2. Openstack Debian packages up and running in 6 small shell commands
  3. Installing Openstack Folsom on Debian GNU/Linux
    1. Work in progress : please contribute
    2. Scope of this howto
    3. Wheezy vs SID
    4. Final result goal
    5. Technical Choices
    6. Document Conventions
  4. Why choosing Debian and not Ubuntu to run Openstack?
    1. Ubuntu packages
    2. Debian automation and meta packages
    3. Scripting the install
    4. Limits to this approach
  5. Before Installing Debian Openstack Folsom : building and configuration
    1. Hardware requirement
    2. Network needs
    3. Debian install
    4. Networking setup on the proxy node
    5. Networking setup on the compute nodes
    6. Building the packages
      1. Wheezy backports
      2. Openstack and dependency packages
    7. Using the unofficial Debian repository
  6. Installing
    1. dbconfig-common
    2. Proxy node install
      1. openstack-proxy-node meta-package
      2. General consideration about answering to debconf prompts
      3. MySQL server
      4. Keystone
      5. dbconfig-common
      6. Keystone communication
      7. Registering an endpoint
      8. Package specific Debconf questions: glance
      9. Package specific Debconf questions: nova
      10. Package specific Debconf questions: cinder
    3. Post configuration
      1. Configuring MySQL server
      2. Nova
      3. openstack-dashboard
      4. VNC console
    4. compute nodes:
      1. apt-get openstack-compute-node
  7. Using Openstack
    1. Setting up your environment
    2. Configuring your first network
    3. Checking that the compute services are running as expected
    4. Using Glance
    5. Using nova
  8. Troubleshooting
    1. Can't switch projects/tenants in web interface
  9. nova-volume
    1. Cinder vs Nova Volume
    2. Outdated howto for nova-volume
  10. Swift
    1. swift nodes:
    2. swift primary node
    3. swift secondary nodes
    4. create swift ring
    5. propagate the swift configuration
    6. check that it works
    7. swift command line


This is an old version of OpenStack which isn't supported upstream (even though it is shipped with Wheezy, we strongly advice to use the latest version).

Openstack Debian packages up and running in 6 small shell commands

If you don't want to read to much, and just want Openstack installed asap on your server, then do this:

# echo "deb openstack main
deb wheezy-backports main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
# wget -qO - | apt-key add -
# apt-get update
# wget ";a=blob_plain;f=preseeder" -O preseeder
# chmod +x preseeder
# sed -i "s/changeme/YOUR-MASTER-PASS/" ./preseeder
# ./preseeder
# apt-get install openstack-toaster

After this, do the following:

#echo "export SERVICE_ENDPOINT=

export OS_USERNAME=admin
export OS_TENANT_NAME=admin
export OS_AUTH_URL=
export OS_VERSION=1.1
export OS_NO_CACHE=1
" >>~/.bashrc

and start using Openstack! :)

Not enough? Want to know more about the internals of the Debian packages of Openstack for the Folsom release? Read on what's below then...

Installing Openstack Folsom on Debian GNU/Linux

Work in progress : please contribute

We hope to improve this howto constantly. Please do not fear to click the edit button, and contribute. THIS WIKI PAGE ISN'T READ ONLY, EVERYONE CAN EDIT, and we welcome any contributor. A big chunk about Quantum networking is missing and help would be appreciated on this area.

Scope of this howto

This page explains how to install Openstack Folsom (Folsom is the version 2012.2 of Openstack, released early in autumn 2012). The openstack Folsom packages are still a work in progress, though this howto is in constant rework to make it match the installation procedure using these packages.

The current focus is on a subset of the possible setups: KVM and nova-network. Quantum and Xen are kept for later. The goal is to make this page, and the experimental branches of the packages, evolve in parallel until "it works": errors in the HOWTO will be fixed, and bugs in the packages will be fixed to.

Wheezy vs SID

This howto focuses on installing Folsom on top of Debian Wheezy, though currently, since the next Stable is frozen, installing it on SID should work equally (currently in SID, due to a mistake by the maintainers of libvirt, you need to install either libnetcf1 from Wheezy, or libvirt0 from Experimental, but otherwise, there isn't any problem).

On Debian wheezy though, few packages are missing. Namely, Debian source packages nodejs, less.js and python-setuptools-git have to be backported from SID to Wheezy. We expect these to be in the official Debian backports (eg:, but this will unfortunately not happen before Wheezy is out. Indeed, backports FTP masters have decided that stable backports can't be opened before a stable is released. If, like me, you would like this to change, and backports available during the freeze, get in touch with Debian backports FTP masters directly. As a consequence, our scripts temporarily also create a small Wheezy backport repository.

Final result goal

This howto aims to provide guidelines to install & set up a multi-node Openstack-Compute (aka Nova) environment. It doesn't aim at documenting how to install Swift (eg: Openstack object storage), which shall be documented elsewhere.

In order to make it more simple, this howto makes the assumption that you will be running a single "proxy node", which will hold all the Openstack API server components. Later on, if you have too much load on your single host proxy node, you can migrate them to another physical server. More servers (compute, or volume nodes) can also be added to join the cloud and make it scale.

As of today, this imply that your proxy node will run: - nova-api (compute API) - nova-scheduler - glance (api and registry: that's Openstack image storage) - keystone (the Openstack authentification server) - mysql (used by all daemons) - rabbitmq - memcached - openstack-dashboard (otherwise called horizon: the web GUI) - cinder-api - quantum-server using the openvswitch plugin (Quantum manages network on Openstack) - ceilometer metering (api, collector and agent-central)

These packages will be installed through a meta-package.

Note that it is also possible to use nova-network, in which case you wouldn't use Quantum.

Technical Choices

We will be using :

Note that if you use PGSQL, you will not be able to use the automation that dbconfig-common provides for all daemons that will need to connect to a remote database. This problem is in dbconfig-common itself, not in the packaging of Openstack Folsom.

Document Conventions

In formatted blocks :

Why choosing Debian and not Ubuntu to run Openstack?

Ubuntu packages

Most developers working on Openstack are using Ubuntu. Some core developers are coming from Canonical, and Openstack is maintained as much as possible within Ubuntu. So, why using plain Debian?

Well, Ubuntu packages may be of good quality, though they lack of some automation. For example, the Ubuntu packages don't have any automation for creating and maintaining database connections. In Ubuntu, you are supposed to create database for each package by hand, create access passwords for it, and then various db-sync programs to initialize with data. This is both error prone (you could well do a mistake when setting-up access rights in MySQL, for example), and not convenient.

Also, Ubuntu people are pressured by the release schedule of Ubuntu. Every 6 months, a new version of Openstack has to be out, following the schedule of the Ubuntu release. That's not at all what we do in Debian. We used to say "it's going to be ready ... when it's going to be ready" when talking about the Debian releases. That's also the approach we took for the Openstack packages and this Folsom release: we started working on it when it was out in October, and took our time in order to have package in a shape as good as we could, without such a strong release time constrain.

Debian automation and meta packages

Under Debian, the Openstack packaging team tried to add as much automation as possible, in order to make it both easy and fast to setup your Openstack based cloud computing. This is done mainly using Debconf and dbconfig-common functionality (note: debconf is the blue screen thing which asks you questions when you install a package, and dbconfig-common is a system using debconf to setup database which programs may need).

The result we aim at, is that something like "apt-get install openstack-proxy-node" should be enough for anyone to setup a controler node, without anything more to setup. We are not there yet, but we are rapidly approaching this goal. It is already a lot more easy to install Openstack than it used to be.

Scripting the install

Since Debian packages of Openstack are using debconf and dbconfig-common, it should be quite trivial to "preseed" any kind of setup (note: preseeding means that you pre-fill your system with answers to debconf, so that you don't have to type anything on the Debconf prompts). That's also another cool feature which we aim at: validating pre-written ways to configure your Openstack cloud, with proven scripts, so that you don't have to write a 10 000 lines setup script.

Limits to this approach

Unfortunately, it isn't possible to cover all cases. For example, nova comes with a nova.conf already filled with values which we found relevant, but which might not match your needs. It isn't really possible to have both a Quantum and a nova-network configuration working together on a single nova.conf. So, even with our approach, some level of manual edit of your configuration files will be needed, even though we are aiming to reduce it to the strict minimum (and have a working default setup).

Before Installing Debian Openstack Folsom : building and configuration

Hardware requirement

After that, we let the reader decide how much RAM and HDD space is needed to run virtual machines.

Network needs

Debian install

Install a base Debian Wheezy. Make sure you have enough space in your /tmp (dozens of GB) so that it can store files with the size of an operating system image. Your /var should also be big enough. If you plan on using cinder to store some VM partitions, make sure to use LVM and to leave enough free space on your volume group.

It might be a good idea to install a mail server, so that you can receive messages for root:

# apt-get install postfix
# echo "root:" >>/etc/aliases
# newaliases
# /etc/init.d/postfix reload

Networking setup on the proxy node

Your proxy node will be the only machine connected directly to the Internet, through it's IP address. The other physical servers (compute nodes, cinder machines, swift machines, etc.) will have to connect through your proxy node using the standard Linux NAT. As for your virtual machines, they will be connected to the Internet through quantum-server, which provide the networking to your virtual machines. Quantum dynamically creates network, on demand for the users of the cloud.

So, very pragmatically, here is how to setup networking on your proxy node.

First, install openvswitch. Create 2 bridges. The first one, call it "br-ex". All the connectivity to the outside world will go through this bridge. Assuming the physical interface connected to internet is eth0, then you can type:

# ovs-vsctl add-br br-ex
# ovs-vsctl br-set-external-id br-ex bridge-id br-ex
# ovs-vsctl add-port br-ex eth0

Then create a 2nd bridge called "br-int", which will provide all the connectivity for your compute nodes.

# ovs-vsctl add-br br-int

Normally, after the above, you should have the below displaying:

# ovs-vsctl show
    Bridge br-ex
        Port "eth0"
            Interface "eth0"
        Port br-ex
            Interface br-ex
                type: internal
    Bridge br-int
        Port br-int
            Interface br-int
                type: internal

Since you want to provide Internet connectivity to your compute, volume and object nodes, you probably want to add ip_forwarding to your /etc/sysctl.conf, and activate the changes:

# sed -i -e 's/^[ \t#]*net\.ipv4\.ip_forward[ \t]*=.*/net.ipv4.ip_forward=1/' /etc/sysctl.conf
# sysctl -p

Assuming your public IP for your eth0 was, and that you would like to use for your LAN (that means you will have a maximum of 16 384 physical machines being part of your cloud, each of which accessible from a single IP on the LAN), then your /etc/network/interface may look close to this:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto br-ex
iface br-ex inet static

auto eth1
iface eth1 inet static

auto eth2
iface eth2 inet static

Networking setup on the compute nodes

Typically, you would install a DHCP server running on the eth1 of your proxy node, so that your compute nodes take a random IP address on the network. Since nova has a "my_ip" parameter in /etc/nova/nova.conf, it is important that your compute nodes always keep the same IP. So providing a "static DHCP" address depending on the MAC address is a good idea.

Best is if you can keep the virtual machine traffic separated from the management traffic. To continue on our example, you would assign a DHCP IP from the LAN to eth0, and have eth1 bridged to "br-int".

Building the packages

Wheezy backports

There is a small shell script which copies packages from a Debian SID repository and creates a small Debian repository out of them. Just do this:

# git clone
# cd openstack-auto-builder
# ./build_backports

Then you can add your newly created repository to your sources.list:

# sudo echo "deb file://"`pwd`"/home/zigo/openstack-auto-builder/backports/debian wheezy-backports main" >>/etc/apt/sources.list
# sudo apt-get update

WARNING !!! This script is completely stupid, and is a ugly hack, it only guesses the base URL for a given source package name, then copies everything, even if the official repositories contain multiple versions of a package. You've been warn! Don't expect this to be fixed, and unless you can provide a patch, don't complain. :)

Openstack and dependency packages

There are many packages, and their build-time and run-time dependencies are complex. So building all the 25+ packages by hand, on the correct order can be quite painful. At the time of writing these lines, the Folsom packages aren't available in Debian yet. They are only available through our Git repository on So there is an automatic way to build them all using the "openstack-auto-builder" script, also available on Alioth. Simply do the following steps to build:

# git clone git://
# cd openstack-auto-builder
# ./build_openstack

This script will automatically install the necessary build-depends, git clone the current Experimental packaging trees on Alioth and build all packages. You might need to set URL=git:// if you don't have an ssh access on Alioth, and set a GnuPG signing key under GIT_BUILD_OPT, so that packages and the repository are signed with the key of your choice. Building will be made in the "sources" folder at the same level as the build_openstack script and your Wheezy backports Debian repository.

Note that few packages will fail to build, due to problems in the unit tests. To solve that problem, go in such a package, and build without using these tests. For example:

# cd source/glance/glance
# DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS=nocheck git-buildpackage

Once built, you can go back to the rest of the building process:

# cd ../../..
# ./build_openstack

Once building is done, the build_openstack script will create a Debian repository fo you in the folder named "repo". You can use that one in your apt/sources.list:

echo "deb file:///home/username/openstack-auto-builder/repo/debian experimental main" >>/etc/apt/sources.list

Using the unofficial Debian repository

Before all these packages gets uploaded to Debian, we have a temporary Debian repository which is every so often updated. Feel free to use, but please don't consider these packages ready for an upload in Debian just yet. There are 2 repositories, one is a wheezy-backports repository (made with the stupid script above, which doesn't even rebuild anything...), and the openstack Folsom repository:

# echo "deb wheezy-backports main" >>/etc/apt/sources.list
# echo "deb openstack main" >>/etc/apt/sources.list

Please use the closet GPLHost mirror for more throughput:


deb openstack main


deb openstack main


deb openstack main


deb openstack main

Atlanta (ipv6)

deb openstack main


deb openstack main


deb openstack main


deb openstack main


deb openstack main


deb openstack main

These mirrors also have the wheezy-backports repository. If you wish, you can install the gplhost-archive-keyring to get the gnupg key:

# wget
# dpkg -i gplhost-archive-keyring_20100926-1_all.deb



If dbconfig-common isn't installed before the setup of your server, important questions might be delayed. It will still work, but it is more convenient if you setup dbconfig-common by hand before:

# apt-get install dbconfig-common
# dpkg-reconfigure dbconfig-common

dbconfig-common has the following configuration screens:

01_dbconfig-common_keep_pass.png 02_dbconfig-common_remote_db.png

The dbconfig-common parameter is an important choice if you plan on using a remote MySQL server. This will have to be chosen from for all of your compute nodes.

Proxy node install

openstack-proxy-node meta-package

After you have both the backports and Openstack folsom installed in your sources.list, and ran apt-get update, simply do:

# apt-get install openstack-proxy-node

In this single command, all the necessary components for controlling your Openstack cloud will be installed on your server. Altogether, that's more than 240 packages. A lot of debconf questions will be asked (nearly 100). Here's few screenshots so that you know what to answer. Yes, that's really a lot of Debconf questions, but remember that:

* debconf answers can be preseeded (and eventually, fully preseed, so the installation can be fully automated) * you would otherwise configure everything by hand on config files, so that's really a time saver rather than borring useless questions.

Absolutely all of what is asked with debconf is required to have a working proxy node.

If you would like to use nova-network instead of Quantum, then you can prevent the installation of Quantum by not installing recommended packages:

# apt-get install --no-install-recommends openstack-proxy-node

General consideration about answering to debconf prompts

A number of package needs the same kind of answers. For example, glance-common, nova-common, keystone, cinder-common (etc.) all need to use a database, and will ask about the connection information. In this howto, we use glance-common (for the keystone communication) and glance-api (for registering the endpoint) and cinder-api (for setting-up the database) as an example, but this will apply to the other packages as well. It is important that you understand what you are doing when you see each of the questions, otherwise your proxy node will not work. So we give here detailed explanations of what you should answer (together with screenshots).

Because of the current way debconf is designed, it isn't (to the best of my knowledge) impossible to order which questions will be prompted to the user first, the package will ask for configuration in a quite random way. For example, you will be asked to configure quantum and its API endpoint (see below for what this is) before configuring keystone. Do not worry, the packages will really be installed in the correct order. To be able to explain what to enter, it didn't make sense to do so respecting the order in which the debconf questions are prompted. Therefor, it is left as an exercise to the reader to unscramble all this.

MySQL server

The first Debconf screen you will see will be for setting-up the password of MySQL server as follow:

03_mysql_password.png 04_mysql_password_repeat.png


Keystone is not only an auth server for all the openstack packages, but also a catalog of services that the Openstack clients will use to know where to contact each services. Both will need to be configured in order to use Keystone. Keystone uses an thing which it calls an AUTH_TOKEN as a kind of master password to do special administrative tasks (like creating an admin user). This AUTH_TOKEN is stored in /etc/keystone/keystone.conf, and is configured through debconf as folow:


Make sure you use a strong enough password here (it is a good idea to generate one), and remember that password, because you will need it when setting-up the other components of Openstack. Next, you need to configure a first super admin:

52_keystone_admin_user_name.png 53_keystone_admin_user_email.png 54_keystone_admin_user_pass.png 55_keystone_admin_user_pass_confirm.png

By default, "admin" is used as tenant name, and "admin" as super user. You will also need to remember the tenant name, admin name and password, because other packages (like glance-common, nova-common, etc.) will need these to talk to keystone.

Keystone also needs to be registered as an endpoint (see below), so that it can be accessed and used by the cloud users.


So you also need to enter the public IP address that the cloud users will contact to reach your keystone instance:


Finally, enter the region name (see below for what this means):



For each package that needs access to a database (eg: cinder-common, glance-common, keystone, nova-common and quantum-plugin-openvswitch), you will be asked for a database name, a SQL username, and a password, plus the SQL root admin password (if you choose MySQL or PGSQL) in order to create the database (if it doesn't exist). Here is an example with cinder (you will be asked for the same questions for the other packages listed above):

67_cinder-common_dbconfig.png 68_cinder-common_db_type.png 69_cinder-common_con_type.png 70_cinder-common_db_admin_pass.png 71_cinder-common_app_pass.png 72_cinder-common_app_pass_confirm.png

The answers to these questions will form an SQL connection directive as folow:

{{ sql_connection = mysql://user:pass@server-hostname:port/dbname }}

You can also edit this by hand on the different configuration files.

Keystone communication

Most Openstack services need to communicate with Keystone. To do so, they need the service administrator tenant name, username and password. This information is stored in each service configuration file. For example:


Here's an example of debconf prompts asking for such keystone credentials:

26_glance-common_auth_server_hostname.png 27_glance-common_tenant_name.png 28_glance-common_auth_server_username.png 29_glance-common_auth_server_pass.png

These should match your setup of Keystone (explained above). The screen asking about the admin tenant name, and the one asking about the admin username will not be shown unless you set your debconf priority to medium.

Registering an endpoint

Keystone isn't only for auth. It's also a catalog of services, so that your users will be able to tell which IP address to use when contacting one of the Openstack services. Therefor, each service has to be registered in keystone using the keystone client. The Debian packages automate this task using debconf.

Since it is quite tedious to enter the IP address of your API server each time, the IP address will be guessed by the config script, and set as default answer to debconf. The following script is used internally:

# DEFROUTE_IF=`LC_ALL=C /sbin/route | grep default |awk -- '{ print $8 }'`
# DEFROUTE_IP=`LC_ALL=C ip addr show "${DEFROUTE_IF}" | grep inet | head -n 1 | awk '{print $2}' | cut -d/ -f1 | grep -E '^[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}$'`

Both the API endpoint IP address and the region name are set with debconf priority "medium", which means that by default, it will not be prompted to the user, unless you do:

dpkg-reconfigure debconf

before installing any of the API servers. If this debconf priority for the API ip address is annoying anyone, please let the PKG Openstack team know, we are open to discussion. But I (eg: zigo) believe that this is a nice default, so I've set it this way. Note that another way to manually set the IP address is to first install the packages with debconf priority high, then do (for example for glance):

dpkg-reconfigure glance-api

Here's few snapshots of the endpoint creation prompts. Answer yes to this one if you wish to create an API endpoing:


Enter here the address of your keystone server. If you used the metapackage openstack-proxy-node, then will work. Note that this question will not be asked unless you have set debconf priority to medium.


Enter here the AUTH_TOKEN value stored in /etc/keystone/keystone.conf, which you configured using debconf when installing keystone:


Enter the public IP address used to reach your service. Note that this IP address will be guessed by the packages (see above), and that you will not see this question unless you set debconf priority to medium.


Openstack has the concept of availability zones, enter the name of it (if you have only one Openstack cloud, then any name is fine, as long as it is consistent across all the Openstack services):


Package specific Debconf questions: glance

Glance-common will ask you which pipeline flavor you want. Choose keystone.


Package specific Debconf questions: nova

Describe here how to configure nova.

Package specific Debconf questions: cinder

Describe here how to configure cinder.

Post configuration

Configuring MySQL server

A number of hosts will need to have access to your MySQL over network. For example, all of your Nova-compute (compute hosts) will need to have access to this central database. By default in Debian, a MySQL server is only accessible from localhost, so we need to change that. In /etc/mysql/my.cnf modify the bind-address value to read :

bind-address            =

And restart the mysql server :

# /etc/init.d/mysql restart

Since you will be accessing your MySQL from other servers (eg: each Nova compute and Cinder volume nodes will need to access it), you also need to grant root access from remote hosts, because dbconfig-common will need MySQL root access. To make it more convenient, the openstack-proxy-node package contains a userland script to do this. This script also configures your MySQL server to bind on instead of as per above. This script is in:

# /usr/share/openstack-proxy-node/mysql-remote-root

It contains the following code:

set -e

SQL="mysql --defaults-file=/etc/mysql/debian.cnf -Dmysql -e"

ROOT_PASS=`${SQL} "SELECT Password FROM user WHERE User='root' LIMIT 1;" | tail -n 1`
${SQL} "REPLACE INTO user SET host='%', user='root', password='${ROOT_PASS}', Select_priv='Y', Insert_priv='Y', Update_priv='Y', Delete_priv='Y', Create_priv='Y', Drop_priv='Y', Reload_priv='Y', Shutdown_priv='Y', Process_priv='Y',  File_priv='Y', Grant_priv='Y', References_priv='Y', Index_priv='Y', Alter_priv='Y', Super_priv='Y', Show_db_priv='Y', Create_tmp_table_priv='Y', Lock_tables_priv='Y', Execute_priv='Y', Repl_slave_priv='Y', Repl_client_priv='Y', Create_view_priv='Y', Show_view_priv='Y', Create_routine_priv='Y', Alter_routine_priv='Y', Create_user_priv='Y', Event_priv='Y', Trigger_priv='Y' "
sed -i 's|^bind-address[ \t]*=.*|bind-address =|' /etc/mysql/my.cnf
/etc/init.d/mysql restart

Note that if you believe it is too dangerous security wise to leave MySQL root access from network, then remember you can do the DB setup manually.


When installing nova-api, it will be prompted what services you want to use. Choose osapi_compute for the nova-api management host. If you are running on a single server, you also need the metadata (but if it's a proxy node, without compute service running, then you do not want to activate the metadata service).

In the file /etc/nova/nova.conf, edit the following directive to match this:

vlan_interface=<the private interface eg. eth1>
public_interface=<the interface on which the public IP addresses are bound eg. eth0>


Restart nova services :

# /etc/init.d/nova-api restart
# /etc/init.d/nova-scheduler restart


Point your browser to http://<>/, and you'll see the dashboard. You can login using <admin_user> password <secret>. It must be working out of the box. However, creating networks through Horizon will not work. This is a known problem in the Folsom release, and there's nothing the Debian maintainers can do about it (eg: it's a problem in upstream code).

VNC console

Add the following lines to /etc/nova/nova.conf:


Note: <> will be exposed in horizon and must be a name that resolves from the client machine. It cannot be a name that only resolves on the nodes used to run OpenStack.

compute nodes:

apt-get openstack-compute-node

Note that the <mgmt.node> can also be a compute node. There is no obligation for it to be a separate physical machine. Install the packages required to run instances :

# apt-get install -y openstack-compute-node

Make sure to select the metadata only for nova-api when prompted by debconf. Remember that Nova should use a unique database across all of your Openstack servers, so you should really be setting-up a remote MySQL database on each compute node (see the note about dpkg-reconfigure dbconfig-common above, and how to setup MySQL databases on remote hosts).

If you would like to use nova-network instead of Quantum, then you should explicitely install it:

# apt-get install openstack-compute-node nova-network

Using Openstack

Setting up your environment

In your .bashrc in your home directory, add the following:

export SERVICE_ENDPOINT=http://<>:35357/v2.0/

export OS_TENANT_NAME=admin
export OS_USERNAME=admin
export OS_PASSWORD=<keystone-admin-password>
export OS_AUTH_URL=http://<>:5000/v2.0/
export OS_VERSION=1.1
export OS_NO_CACHE=1

once you have done that, you can contact all of your running Openstack services (keystone, nova, glance, cinder, quantum, etc.).

Configuring your first network

Now bootstrap nova :

# nova-manage network create private --fixed_range_v4=<> --network_size=<256> --num_networks=<100>
# nova-manage floating create --ip_range=<>

Checking that the compute services are running as expected

You should be able to see that nova-scheduler is running (OK state is :-) KO is XXX):

# nova-manage service list
Binary           Host                                 Zone             Status     State Updated_At
nova-console     <>                          nova             enabled    :-)   2012-11-30 14:48:42
nova-consoleauth <>                          nova             enabled    :-)   2012-11-30 14:48:43
nova-scheduler   <>                          nova             enabled    :-)   2012-11-30 14:48:43
nova-cert        <>                       nova             enabled    :-)   2012-11-30 14:48:44
nova-compute     <>                       nova             enabled    :-)   2012-11-30 14:48:43
nova-network     <>                       nova             enabled    :-)   2012-01-16 12:29:49

Using Glance

Before you can launch virtual machine instances, you need to upload some virtual machine images. Openstack can use the same format as in AWS (Amazon Web Services), eg ARI (ramdisk image), AKI (linux kernel) and AMI (HDD image, also linked to the ARI and AKI objects). Here is a simplistic example script showing how to upload TTY linux:

KERNEL_ID=`glance image-create --name="tty-linux-kernel" --disk-format=aki --container-format=aki < ttylinux-uec-amd64-12.1_2.6.35-22_1-vmlinuz | awk '/ id / { print $4 }'`
INITRD_ID=`glance image-create --name="tty-linux-ramdisk" --disk-format=ari --container-format=ari < ttylinux-uec-amd64-12.1_2.6.35-22_1-loader | awk '/ id / { print $4 }'`
glance image-create --name="tty-linux" --disk-format=ami --container-format=ami --property kernel_id=${KERNEL_ID} --property ramdisk_id=${INITRD_ID} < ttylinux-uec-amd64-12.1_2.6.35-22_1.img

After running this, you should have the following output:

#glance image-list
| ID                                   | Name              | Disk Format | Container Format | Size     | Status |
| 6d45238c-edba-48e5-b3df-105e54f4e357 | tty-linux-ramdisk | ari         | ari              | 96629    | active |
| 77f1bb15-1131-4abb-8504-49c8ac9c03a1 | tty-linux         | ami         | ami              | 25165824 | active |
| c0832a95-a63e-4390-8957-f994b3d2939d | tty-linux-kernel  | aki         | aki              | 4404752  | active |

Using nova

You can now use the nova command line interface :

nova list
| ID | Name | Status | Networks |
# nova image-list
| ID                                   | Name              | Status | Server |
| 77f1bb15-1131-4abb-8504-49c8ac9c03a1 | tty-linux         | ACTIVE |        |
| c0832a95-a63e-4390-8957-f994b3d2939d | tty-linux-kernel  | ACTIVE |        |
| 6d45238c-edba-48e5-b3df-105e54f4e357 | tty-linux-ramdisk | ACTIVE |        |
# nova flavor-list
| ID |    Name   | Memory_MB | Swap | Local_GB | VCPUs | RXTX_Factor |
| 1  | m1.tiny   | 512       |      | 0        | 1     | 1.0         |
| 2  | m1.small  | 2048      |      | 20       | 1     | 1.0         |
| 3  | m1.medium | 4096      |      | 40       | 2     | 1.0         |
| 4  | m1.large  | 8192      |      | 80       | 4     | 1.0         |
| 5  | m1.xlarge | 16384     |      | 160      | 8     | 1.0         |
# nova keypair-list
| Name | Fingerprint |

There is no instance, one AMI image, and some flavors.

To later connect to the instance via ssh, we will need to upload a ssh public-key :

# nova keypair-add --pub_key <> <key_name>
# nova keypair-list
| Name   | Fingerprint                                     |
| my_key | 79:40:46:87:74:3a:0e:01:f4:59:00:1b:3a:94:71:72 |

We can now boot an image with this image :

# nova boot --poll --flavor 1 --image 77f1bb15-1131-4abb-8504-49c8ac9c03a1 --key_name <key_name> <my_first_instance_name>
|        Property        |                Value                 |
| OS-EXT-STS:power_state | 0                                    |
| OS-EXT-STS:task_state  | scheduling                           |
| OS-EXT-STS:vm_state    | building                             |
| RAX-DCF:diskConfig     | MANUAL                               |
| accessIPv4             |                                      |
| accessIPv6             |                                      |
| adminPass              | HMs5tLK3bPCG                         |
| config_drive           |                                      |
| created                | 2012-01-16T14:14:20Z                 |
| flavor                 | m1.tiny                              |
| hostId                 |                                      |
| id                     | 677750ea-0dd4-43c3-8ae0-ef54cb29915f |
| image                  | tty-linux                            |
| key_name               | pubkey                               |
| metadata               | {}                                   |
| name                   | my_first_instance                    |
| progress               | None                                 |
| status                 | BUILD                                |
| tenant_id              | 1                                    |
| updated                | 2012-01-16T14:14:20Z                 |
| user_id                | 1                                    |

And after few seconds :

# nova show my_first_instance
|        Property        |                          Value                           |
| OS-EXT-STS:power_state | 1                                                        |
| OS-EXT-STS:task_state  | None                                                     |
| OS-EXT-STS:vm_state    | active                                                   |
| RAX-DCF:diskConfig     | MANUAL                                                   |
| accessIPv4             |                                                          |
| accessIPv6             |                                                          |
| config_drive           |                                                          |
| created                | 2012-01-16T14:14:20Z                                     |
| flavor                 | m1.tiny                                                  |
| hostId                 | 9750641c8c79637e01b342193cfa1efd5961c300b7865dc4a5658bdd |
| id                     | 677750ea-0dd4-43c3-8ae0-ef54cb29915f                     |
| image                  | tty-linux                                                |
| key_name               | pubkey                                                   |
| metadata               | {}                                                       |
| name                   | my_first_instance                                        |
| private_0 network      |                                                 |
| progress               | None                                                     |
| status                 | ACTIVE                                                   |
| tenant_id              | 1                                                        |
| updated                | 2012-01-16T14:14:37Z                                     |
| user_id                | 1                                                        |

To see the instance console, we can go on our compute node and look at the file /var/lib/nova/instances/instance-00000001/console.log (if this is the first intance you created, else change 00000001 to the last available in the folder).

We can activate ssh access, create a floating ip, attach it to our instance and ssh into it (with user ubuntu for UEC images):

# nova secgroup-add-rule default tcp 22 22
# nova floating-ip-create
|      Ip      | Instance Id | Fixed Ip |
| | None        | None     |
# nova add-floating-ip my_first_instance
# ssh -i my_key debian@
The authenticity of host ' (' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 55:bf:2e:7f:60:ef:ea:72:b4:af:2a:33:6b:2d:8c:62.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.

If ssh does not work, check the logs in the horizon "Logs" tab associated with the instance. If it fails to find the metadata with an error that looks like:[WARNING]: '' failed: url error [[Errno 111] Connection refused]

just try to restart

/etc/init.d/nova-compute restart
/etc/init.d/nova-api restart
/etc/init.d/nova-scheduler restart
/etc/init.d/nova-cert restart

the source of the problem is probably that it was not retarted after a modification of the configuration files and they were not taken into account.


Can't switch projects/tenants in web interface

If you set up multiple projects/tenants and add the same user to multiple projects, you may find that the user is "stuck" on one project, and cannot switch between them. This is caused by a change in Keystone's API, and was fixed in a recent update to the python-openstack-auth package. Version 1.0.6 (which contains the fix) can be found in the "Grizzly" package repository, and can be downloaded here:

For more information, see the Ubuntu bug describing this problem.


Cinder vs Nova Volume

As of the Folsom release, Cinder replaces Nova Volume, which is not deprecated. If you still want to run nova-volume, you can read the rest of this part.

Outdated howto for nova-volume

Note: as of September 22nd, 2012, the iscsitarget-dkms package must be installed from sid until it is accepted in wheezy.

The following instructions must be run on the <> node.

# apt-get install lvm2 nova-volume iscsitarget iscsitarget-dkms euca2ools

Installing the guestmount package requires a patch until the corresponding packaging bug is fixed

# apt-get install guestmount

When it fails, apply the following patch.

root@osc2:~# diff -uNr /etc/init.d/zfs-fuse*
--- /etc/init.d/zfs-fuse        2012-02-06 00:04:24.000000000 -0500
+++ /etc/init.d/zfs-fuse.mod    2012-05-16 05:57:35.000000000 -0400
@@ -1,8 +1,8 @@
 #! /bin/bash
 # Provides:          zfs-fuse
-# Required-Start:    fuse $remote_fs
-# Required-Stop:     fuse $remote_fs
+# Required-Start:    $remote_fs
+# Required-Stop:     $remote_fs
 # Default-Start:     S
 # Default-Stop:      0 6
 # Short-Description: Daemon for ZFS support via FUSE

After applying the patch, install again.

# apt-get install guestmount

Assuming /dev/<sda3> is an unused disk partition, create a volume group:

# pvcreate /dev/<sda3>
# vgcreate nova-volumes /dev/<sda3>

Add the following lines to /etc/nova/nova.conf


Apply the following patch to cope with the fact that --volume-group is not accepted as an option by the nova-volume command line.

diff --git a/init.d/nova-volume b/init.d/nova-volume
index 0cdda1b..1d6fa62 100755
--- a/init.d/nova-volume
+++ b/init.d/nova-volume
@@ -45,9 +47,9 @@ do_start()
        # Adds what has been configured in /etc/default/nova-volume
-       if [ -n ${nova_volume_group} ] ; then
-               DAEMON_ARGS="${DAEMON_ARGS} --volume_group=${nova_volume_group}"
-       fi
+#      if [ -n ${nova_volume_group} ] ; then
+#              DAEMON_ARGS="${DAEMON_ARGS} --volume_group=${nova_volume_group}"
+#      fi
        start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --background --chuid ${NOVA_USER}:nova --make-pidfile --pidfile $PIDFILE --startas $DAEMON --test > /dev/null \
                || return 1

Fix an absolute path problem in /usr/share/pyshared/nova/rootwrap/

# perl -pi -e 's|/sbin/iscsiadm|/usr/bin/iscsiadm|' /usr/share/pyshared/nova/rootwrap/

Edit /etc/default/iscsitarget and set


Run the iscsi services :

# service iscsitarget start
# service open-iscsi start

Start the nova-volume service

# /etc/init.d/nova-volume start

Check that it shows (give it 10 seconds) with

# nova-manage service list

should show a line looking like this:

# nova-volume      openstack                            nova             enabled    :-)   2012-05-16 09:38:26

Go to the dashboard and you will be able to create a volume and attach it to a running instance. If anything goes wrong, check the /var/log/nova/nova-volume.log and /var/log/nova/nova-compute.log files first for errors. If you would like to try the euca2ools commands instead of the dashboard you can use the examples shown at (as of May 16th, 2012). Before running these commands you need to do the following:

login to the dashboard as <admin_user>
go to Settings
click on "EC2 Credentials"
click on "Download EC2 Credentials"
unzip the downloaded file

This will define the environment variables necessary for commands such as


to display the list of active volumes as follows

# euca-describe-volumes 
VOLUME  vol-00000002     1              nova    available (67af2aec0bb94cc29a43c5bca21ce3d4, openstack, None, None)     2012-05-16T09:54:23.000Z


swift nodes:

Assuming three machines installed with squeeze, the primary node being the openstack node and no puppet or puppetmaster installed.

swift primary node

# apt-get install libmysql-ruby ruby-activerecord-2.3 sqlite3 puppetmaster puppet ruby-sqlite3

Puppet configuration:

diff --git a/puppet/puppet.conf b/puppet/puppet.conf
index b18fae3..ce4ed22 100644
--- a/puppet/puppet.conf
+++ b/puppet/puppet.conf
@@ -7,6 +7,8 @@ factpath=$vardir/lib/facter
 # These are needed when the puppetmaster is run by passenger

commit 507105065306433eec8f03dd72ab52ccaf268ccc
Author: root <>
Date:   Mon Apr 2 15:04:53 2012 +0200

    configure database storage

diff --git a/puppet/puppet.conf b/puppet/puppet.conf
index ce4ed22..af220e9 100644
--- a/puppet/puppet.conf
+++ b/puppet/puppet.conf
@@ -9,10 +9,19 @@ prerun_command=/etc/puppet/etckeeper-commit-pre
 # These are needed when the puppetmaster is run by passenger
 # and can safely be removed if webrick is used.
 ssl_client_header = SSL_CLIENT_S_DN 
 ssl_client_verify_header = SSL_CLIENT_VERIFY
+# Needed for storeconfigs=true

Setup mysql for puppet:

# mysqladmin create puppet
# mysql -e "grant all on puppet.* to 'puppet'@'localhost' identified by 'password';"

Install openstack modules for puppet:

# cd /etc/puppet
# git clone git:// modules && cd modules && git submodule init && git submodule update
# cp /etc/puppet/modules/swift/examples/multi.pp /etc/puppet/manifests/site.pp

commit 8eb77223e25bfff1284612417efedd228e0c6696
Author: root <>
Date:   Mon Apr 2 15:37:19 2012 +0200

    use tap0 for lan

diff --git a/puppet/manifests/site.pp b/puppet/manifests/site.pp
index a915aea..9b890b0 100644
--- a/puppet/manifests/site.pp
+++ b/puppet/manifests/site.pp
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@
 # assumes that the ip address where all of the storage nodes
 # will communicate is on eth1
-$swift_local_net_ip = $ipaddress_eth0
+$swift_local_net_ip = $ipaddress_tap0
 Exec { logoutput => true }

Enable puppet autosign for all hosts:

# echo '*' > /etc/puppet/autosign.conf

Deploy swift configuration on the proxy:

# chown -R puppet:puppet /var/lib/puppet/
# puppet agent --certname=swift_storage_1 --verbose --debug --test
# /etc/init.d/xinetd reload

swift secondary nodes

deb wheezy main 
deb sid main 

apt-get install  python2.7=2.7.2-8  python2.7-minimal=2.7.2-8 libpython2.7=2.7.2-8
echo libpython2.7 hold |  dpkg --set-selections
echo python2.7 hold |  dpkg --set-selections
echo python2.7-minimal hold |  dpkg --set-selections

apt-get install puppet ruby-sqlite3

puppet agent --certname=swift_storage_3 --verbose --debug --test

create swift ring

# puppet agent --certname=swift_proxy --verbose --debug --test

propagate the swift configuration

# puppet agent --certname=swift_storage_1 --verbose --debug --test
# puppet agent --certname=swift_storage_2 --verbose --debug --test
# puppet agent --certname=swift_storage_3 --verbose --debug --test

check that it works

On proxy / :

# cd /etc/puppet/modules/swift/ext
# ruby swift.rb
getting credentials: curl -k -v -H "X-Storage-User: test:tester" -H 'X-Storage-Pass: testing'
verifying connection auth:  curl -k -v -H "X-Auth-Token: AUTH_tk5d5a63abdf90414eafd890ed710d357b"
Testing swift: swift -A -U test:tester -K testing stat
found containers/objects: 0/0
Uploading file to swift with command: swift -A -U test:tester -K testing upload my_container /tmp/foo1
Downloading file with command: swift -A -U test:tester -K testing download my_container

Dude!!!! It actually seems to work, we can upload and download files!!!!

diff --git a/swift/proxy-server.conf b/swift/proxy-server.conf
index 83dda1e..8364fe7 100644
--- a/swift/proxy-server.conf
+++ b/swift/proxy-server.conf
@@ -7,7 +7,8 @@ user = swift

 # ratelimit?
-pipeline = healthcheck cache tempauth proxy-server
+#pipeline = healthcheck cache tempauth proxy-server
+pipeline = healthcheck cache  tokenauth keystone  proxy-server

 use = egg:swift#proxy
@@ -28,3 +29,17 @@ use = egg:swift#healthcheck
 use = egg:swift#memcache
 # multi-proxy config not supported
 memcache_servers =
+paste.filter_factory = keystone.middleware.auth_token:filter_factory
+service_port = 5000
+service_protocol = http
+service_host =
+auth_port = 35357
+auth_protocol = http
+auth_host =
+admin_token = ADMIN
+paste.filter_factory = keystone.middleware.swift_auth:filter_factory
+operator_roles = admin, swiftoperator, projectmanager

# /etc/init.d/swift-proxy restart

swift command line

# apt-get install swift