, for instance)
the script upstream uses to make tarballs makes changes (the autotools make dist does this in some projects)
The various pros-cons are discussed here:
Importing upstream as tarballs
It is easiest to first create the first version of a package, outside of Git. Once this is done, you should import the package using the import-dsc command of the gbp tool. Previously this was git-import-dsc. The directory in which it is called will be the parent directory of the new Git repository.
$ gbp import-dsc /path/to/package_0.1-1.dsc
This will give output of its progress and make a few commits. Afterwards, you will have some new files and directories:
$ ls package/ package_0.1-1.orig.tar.gz
Looking in the new repository shows git-buildpackage (aka gbp) has done the following:
Imported the package files (but not debian/ directory) into the upstream/latest branch
This has then been tagged upstream/0.1 where 0.1 is your package's version number
Imported the debian/ directory into the debian/latest branch as well as upstream's files
Tagged the last commit as debian/0.1-1 as it assumes the package is finished.
Using the upstream repo
If upstream is already using git, simply make a branch for the debianization. The conventions for names of branches and tags are as in the case just described, so one can branch debian/latest off of the upstream/latest release, and add the debian/ directory as a commit.
Further packaging workflow
Now you can work in the debian/latest branch to edit the package. Commit with:
$ git commit -a
and build the package with:
$ gbp buildpackage
Once you have produced a release-ready package, you should tag it, in the following way:
$ gbp buildpackage --git-tag
Make sure that your debian/changelog file is correct, as that is what will be used to create the tag. The tag will be named debian/0.1-2 where 0.1-2 is the Debian version.
Handling debian patches
The gbp-pq tool can be used to track patches in git, and to export/import them to/from the quilt series in debian/patches.
Upgrading to new upstream version
Importing upstream as tarballs
When a new upstream version comes out, use the import-orig command to add it to the repository. Previously this was git-import-orig.
Using a debian/watch file (recommended)
$ gbp import-orig --uscan
Using a tarball file
$ gbp import-orig /path/to/new-upstream.tar.gz -u 0.2
where 0.2 is the new upstream version number.
If the upstream tarball is already in the form packagename_version.orig.tar.gz (E.g. package_0.2.orig.tar.gz), then the -u option is not required.
Using the upstream repo
If we're using the upstream repo, we can git fetch the new release tag into the repo, in the upstream/latest branch. We need to git merge this branch into debian/latest, and to commit the new tarball with pristine-tar. The patches can be rebased with gbp-pq, and git itself can be used to resolve any conflicts that have been created.
Merging a debian/experimental branch into debian/latest for sid
Lets assume you have have the following branches:
latest upstream in development
upstream's 1.5 series, considered stable
branch for building packages for sid
branch for building packages for experimental
You are importing each point release into upstream-1.5 and merging to debian/latest
You are merging each beta release (1.6~beta) into upstream/latest and merging to debian/experimental
At some point, you want to move the work from debian/experimental to the debian/latest branch and release it to unstable.
First, it is necessary to make sure debian/experimental has everything correct in debian/* - maybe you committed something on debian/latest and didn't cherry-pick it to debian/experimental. You can compare the debian/ subtrees like this:
git checkout debian/latest git diff debian/experimental debian
If necessary, cherry pick any changes onto debian/experimental. The next merge will obliterate everything on debian/latest and replace it with the contents of the debian/experimental branch. The only thing that is kept is debian/changelog because it needs to reflect the change history within sid and does not need to contain details of individual releases to experimental. Here is how we do it (make sure debian/latest is a clean workspace):
git checkout debian/latest git clean -fd && git checkout . git merge -s ours debian/experimental git diff --binary debian/experimental | git apply -R --index git reset debian/changelog git checkout debian/changelog git commit -m 'Merge 1.6.0~rc1 from debian/experimental' --amend
After doing this, it is strongly suggested that you inspect the merge with gitk and with git diff before you push to alioth or any other developer. For example,
git diff debian/experimental
invoked in debian/latest should only show the changelog, because everything else on debian/latest should now be identical to debian/experimental.
That is all to the basics of building packages with Git! I would recommend making copies of packages and trying out the tools on temporary repositories, to start with. Once you feel you have mastered it, there are other options that should be looked at.
To use pbuilder, you must simply change builder in either ~/.gbp.conf or /etc/git-buildpackage/gbp.conf to /usr/bin/git-pbuilder
/usr/bin/git-pbuilder can be edited to use additional options, such as --builddir and --debsign-k...
On calling either of the git-import-dsc or git-import-orig tools, the following options may be used:
- Whether to sign tags
- With what OpenPGP key to sign tags with
git-buildpackage also supports the use of pristine-tar, a new tool developed by Joey Hess to recreate identical tarballs from a small delta file and the files in the current directory.
If you enable pristine-tar, delta files are committed to a pristine-tar branch if you call git-import-dsc or git-import-orig. When you build the package using gbp buildpackage, the exact tarball is regenerated using pristine-tar.
On calling either of the git-import-dsc or git-import-orig tools, the --pristine-tar option may be used. On calling gbp buildpackage, the --git-pristine-tar option may be used. You may also enable the pristine-tar option /etc/git-buildpackage/gbp.conf.
running lintian after the build
Add this to ~/.gbp.conf :
postbuild = lintian -I $GBP_CHANGES_FILE && echo "Lintian OK"
running autopkgtest after the build
First configure an environment for adt (see autopkgtest docs, man adt-run) Then add this to your ~/.gbp.conf :
postbuild = adt-run --changes $GBP_CHANGES_FILE --- schroot sid-amd64-sbuild; [ $? -eq 0 -o $? -eq 8 ]
The last check is there to avoid failure when there are no tests to run.
An example gbp.conf
[DEFAULT] builder = git-pbuilder cleaner = fakeroot debian/rules clean # Create pristine-tar on import pristine-tar = True # Run lintian to check package after build postbuild = lintian -iIE --pedantic $GBP_CHANGES_FILE && echo "Lintian OK""" [buildpackage] export-dir = ../build-area/ [import-orig] # Filter out unwanted files/dirs from upstream filter = [ '*egg.info', '.bzr', '.hg', '.hgtags', '.svn', 'CVS', '*/debian/*', 'debian/*' ] # filter the files out of the tarball passed to pristine-tar filter-pristine-tar = True [import-dsc] filter = [ 'CVS', '.cvsignore', '.hg', '.hgignore', '.bzr', '.bzrignore', '.gitignore' ] [dch] # ignore merge commit messages git-log = --no-merges
Using Git for Debian Packaging by Russ Allbery
Co-maintaining a Debian package with git, git-buildpackage and pbuilder by Philipp Huebner