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Languages [http://wiki.Debian.org/MacBook/es spanish],

[[TableOfContents]]


Thread available [http://lists.debian.org/debian-devel/2006/07/msg00008.html here]

 * grub-efi is in sid but it doesn't work as of 14 May 2007 (Bug: '''Please add a link to the bugreport here!''').
 * elilo does not work (Bug: [http://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=376002 #376002])
 * rEFIt package is available (in Debian i386 etch and unstable; it's missing for amd64 [http://bugs.debian.org/383802 bug 383802] which is waiting for [http://bugs.debian.org/383801 bug 383801]).

Debian Etch on a MacBook HOWTO (triple-boot) at:
 http://sharealike.org/index.php?m=200605
Triple boot (inc. Debian Etch) at:
 http://wiki.onmac.net/index.php/Triple_Boot_via_BootCamp
Boot process described is rEFIt to LILO to Linux (as discussed in above-linked thread.)

Relevant information elsewhere on this wiki: MacMiniIntel and MacBookPro.

== Installation ==

=== Single boot - Debian only ===

'''WARNING:''' You will loose Mac OS X, and all other data on the MacBook if you follow this method.

Methodology: use the bios compatibility method to boot Debian, by erasing the GPT partition table from the disk.

Make sure you've received the latest apple updates in OS X. This is needed, because the latest updates include a BIOS compatibility layer, we are going to use to boot Debian.

Boot from the CD, you might have to hold C while booting. Before setting up partitions in the installer, press ALT+F2.
At the prompt, you are going to wipe the whole disk:
{{{
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda
}}}

This clears the whole disk ('''remember: all data is lost''') and, most importantly, it deletes the GPT partition table. This command may take a while (or forever?). However, it seems to be sufficient to let it run for some time, so that the beginning of the disk is cleared. Then you can interrupt it with Ctrl-c. It is probably not wise to let it run and continue with the installation on the first console simultaneously.

(If you change your mind now and want to go back to Mac OS X without Linux, you can reinstall Mac OS X after having cleared the disk. Boot with the Mac OS X installation DVD. Partition the disk with 'Utilities' -> 'Disk Utility'. Quit the Disk Utility. Select a partition and continue the installation process.)

Switch back to the installer with pressing ALT+F1 and continue installation as normal. Remember to install the boot loader to the MBR (/dev/sda), and not to the partition boot record (like when installing with rEFIt)!

(Do not try to reinstall Mac OS X after you finished installing Debian using this method, the Mac OS X installer will not recognize the Debian install, and you will loose all your data.)

=== Double boot - Mac OS X & Debian ===

==== Partitioning (via OS X) ====

Before you can install Debian, you have to make space for it on the disk. There are different ways to do it. You can either (re)partition the whole disk or shrink the existing Mac OS X partition.

''' Hint:''' It is not really necessary to create linux partitions at this point (this can be done during the installation of Debian), but it might be advantageous for two reasons. Firstly, The Mac OS X Disk Utility behaves strangely if you just request free space and do not define a file system, see below. Secondly. It is important that the Linux system partition is a primary partition (number 1 to 4), see Section "Install Debian". This can be secured by creating and verifying it early in the process. If you define Linux partitions at this stage, consider also to create a partition for exchanging data between Linux and Mac OS X, see Section "Cross-mount file systems" below.

'''Partition disk with Disk Utility:''' In the initial phase of the installation procedure for Mac OS X you can use the 'Disk Utility' partition tool that you can find in the 'Installer' by clicking on 'Utilities' -> 'Disk Utility'. This tool is a bit erratic. It likes to move partitions around and change their sizes when you perform the final step of partitioning. We finally succeeded with the following method:
 i. Within the Disk Utility click on the hard drive entry (not any of its subentries).
 i. Click on 'Partition' (between 'Erase' and 'RAID').
 i. Under 'Volume Scheme:' choose the number of partitions. Don't use 'Split' and 'Delete', this seems to confuse the program.
 i. Then work your way from the top partion to the bottom one. Always select a Format (for later Linux partitions use 'UNIX File System', avoid 'Free Space') and mark 'Locked for editing'.
 i. Click on 'Partition' in the bottom right and cross your fingers.
 i. To verify that the program did the partitioning as you intended, leave 'Partition' (e.g. by clicking on 'First Aid') and reenter it (by clicking on 'Partition' again). Check whether the actual partitioning is what you want.

'''Hint:''' The partitions made by the 'Disk Utility' will be numbered beginning with 2, probably to have number 1 left for rEFIt. Thus, to make sure the Linux system partition is a primary one it must be one of the first three partitions.

'''Shrink Mac OS X partition with {{{diskutil}}}:''' If you have Mac OS X installed already and don't want to reinstall it (and thereby erase all data), you can use the {{{diskutil}}} program to shrink the Mac OS X partition. Supposing you want to reserve 20GB for your Mac OS X partition, run the following command from a terminal (Applications -> Utility -> Terminal):

{{{
Mac OS X $ sudo diskutil resizevolume disk0s2 20G
Started resizing on disk disk0s2 Macintosh HD
Verifying
Resizing Volume
Adjusting Partitions
Finished resizing on disk disk0s2 Macintosh HD
WARNING: You must now reboot!
}}}

Support for the resizevolume verb was added in Mac OS X 10.4.6. If you have an earlier version, you'll need to upgrade.

The program {{{diskutil}}} can also add partitions, see the man page. But note that it doesn't provide a way to remove partitions.

==== Preparing to dual boot (via OS X): rEFIt ====

First install the latest rEFIt from [http://refit.sourceforge.net/ rEFIt homepage].
For the manual way (which is not needed) read the [http://refit.sourceforge.net/doc/c1s1_install.html rEFIt install documentation]. If you don't have your MacBook connected to the internet, you can download the rEFIt Mac disk image onto a USB memory stick and install rEFIt from there by double clicking on rEFIt-0.10.dmg (or whatever version you have) and then on rEFIt.mpkg.

'''NOTE:''' The combination of pre-0.9 rEFIt and GNU parted is known to cause problems: see http://refit.sourceforge.net/doc/c4s5_parted.html. If you install an old version of rEFIt and then install Debian + Lilo, you might not be able to install Grub afterwards. Reinstalling rEFIt 0.9 or greater will fix this problem.
 
It's now possible to proceed with installing Debian.

Note refit doesn't support making linux the default boot choice in tripple-boot environments, so you might want to look into other options. rEFIt does support making GNU/Linux the default choice when dual-booting. From OS X, edit the {{{/efi/rEFIt/refit.conf}}} file and uncomment/add the line

{{{
legacyfirst
}}}

==== Install Debian ====

Get (burn yourself) a Debian installation CD from [http://www.us.debian.org/distrib/].

 '''HINT:''' You might want an AMD64 edition for the Core 2 Duo MacBooks, but it is also possible to install the i386 (32-bit) version and use just 64-bit kernel on them.

Boot from the Debian installation CD (hold down the c-key while booting) and proceed with the installation.

 '''TROUBLESHOOTING (double keypresses):''' If you have strange keyboard problems (double keypresses) or other problems while booting from the install CD, use the following command line on the boot prompt:

 {{{
install noapic irqpoll acpi=force
}}}

 '''TROUBLESHOOTING (dead keyboard):''' If you cannot type anything in the CD/DVD boot prompt (I found this problem on a MacBook Core 2 Duo), you can fix by using USB-attached keyboard. Alternatively, if Mac OS X is installed, you can proceed as follows [[http://discussions.apple.com/thread.jspa?threadID=955231&tstart=0 2007-08-27, Apple Discussions]]: boot into Mac OS X, insert the Linux installation disc, go to 'System Preferences' -> 'Startup Disk', click on the Linux CD icon (this tells the computer to start from CD withouth the need to press the C key at boot time), click on the 'Restart' button, confirm 'Restart', wait. To get back to Mac OS X you might have to restart the computer and keep the eject button pressed to eject the CD, otherwise you keep booting from CD (possibly with the same keyboard problem as before, the behavior is a bit erratic).

 This problem seems to be related to refit, since disabling it and booting while holding the C button pressed (boots directly from CD) fixes this (sometimes). (It seems that booting after the real power-off seems to have less problem than reboot with "{{{shutdown -r now}}}". Also it seems to help situation a bit better by not pressing keyboard except when needed.)

When creating new partitions for Linux, take care that the Linux boot partition is among the first four partitions, i.e. is a primary partition. There are reports that rEFIt does not notice partition five and higher [[http://www.ppcnux.de/?q=node/6767 Linux auf einem MacBook Pro]]. Also consider creating a partition for exchanging data between Linux and Mac OS X, see Section "Cross-mount file systems" below.

When you reach the "Install the GRUB boot loader on a hard disk" step, switch to the second virtual console by pressing ctrl-alt-F2, press return to start the shell, and then enter

{{{
 chroot /target aptitude install refit
 /target/sbin/gptsync /dev/sda
}}}

and enter 'y' at the prompt. This syncs the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_Boot_Record MBR] from the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table GPT], which were made out of sync by parted.

 '''TROUBELSHOOTING (no refit available):''' If aptitude tells you that refit is not available, the reason might be that you have no internet connection and there is refit package on the Debian installation CD. One solution is to connect the MacBook to the internet during installation.

 On amd64 there is generally no refit package available yet ([http://bugs.debian.org/383802 bug 383802] which is waiting for [http://bugs.debian.org/383801 bug 383801]). One solution is to start the installation, partition your hard disk, reboot and do the gptsync with the refit shell and then install

Switch back to the first virtual console by pressing ctrl-alt-F1 and select <Go back> in response to the "Install the GRUB boot loader to the master boot record". Choose "Install the LILO boot loader on a hard disk" from the main menu and choose /dev/sda3 (or whatever your new Debian partition is) for the LILO installation target. '''Do not install LILO to the MBR!''' When the installer asks if you want to make this partition active, choose "No."

 '''TROUBELSHOOTING (LILO installation fails):''' If you get an error while trying to install LILO :

  i. reboot, start the refit shell and type gptsync /dev/sda, and answer y
  i. boot from the debian CD and follow the steps until the partitioning step, type ctrl-option-F2, press return to start the shell and then enter
  i. mount /dev/sda3 to /mnt/sda3, mount /proc to /mnt/sda3/proc, chroot into /mnt/sda3 and run lilo:
  {{{
mkdir /mnt/sda3
mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/sda3
mount /proc/ /mnt/sda3/proc
chroot /mnt/sda3
lilo -b /dev/sda3
}}}

 '''TROUBLESHOOTING (Missing operating system):''' Once Debian is installed it asks you to remove the installation CD and reboot without it. You might then get the error message "Missing operating system". I guess, this means the MacBook tries to boot directly into the new Debian system instead of into rEFIt first, as one would expect. To solve this, insert the Mac OS X installation DVD and boot from it (keep the c-key pressed). Choose your language. Click on 'Utilities' -> 'Startup Disk...'. Select Mac OS X as the system to start. Click on 'Restart...' and confirm 'Restart...'. This should bring you into the rEFIt menu.

The GRUB included with Debian 4.0 Etch (GRUB 0.97-10 or greater) is compatible with MacBook if you configure proper MBR/GPT hybrid. Although it was possible to install GRUB during the initial d-i install with many manual fiddling processes of MBR/GPT synching, I recommend you to install LILO initially as above and install GRUB to /dev/sda3 and/or /dev/sda4 later for the ease of process and ease of updating kernel. "rEFIt " on OS X does not like anything other than MSDOS or HFS+ for file system description in GPT table when executing gptsync to create matching MBR record. So I marked Linux partitions as MSDOS before executing gptsync. I used both disked for GPT and fdisk for MBR. Once you marked the MBR with the proper file system type (eg. 83), GRUB is happy to boot Debian by looking into FS and finding files.) Here is an example of /boot/grub/menu.lst for dual booting 486 and amd64 systems:
        {{{
timeout 10
default 0
fallback 1
# For booting GNU/Linux (For frozen keyboard)
title GNU/Linux64-safe
root (hd0,2)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.18-4-amd64 root=/dev/sda3
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.18-4-amd64

# For booting GNU/Linux
title GNU/Linux64
root (hd0,2)
kernel /vmlinuz root=/dev/sda3
initrd /initrd.img

# For booting GNU/Linux
title GNU/Linux64.old
root (hd0,2)
kernel /vmlinuz.old root=/dev/sda3
initrd /initrd.img.old

# For booting GNU/Linux
title GNU/Linux32
root (hd0,3)
kernel /vmlinuz root=/dev/sda4
initrd /initrd.img

# Change the colors.
title Change the colors
color light-green/brown blink-red/blue
}}}

(Linux kernel is GPT-aware thus the swap partition maybe located in places such as /dev/sda7)

=== Switching to Grub ===

To switch to grub you first need to change the partition type to linux. You can do this by using sfdisk to dump the partition information to a text file. Editing it to change the partition type, and then using sfdisk to save that to the partition table.

sfdisk -d /dev/sda > sda.out

edit sda.out and change the id to 83 (linux) as in the below

{{{
# partition table of /dev/sda
unit: sectors

/dev/sda1 : start= 1, size= 409639, Id=ee
/dev/sda2 : start= 409640, size= 83886080, Id=af
/dev/sda3 : start= 84295720, size= 68953126, Id=83, bootable
/dev/sda4 : start=153248846, size= 3052609, Id=82
}}}

Now mount a usb drive if possible in case you made a mistake somewhere so that you can save recovery data.

'''Warning!!''': this next line can wipe out your partition table if you made a mistake. It might be a good time to look at the sfdisk manual if you aren't sure what this does. It may be possible to undue unspeakable damage with the hdd-partition-sectors.save file so long as you can access it, which you might not be able to do if you saved it to the disk you are editing rather than the recommended usb disk.

sfdisk /dev/sda -O /media/usbdisk/hdd-partition-sectors.save < sda.out

In case sfdisk does not work for you (complains about not being able to make the kernel reread the partition table because a partition is mounted, or mismatching start/end partition boundaries) you can alternatively use fdisk to change the partition type. Use "p" to list partitions, "t" to change partition type, and "w" to write the table back to disk.

Then you can install grub "aptitude install grub"

Once grub is installed you need to edit /etc/kernel-img.conf so that when you install a kernel image it doesn't also replace grub with lilo.

As per (zless /usr/share/doc/grub/README.Debian.gz) set to the following.
{{{
postinst_hook = /sbin/update-grub
postrm_hook = /sbin/update-grub
do_bootloader = no
}}}

== Cross-mount file systems ==
~-Translation(s): [[MacBook|English]] - [[MacBook/es|Español]] - [[fr/MacBook|Français]]-~

----
 . <<TableOfContents>>

= What is a MacBook =
[[WikiPedia:MacBook|MacBook]] is a series of laptop PCs sold by Apple Inc. There are several different models with different internal hardwares.

You can find the version of a MacBook in the "About this Mac" menu in OSX, or dmidecode output from Linux.

See [[InstallingDebianOn/Apple|the list of MacBooks]].

= Installation Overview =

 * Update OS X. It's always good to start from a clean, backed-up and up-to-date install of OS X.
 * Partitioning Disks.
 * Installing Debian.
 * Configuring a boot manager.
 * Post-install Debian configuration specific for MacBooks.

= Debian installation =

See also: [[InstallingDebianOn/Apple]]

== Single boot (Debian only) ==

<!> It is advisable to leave OS X installed, as the computer's firmware can only be updated from OS X.

This requires you to set up system with EFI bootloader. We should see this happen real soon for squeeze.

== Double boot - Mac OS X & Debian ==

=== Partition Disks ===

A clean install of Mac OS X will create three drive partitions:

 * EFI: a 200 MB partition at the beginning of the disk.
 * OS X: an HFS+ partition that includes OS X and user space.
 * Recovery HD: A 600 MB recovery partition that includes the OS X installer and basic utilities.

To run Debian, you will want two partitions: one for the Debian OS, and one for swap space for Debian. You will shrink the OS X partition, so decide how much space you want to give your OS X and Debian partitions. [[https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Installation_Guide/s2-diskpartrecommend-ppc.html#id4394007|See this table on deciding swap space size]].

If you would like a shared partition between OS X and Debian, consider creating a partition now. Also see the [[#Cross-mount_file_systems|''Cross-mount file systems'']] below.

Reboot your computer, holding down Command+R to enter Recovery Mode. In the File Menu, select Utilities > Disk Utility. Select the hard drive entry, and enter the Partition tab. Shrink the OS X partition (by default named "Macintosh HD") and create the Debian OS and Debian swap partitions.

<!> If you experience errors like "you can't perform this resize unless it has a booter" when attempting to resize the OS X partition, [[http://www.chanhvuong.com/2568/revert-mac-os-x-yosemite-core-storage-back-to-mac-os-extended-hfs/|change the volume from CoreStorage to HFS+]]

== Install Debian ==

'''Get an installer image:''' To install Debian, you will need an installer image to boot from, either on a CD, DVD, or USB stick.

Debian offers various installer images. The [[https://www.debian.org/CD/netinst/|network install]] is a minimal image containing few packages. Other other packages are downloaded as needed from the internet. This works well if you have a wired ethernet connection. As new Macs don't have an on-board ethernet port, an ethernet-to-thunderbolt adaptor will be required and will work during the Debian install process.

Get the amd64 image which works with Macbook 2007+ architecture. Mount the image onto a mountable physical volume (CD, DVD or USB stick). Here are [[http://www.ubuntu.com/download/desktop/create-a-usb-stick-on-mac-osx|instructions]] for mounting an ISO image onto a USB stick.

Insert the Debian install volume into your computer and hold down the Option key while booting. This will bring up the OS X Startup Manager. Select the Debian installation drive.

When asked, install Debian via the Graphical Install. The Expert Install provides more options, but are unnecessary for most users.

Follow along through the installation screens.

When asked to Partition Disks, configure Debian to use the partitions created previously. The Debian OS partition should mount as the system partition in the `/` location on the filesystem, and the swap space partition should be configured as well. ext4 is a good default for filesystem.

Also consider creating a partition for exchanging data between Linux and Mac OS X, see Section [[#Cross-mount_file_systems|''Cross-mount file systems'']] below.

In Software Selection screen, you should select a desktop environment, which will be the windowing, graphical user interface for interacting with the operating system.

Continue through the install until complete.

Debian installs GRUB, a boot manager and loader, on the hard drive's EFI partition. Debian also configures the computer's firmware to open the GRUB boot manager instead of entering directly into the Mac OS X boot loader.

== Boot Management ==

A boot manager, on computer start-up, lets the user decide which operating system to load. If you are planning on dual booting OS X and Debian, this is the easiest way to manage this process.

On installation, Debian sets GRUB as the default boot manager and boot loader. Turning on the computer will start GRUB, and start Debian. OS X can be booted by holding down the Option key at power on and entering OS X from Apple's Startup Manager. Some find this a usable way to control booting between OSes.

If you want a more user-friendly boot manager, [[http://www.rodsbooks.com/refind/|rEFInd]] is a boot manager which presents a screen to select which operating system to boot at power on. rEFInd works out-of-the-box after installation with OS X and Linux installs on the machine.

Other boot managers are available such as [[https://www.gnu.org/software/grub/GRUB|GRUB]] and [[http://lilo.alioth.debian.org/|LiLo]], which require configuration to boot OS X.

=== Installing rEFInd ===

If you will use rEFInd as rEFInd for boot management, disable the GRUB boot manager which Debian configured by [[https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT204063|resetting the computer's NVRAM]] (hold Command, Option, P and R when turning on the computer). The Linux kernel doesn't require a separate boot loader since version 3.3, so you can also remove the GRUB boot loader from the EFI partition.

To install rEFInd, download the latest stable version on [[https://sourceforge.net/projects/refind/|the SourceForge project page]] onto your Macintosh HD. Restart your computer in Recovery Mode (hold Command and R when booting), and open a Terminal. Navigate to the rEFInd folder, and run the bundled install script (Also see [[http://www.rodsbooks.com/refind/installing.html|Installing rEFInd]]). When you restart your computer, the rEFInd screen will come up, allowing you to boot into OS X or Debian.

'''[!!] Finish the installation:''' Remove the ejected installation CD and select {{{<Continue>}}}. During reboot select Linux from the Mac rEFIt menu.

== GRUB as bootloader ==

=== Installing lenny using GRUB ===

Lenny install CD can install GRUB as bootloader. Its dialogue can be misleading if you wish to install bootloader to MBR. You must create proper MBR/GPT hybrid. It can be done by:
 * {{{gptsync}}} command on Linux
 * menu from {{{rEFIt}}} boot loader

=== Switching from LILO to GRUB ===
If you wish to switch from lilo to GRUB:
 * First, please read and understand some basics at: [[http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch03.en.html#_stage_2_the_boot_loader|Debian Reference: 3.3. Stage 2: the boot loader]].
 * Second, make rescue media (a rescue CD) using [[DebianPkg:grub-rescue-pc]].
 * Consider installing [[DebianPkg:os-prober]] package to ease GRUB configuration.

The package to use is the [[DebianPkg:grub-pc]] package, which uses GRUB 2. (GRUB Legacy is no longer supported.)

= Boot Loader =
 ''See [[IntelMac/BootLoader]]''
The most delicate part of installing operating systems, other than drive partitioning (which can destroy data), is configuring the [[WikiPedia:boot loader]], which can render your system unbootable. Best practice has been changing with improved development of GRUB and supporting software.

Currently the best stable (lenny and squeeze) configuration is:
 * [[WikiPedia:chain loading]] by first loading rEFIt (in EFI), then using the BIOS version of GRUB 2 ([[DebianPkg:grub-pc]]).
This allows multi-booting to Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows, yields accelerated hardware, and does not require LILO to be run every time a kernel or init ramdisk change occurs. For squeeze installer, this is the default.

Example: If you install Debian on /dev/sda3, install grub on /dev/sda3 (instead of /dev/sda) and run gptsync in rEFIt on next reboot. You will find a Linux boot option in rEFIt menu and selecting Linux will load GRUB.

In future, but not in squeeze, it may be able to use:
 * a single stage boot, with the EFI version of GRUB 2 (BTS: DebianBug:grub-efi, [[DebianPkg:grub-efi]]).
This is supposed to be simpler to rEFIt + GRUB 2 (BIOS version), but it may lack 3D acceleration.

In the past, (etch?), pratice was:
 * chain loading by first loading rEFIt (in EFI), then using LILO.
This worked, but had the usual limitations of LILO (system wouldn’t boot if forgot to run lilo after kernel changes, etc.), and was necessary because GRUB Legacy does not support Macbooks.

Any OS can be selected as default if you use GRUB 2 in EFI, or rEFIt then the BIOS version of GRUB 2 (so long as Linux is the first non-Mac partition).

See [[IntelMac/BootLoader]] for further details.

= Cross-mount file systems =
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=== Mount Mac OS X filesystems (HFS+) under Linux ===

If you want to mount a Mac OS X-filesystem under Linux in read-write mode (not read-only) then you have to turn off journaling first under Mac OS X. If you leave journaling on, you can only mount in read-only mode and will not be able to write or modify files in the Mac OS X-filesystem. This is a trade-off, of course, because journaling gives you security that your Mac system lacks if you turn it off. It might thus be advisable to have one partition for the Mac operating system with journaling (which is the default) mounted from Linux read-only (if at all) and one partition with user data without journaling mounted from Linux read-write. See [[http://gentoo-wiki.com/HOWTO_hfsplus HOWTO hfsplus]] for more information about HFS+ under Linux.
== Mount Mac OS X filesystems (HFS+) under Linux ==
If you want to mount a Mac OS X-filesystem under Linux in read-write mode (not read-only) then you have to turn off journaling first under Mac OS X. If you leave journaling on, you can only mount in read-only mode and will not be able to write or modify files in the Mac OS X-filesystem. This is a trade-off, of course, because journaling gives you security that your Mac system lacks if you turn it off. It might thus be advisable to have one partition for the Mac operating system with journaling (which is the default) mounted from Linux read-only (if at all) and one partition with user data without journaling mounted from Linux read-write. See [[http://gentoo-wiki.com/HOWTO_hfsplus|HOWTO hfsplus]] for more information about HFS+ under Linux.
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(iii) As root (e.g. with {{{sudo}}}) use {{{diskutil}}} to turn off journaling
([http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=107248 Disabling journaling via diskutil]):
(iii) As root (e.g. with {{{sudo}}}) use {{{diskutil}}} to turn off journaling ([[http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=107248|Disabling journaling via diskutil]]):
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'''Step 2 - mount the Mac OS X-filesystem under Linux:'''
If `/dev/sda2` contains the HFS+-filesystem of the Mac OS X you want to mount, then run under Linux the following as root [[http://www.intuitive.com/blog/ubuntu_linux_yellowdog_linux_and_mac_os_x_all_on_one_powerbook.html Dave Taylor, 2005-05-14]].
'''Step 2 - mount the Mac OS X-filesystem under Linux:''' If {{{/dev/sda2}}} contains the HFS+-filesystem of the Mac OS X you want to mount, then run under Linux the following as root [[http://www.intuitive.com/blog/ubuntu_linux_yellowdog_linux_and_mac_os_x_all_on_one_powerbook.html|Dave Taylor, 2005-05-14]].
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 '''Verify:''' To check whether your mount was successfull, as root go into the directory {{{/media/macdata}}} and list the files, create a file, and remove it again. To check whether users have access, as root create a directory for that user in {{{/media/macdata}}}, change ownership to that user, change into that directory, su to that user and perform the same test actions as before (list, create and delete a file).
 . '''Verify:''' To check whether your mount was successfull, as root go into the directory {{{/media/macdata}}} and list the files, create a file, and remove it again. To check whether users have access, as root create a directory for that user in {{{/media/macdata}}}, change ownership to that user, change into that directory, su to that user and perform the same test actions as before (list, create and delete a file).
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'''Verify:''' To check whether automount should work, unmount the partition (if it is still mounted from Step 2), and remount it with the {{{-a}}} option.
 . '''Verify:''' To check whether automount should work, unmount the partition (if it is still mounted from Step 2), and remount it with the {{{-a}}} option.
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'''TROUBLESHOOTING (cannot write on HFS+ filesystem anymore):''' If you cannot write on the HFS+ filesystem anymore, boot into Mac OS X and perform a filesystem check, maybe that helps [[http://www.tgunkel.de/it/hardware/doc/ibook_g4_linux.en Linux on an Apple iBook G4]].

=== Mount Linux filesystems (ext3) under Mac OS X ===

To mount Linux filesystems (ext3) under Mac OS X the only open source option seems to be to use ext2fsx [[http://sourceforge.net/projects/ext2fsx/ Mac OS X Ext2 Filesystem at SourceForge]]. You have to use the newest version (1.4d4 as of 2007-09-02), which is not stable yet. Version 1.3 does not work for recent Mac OS X versions.


== Hardware configuration ==

=== Devices that work ===
The following features work
'''TROUBLESHOOTING (cannot write on HFS+ filesystem anymore):''' If you cannot write on the HFS+ filesystem anymore, boot into Mac OS X and perform a filesystem check, maybe that helps [[http://www.tgunkel.de/it/hardware/doc/ibook_g4_linux.en|Linux on an Apple iBook G4]].

== Mount Linux filesystems (ext3) under Mac OS X ==
To mount Linux filesystems (ext3) under Mac OS X the best open source option is to use [[http://code.google.com/p/macfuse/|MacFUSE]] and [[http://fuse-ext2.sourceforge.net/|Fuse ext2]]. Once installed, ''reboot'' and execute:

{{{
$ cd /Volumes
$ mkdir Linux_Home
$ sudo fuse-ext2 /dev/disk0s5 Linux_Home/
}}}

You should now see your partition in the finder.

= Hardware configuration =
== De
vices that work ==

The following features work for lenny
(kernel 2.6.26):
Line 281: Line 191:
 * Video (requires installation of 915resolution)  * Video (as of 2.6.26 works out of the box)
Line 286: Line 196:

(See below for more)

=== Devices to be confirmed ===

 * suspend (works, unload module sky2 before suspending; tested with kernel 2.6.20)

s2ram -f -p -m works (for some values of "work") with original macbook (sys_product = "MacBook1,1" sys_version = "1.0" bios_version = "MB11.88Z.0061.B03.0610121324") kernel 2.6.21.3 and mactel patches rev 126. Resumes with backlight off but can turn back on with pommed (usually...).

=== Backlight + Volume + CD Eject button ===

Backlight keys (Fn+F1 and Fn+F2) work using [http://www.technologeek.org Julien Blache's] [http://packages.debian.org/pommed pommed] (there is a new project homepage at [http://alioth.debian.org/projects/pommed/ alioth]); you can even turn off the backlight using the keyboard; pommed also enables the CD Eject button's functionality, Fn behaviour and remote control. Besides, you can also install [http://packages.debian.org/gpomme gpomme]: a GTK+ client suitable for all environments (you should start it when your session starts) and [http://packages.debian.org/wmpomme wmpomme] (a WindowMaker dockapp)

To install pommed you need to update your /etc/apt/sources.list file with the correct repository, check where pommed is currently available and add it. Then run apt-get update, and then apt-get install pommed. If you use the latest version 1.3, you might get a warning that you might cause harm to your machine, if you get that, use the previous version instead to see if you get the same warning.
 * Suspend (works out of the box in 2.6.26)
 * Video (works out of the box in 2.6.26)
 * USB usual EHCI, UHCI stuff

In addition to these, the following features work for lenny with kernel from [[http://backports.org/dokuwiki/doku.php|backports.org]] (kernel 2.6.30):
 * Free wireless driver for atheros (works out of box in 2.6.30)

== Wireless ==

MacBooks include a wireless card, which varies from model to model. Identify your network card and install the firmware packages needed for the operating system to use it. See [[MacBook/Wireless]].

== Backlight + Volume + CD Eject button ==

Backlight keys (Fn+F1 and Fn+F2) work using [[http://www.technologeek.org|Julien Blache's]] [[DebianPkg:pommed|pommed]] (there is a new project homepage at [[http://alioth.debian.org/projects/pommed/|alioth]]); you can even turn off the backlight using the keyboard; pommed also enables the CD Eject button's functionality, Fn behaviour and remote control. Besides, you can also install [[DebianPkg:gpomme|gpomme]]: a GTK+ client suitable for all environments (you should start it when your session starts) and [[DebianPkg:wmpomme|wmpomme]] (a WindowMaker dockapp)
Line 303: Line 213:
To enable the sound keys (Fn+F3, Fn+F4 and Fn+F5), you have to modify /etc/pommed.conf : change init = -1 to init = 80 and (at least on Macbook 2) change volume = "PCM" to volume = "Front" and after that restart pommed with /etc/init.d/pommed restart.

=== Video ===

After installation of Debian, there will be only very few screen resolutions available, e.g. only 1024x768, 800x600, and 640x480 (1024x768 is the biggest normal size that fits the screen). The resolution of the screen of a MacBook (Intel 915, video chipset 945GM) is 1280x800 and rescaling the 1024x768 display to 1280x800 results in a fuzzy and distorted picture.

To get support for the 1280x800 resolution you have to install the [http://packages.debian.org/915resolution 915resolution] package.

'''Step 1 - install 915resolution''': As root run

{{{
root# aptitude install 915resolution
}}}

915resolution should automatically set the correct video mode for 1280x800 (if not, select it by hand) and configure X properly.

'''Step 2 - restart X:''' Press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to restart X. If that does not work, reboot the computer.

'''Step 3:''' For highres video playback something like the following is needed in the Device section:
Backlight also works using frankie's [[http://hackweb.altervista.org/forum/index.php?topic=7.0|backlight]], that can be controlled with [[http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=215801|macbook-backlight-control]].

To enable the sound keys (Fn+F3, Fn+F4 and Fn+F5), you have to modify /etc/pommed.conf : change init = -1 to init = 80 and (at least on Macbook 2) change volume = "PCM" to volume = "Front" and after that restart pommed with /etc/init.d/pommed restart. (Are you sure? I've set it to PCM. If so please explain why)

== Video ==

Video now works automatically withour manually installing {{{915resolution}}}.

=== Configure highres video playback ===

For highres video playback something like the following is needed in the Device section:
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See also an [http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?thread_id=20229481&forum_id=47881 xorg.conf file] which enables use of an external monitor.

Note when using an external display: unless the display resolution is in the small builtin supported list (it won't be if it's widescreen or highres) then you'll need to use 915resolution to set a mode for the external display too.
=== External monitor ===

Note when using an external display: unless the display resolution is in the small builtin supported list (it won't be if it's widescreen or highres) then you may need to use 915resolution to set a mode for the external display.
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=== Dual Screen (for sid user) ===
Can not use Dual screen with xorg of sid (2007/07/20) and old xorg.conf on Macbook.
If you use dual screen on xorg 7.2, xorg doesn't start.
{{{
(II) intel(0): Kernel reported 104960 total, 1 used
(II) intel(0): I830CheckAvailableMemory: 419836 kB available
(==) intel(0): VideoRam: 262144 KB
(II) intel(0): Attempting memory allocation with tiled buffers and
               large DRI memory manager reservation:
(WW) intel(0): xf86AllocateGARTMemory: allocation of 10 pages failed
        (Cannot allocate memory)
(II) intel(1): Allocating 0 scanlines for pixmap cache

Backtrace:
0: X(xf86SigHandler+0x81) [0x80c8591]
1: [0xb7faa420]
2: /usr/lib/xorg/modules/drivers//i810_drv.so [0xb7bf8ec0]
3: /usr/lib/xorg/modules/drivers//i810_drv.so [0xb7bf9e6e]
4: /usr/lib/xorg/modules/drivers//i810_drv.so(i830_allocate_2d_memory+0x131) [0xb7bfa161]
5: /usr/lib/xorg/modules/drivers//i810_drv.so [0xb7bf5f2e]
6: X(AddScreen+0x1ee) [0x80764be]
7: X(InitOutput+0x21e) [0x80a7b6e]
8: X(main+0x27b) [0x8076c6b]
9: /lib/i686/cmov/libc.so.6(__libc_start_main+0xdc) [0xb7dc3ebc]
10: X(FontFileCompleteXLFD+0x1e5) [0x80761a1]

Fatal server error:
Caught signal 11. Server aborting
}}}
I write new xorg.conf and how to setting method below.

New xorg.conf
{{{
Section "Files"
 FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/misc"
 FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc"
 FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/cyrillic"
 FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/cyrillic"
 FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi/:unscaled"
 FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi/:unscaled"
 FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi/:unscaled"
 FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/:unscaled"
 FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/Type1"
 FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Type1"
 FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi"
 FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi"
 FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi"
 FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi"
 # path to defoma fonts
 FontPath "/var/lib/defoma/x-ttcidfont-conf.d/dirs/TrueType"
EndSection

Section "Module"
 Load "i2c"
 Load "bitmap"
 Load "ddc"
 Load "dri"
 Load "extmod"
 Load "freetype"
 Load "glx"
 Load "int10"
 Load "type1"
# Load "vbe"
EndSection

Section "Extensions"
# Option "Composite"
 Option "Composite" "Enable"
# Option "RENDER" "Enable"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
 Driver "kbd"
 Option "CoreKeyboard"
 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
 Option "XkbModel" "pc106"
 Option "XkbLayout" "us"
 Option "XkbOptions" "ctrl:nocaps"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
        Identifier "Configured Mouse"
        Driver "mouse"
        Option "CorePointer"
        Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
        Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
        Option "Emulate3Buttons" "true"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Synaptics Touchpad"
Driver "synaptics"
Option "SendCoreEvents" "true"
Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"
Option "Protocol" "auto-dev"
Option "SHMConfig" "true"
Option "LeftEdge" "100"
Option "RightEdge" "1120"
Option "TopEdge" "50"
Option "BottomEdge" "310"
Option "FingerLow" "25"
Option "FingerHigh" "30"
Option "VertScrollDelta" "20"
Option "HorizScrollDelta" "50"
Option "MinSpeed" "0.79"
Option "MaxSpeed" "0.88"
Option "AccelFactor" "0.0015"
# Option "HorizScrollDelta" "0"
EndSection

Section "Device"
 Identifier "Intel Corporation Mobile 945GM/GMS/940GML Express Integrated Graphics Controller"
 Driver "i810"
 BusID "PCI:0:2:0"
 Option "XAANoOffscreenPixmaps" "true"
EndSection

Section "Monitor"
 Identifier "Generic Monitor"
 Option "DPMS"
EndSection

Section "Screen"
 Identifier "screen0"
 Device "Intel Corporation Mobile 945GM/GMS/940GML Express Integrated Graphics Controller"
 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
 DefaultDepth 24
 SubSection "Display"
  Depth 16
  Virtual 2560 1600
 EndSubSection
 SubSection "Display"
  Depth 24
  Virtual 2560 1600
 EndSubSection
EndSection

Section "ServerLayout"
 Identifier "Default Layout"
 Screen "screen0"
 InputDevice "Generic Keyboard"
 InputDevice "Synaptics Touchpad"
 InputDevice "Configured Mouse"
 Option "AIGLX" "true"
# Option "Xinerama" "on"
EndSection
}}}

Enable dual screen
You need a [[http://store.apple.com/1-800-MY-APPLE/WebObjects/AppleStore?productLearnMore=M9320G/A|mini-DVI/VGA adaptor]].

=== Configure dual screen ===

Dual screen configuration for etch does not work for xorg 7.2 and later on lenny. Just use the usual single-screen xorg.conf, and configure output later.

You can control X with xrandr.

LVDS is the liquid display, VGA is the external output. (see output of xrandr command)

To enable dual screen
Line 488: Line 252:
Disable dual screen or in one big command including handling of disabling unneeded output:

{{{
xrandr --output TMDS-1 --off --output LVDS --mode 1280x800 --crtc 1 --output VGA --mode 800x600 --right-of LVDS --crtc 0
}}}
You also need to set 'Virtual' the get the most out of you hardare, this is the overall space you have to work with in your screens. The intel driver supports a max of 2048x2048 before turning off DRI. I dont thik you can chnage this while X is running so xrandr won't be able to make use the extra space until x is restarted. If you have a wide screen already, I suggest setting up the macbook below the screen as you can then fit a 1920x1200 monitor.

{{{
Section "Screen"
        Identifier "Default Screen"
        SubSection "Display"
                Virtual 2048 2048
        EndSubSection
EndSection
}}}
To disable dual screen, simply specify VGA to off
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=== Sound ===

ALSA driver snd_hda_intel works for playback as of 2.6.18-rc1.

MacBook with Debian 4.0 Etch has no problem with sound.
Although, you may need to run alsaconf as root.

If you hear any distortions even when all of the mixer settings are at least 20% below their maximum, it might help to load snd-hda-intel with the 'position_fix=1' option. In the file /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base, change the line
{{{
install snd-hda-intel /sbin/modprobe --ignore-install snd-hda-intel $CMDLINE_OPTS && /lib/alsa/modprobe-post-install snd-hda-intel
}}}
to
{{{
install snd-hda-intel position_fix=1 /sbin/modprobe --ignore-install snd-hda-intel $CMDLINE_OPTS && /lib/alsa/modprobe-post-install snd-hda-intel
}}}

Note the microphone requires mactel patches and the following to activate:
{{{
amixer sset 'Input Source' Line; amixer sset 'Input Source' Mic; amixer sset Mux 20.00dB
}}}

The microphone did not worked on debian testing with kernel 2.6.21.
However I made it work by compiling alsa from subversion (as of 12/08/07) on kernel 2.6.21 without mactel patches.

=== Wireless ===

Add 'non-free' to your main Debian repository then update your packages list with

{{{
aptitude update
}}}

Install the madwifi kernel module source and the ability to compile it
{{{
aptitude install madwifi-source madwifi-tools module-assistant
}}}

Compile it
{{{
m-a prepare
m-a a-i madwifi
depmod -a
modprobe ath_pci
}}}

See [http://madwifi.org/wiki/UserDocs/Distro/Debian/MadWifi] for more details.

Note: the current stable madwifi debian package (0.9.2+r1842.20061207-2etch1) isn't compatible with the latest stable kernel versions (2.6.22.1) -- use {{{madwifi-source}}} from Debian testing.

Install wireless support
{{{
aptitude install wireless-tools
}}}

See [http://www.linuxcommand.org/man_pages/iwconfig8.html] for more details on iwconfig

To start wireless up on boot, add the following to /etc/network/interfaces (unless you intend to use network Manager, in which case you don't need this)
{{{
# Starts the Atheros / madwifi wireless on boot
auto ath0
iface ath0 inet dhcp
}}}

Restart networking.
{{{
/etc/init.d/networking restart
}}}

 '''Caveat:''' The airport card in the '''newest MacBook''' (PCI-ID 168c:0024) is working with a svn version from madwifi (with WPA support). This was added in branch madwifi-hal-0.9.30.13 which was then merged back into the trunk, as noted in http://madwifi.org/ticket/1001#comment:194
The quick and ugly way until 0.9.30.13 or later is available as .deb package:

{{{
svn checkout http://svn.madwifi.org/trunk madwifi-hal-0.9.30.13
cd madwifi-hal-0.9.30.13/
make
make install
}}}

or:

{{{
apt-get install wget
wget http://snapshots.madwifi.org/madwifi-hal-0.9.30.13-current.tar.gz
tar zxfv madwifi-hal-0.9.30.13-current.tar.gz
cd madwifi-hal-0.9.30.13/
make
make install
}}}

The 0.9.30.13 version seems buggy on macbook core 2 duo 2 Ghz (the driver stops working after a while).
Unfortunately, even the subversion version is buggy (as of 12/08/2007) :
{{{
$ dmesg | grep wifi | uniq -c | tail -n 1
    576 wifi0: rx FIFO overrun; resetting
}}}

=== Keyboard ===
=== Color Profile ===

You can use the '''Color Profile''' from '''Mac OS X'''. Copy '''*.icc''' from '''/Library/ColorSync/Profiles/Displays/'''.

Install [[http://packages.debian.org/xcalib|xcalib]] and '''enable''' the '''Color Profile''':
{{{
xcalib ColorProfile.icc
}}}

Alternatively, install [[http://packages.debian.org/argyll|argyll]] and '''enable''' the '''Color Profile''':
{{{
dispwin ColorProfile.icc
}}}

Xcalib has more flexible options to e.g. inverse screen or [[http://colorhacks.blogspot.com/2009/10/unexpected-xcalib-applications-1.html|setup night vision]], whereas dispwin supports xrandr so can calibrate secondary screen.

== Sound ==

{i} This is written under linux-image-2.6.26-1-amd64 @ version=2.6.26-2 as of 2008-080-17 for lenny.

It works out of box with ALSA after disabling '''mute'''.

In case you have trouble, reconfigure sound system with "{{{dpkg-reconfigure linux-sound-base}}}" to use ALSA. Then udev system picks snd_hda_intel and required modules with proper parameters at boot time.

## Does model=mbp3 needed now?
## Richard Shore: I still needed it. That's with Lenny-Stable (both i386 & amd64) on a late 2007 Macbook.
## Does alsaconf helps setup?
Please note '''Surround''' output is connected to '''speaker''' via '''headphone''' plug. Neither ''Center'' nor ''Front'' are connected. You need to customize mixer default to unmute '''Surround''' to hear sound and optionally maximize its volume for ease of use. (You can do this via alsamixer or gnome volume control. For gnome volume control, you need to customize it to get menu for surround enabled.)

=== For MacBook Aluminum (late 2008) ===
 * Open Terminal.
 * Run alsamixer (as root).
 * Set all up Master, PCM, Line-Out and switch from 2ch to 6ch.
 * Run '''alsactl store''' and enjoy.

== Keyboard ==
Line 601: Line 319:
==== X11 (X Window) ====
=== X11 (X Window) ===
Line 620: Line 337:
Line 623: Line 339:
Remark by some other author: Instead of "it" (Italian layout), you might want to choose your layout). Also, more important, I had to insert:
{{{
Section "InputDevice"
        ... ... ...
        Option "XkbVariant" "mac"
        ... ... ...
EndSection
}}}
 
Line 625: Line 351:
It is probably best to change the keyboard mappings discussed here centrally in {{{/etc/X11/xorg.conf}}}. However, it is also possible to change them in the Desktop Preferences. For Gnome click 'Desktop' -> 'Preferences' -> 'Keyboard'.  It is probably best to change the keyboard mappings discussed here centrally in {{{/etc/X11/xorg.conf}}}. However, it is also possible to change them in the Desktop Preferences. For Gnome click 'Desktop' -> 'Preferences' -> 'Keyboard'.
Line 631: Line 357:
When I did this I actually got obscure error messages. So this seems to be buggy and I would not recommend it also for this reason.

==== Consoles ====
When I did this I actually got obscure error messages. So this seems to be buggy and I would not recommend it also for this reason.

<!> For squeeze users, xorg has changed the way they handle the keyboard settings. There is a unified config file for xorg and console keyboard settings (xorg.conf keyboard entry will be ignored in most cases). Therefore, you should try to edit the file /etc/default/keyboard. For example, when using a french mac layout, the file should look like this:
{{{
XKBMODEL="pc105"
XKBLAYOUT="fr"
XKBVARIANT="mac"
XKBOPTIONS="lv3:rwin_switch"
}}}

More Over, level 3 switch might not work currently, due to bug DebianBug:531771. You can circumvent it by replacing /usr/share/X11/xkb/symbols/pc with this [[attachment:pc|file]] (be aware that an update of the xkb-data package might erase your changes, so having a backup might help).


=== Consoles ===
Line 640: Line 376:

Line 643: Line 377:
  ==== Fn-key behaviour ====

If you want to change the bahaviour of the Fn-keys look at /etc/pommed.conf after you've installed pommed. (Or look at the parameters of the hid kernel module.)

Has anyone made the ''fn'' key work? --> Yes, even on the newer MacBook(osamu). Apply the mactel-linux patch to the kernel and recompile it! The use of [http://packages.debian.org/pommed pommed] program as written above makes it work better. (I recompiled the current Debian version of 2.6.18 source with the mactel-linux patch [is that the Etch version of 2.6.18?]. This patch solves issues for fn-arrows and fn-Fn keys for the newer MacBooks while addressing few other issues.)

==== Other issues ====

To set up the correct keyboard mappings in the console do:

{{{
dpkg-reconfigure -p low console-data}}}
and select "Select keymap from the full list" and then select "pc / qwerty / British / Apple USB / Standard" (or whatever country you prefer).

=== Fn-key behaviour ===

If you want to change the bahaviour of the Fn-keys look at /etc/pommed.conf after you've installed pommed on lenny. (Or look at the parameters of the hid kernel module.)

Has anyone made the ''fn'' key work? --> Yes, on MacBook2,1(osamu) with current stable (lenny, 2.6.26). The use of [[DebianPkg:pommed|pommed]] program as written above makes it work better.

=== Other issues ===
Line 653: Line 392:
 * [http://www.webalice.it/zinosat/macbook/macbook_kb.jpg Italian keyboard]
 * [http://flickr.com/photos/brianwc/151797592/ U.S keyboard]

Alternatively you can work around this with xmodmap and xkbset. xkbset is useful for emulating mouse buttons with the keyboard.

* [[http://www.webalice.it/zinosat/macbook/macbook_kb.jpg|Italian keyboard]]
 * [[http://flickr.com/photos/brianwc/151797592/|U.S keyboard]]

Alternatively you can work around this with xmodmap and xkbset for missing keys and mouse clicks. xkbset is useful for emulating mouse buttons with the keyboard.
Line 661: Line 401:
xmodmap -e "keycode 108 = Pointer_Button3" # KP-ENTER
xmodmap -e "keycode 204 =
Pointer_Button2" # eject
xmodmap -e "keycode 108 = Pointer_Button3 Pointer_Button2" # KP-ENTER
Line 665: Line 404:

[http://bugs.debian.org/379789 #379789] has been filed to track down a problem with keymap

To work around issues of missing/unresponsive keys on the MacBook Japanese models, see MacBookJp for helpful scripts (Japanese page but scripts are in English. The real fix needs to happen in the kernel source drivers/usb/input.).

=== Synaptics Touchpad ===

If you want to use the Synaptics touchpad add these lines to /etc/modprobe.d/

{{{
install usbhid /sbin/modprobe appletouch; /sbin/modprobe --ignore-install usbhid $CMDLINE_OPTS
}}}

Then add {{{ appletouch }}} to /etc/initramfs-tools/modules and then run {{{ update-initramfs }}}

This is just a tip for configuring the synaptics touchpad. You have to install the synaptics driver for Xorg for enabling the touchpad.
On my configuration, I set one finger tap on the pad = right mouse click and two finger tap = middle mouse click, I have disabled the two finger scrolling and let the vertical right edge scrolling. Here is the mouse section of my xorg.conf :
DebianBug:379789 has been filed to track down a problem with keymap

{i} See below "Mouse 2nd and 3rd buttons" for mouse click emulation and fixing unresponseve Keypad equal in num lock mode.

To work around issues of missing/unresponsive keys on the MacBook Japanese models with older Linux kernel, see MacBookJp for helpful scripts (Japanese page but scripts are in English). This problem has been fixed in Debian kernel 2.6.24-1-amd64 for sid (as of Feb 4, 2008). If the patch is present the kernel outputs a message: "Fixing up MacBook JIS keyboard report descriptor".

== Synaptics Touchpad ==
The touchpad is made by [[WikiPedia:Synaptics]], and should work out of the box. However, you may wish to configure it in various ways, notably:
 * turning off “Tapping” (tap keypad to click)
 * allow right/middle button clicking via certain tapping or key combinations
 * other changes – deactivate when typing, allow scrolling, multi-finger tapping, etc.

The easiest way to configure the touchpad (in lenny) is using [[DebianPkg:gsynaptics]] (Note: plural!), which provides a GNOME interface to configuration. In squeeze, this is replaced by [[DebianPkg:gpointing-device-settings]].

Configuration can be found (once the package is installed) in the menu at:
 . System > Preferences > Touchpad

Using gsynaptics requires adding one line to {{{/etc/X11/xorg.conf}}} as follows. Add the line:
{{{
 Option "SHMConfig" "true"
}}}
to the {{{Synaptics Touchpad}}} section. For example, the following section works:
Line 685: Line 428:
  Identifier "Synaptics Touchpad"
  Driver "synaptics"
  Option "SendCoreEvents" "true"
  Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"
  Option "Protocol" "auto-dev"
  Option "SHMConfig" "true"
  Option "New AccelFactor" "0.03"
  Option "LeftEdge" "100"
  Option "RightEdge" "1120"
  Option "TopEdge" "50"
  Option "BottomEdge" "310"
  Option "FingerHigh" "30"
  Option "MinSpeed" "0.94"
  Option "MaxSpeed" "1"
  Option "AccelFactor" "0.0015"
  Option "FingerLow" "20"
  Option "HorizScrollDelta" "0"
  Option "MaxTapTime" "150"
  Option "TapButton1" "3"
  Option "TapButton3" "0"
  Option "VertEdgeScroll" "1"
  Option "HorizEdgeScroll" "1"
  Option "VertScrollDelta" "5"
  Option "VertTwoFingerScroll" "0"
  Option "HorizTwoFingerScroll" "0"
EndSection
}}}

Another possible setup here...

 * Left click with only the button, no tapping (as in OS X). Reduces accidental cursor jumping + clicking which can drive one nuts.
 * Tapping upper left corner = Middle click
 * Tapping upper right corner = Right click
 * Sliding across right edge of the touchpad = Scroll up and down
 Identifier "Synaptics Touchpad"
 Driver "synaptics"
 Option "SendCoreEvents" "true"
 Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
 Option "SHMConfig" "true"
EndSection
}}}

You should now be able to use the configuration dialog.

Remark by some other author: For me, this did not work. I had to insert one extra line, see below:
Line 722: Line 442:
        Identifier "Synaptics Touchpad"
        Driver "synaptics"
        Option "AlwaysCore"
       #Option "Device" "/dev/input/by-id/usb-Apple_Computer_Apple_Internal_Keyboard_._Trackpad-mouse"
        Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
        Option "Protocol" "auto-dev"
        Option "HorizScrollDelta" "0"
        Option "SHMConfig" "true"

        Option "TouchpaddOff" "0"

        # How fast the two-finger scrolling scrolls. The lower, the faster.
        Option "VertScrollDelta" "25"
        Option "HorizScrollDelta" "25"

        # Location of the touchpad edges, somewhat sane values
        # that I found by testing. Xmin=0, Xmax=1216, Ymin=0,Ymax=387
        Option "LeftEdge" "100"
        Option "RightEdge" "1116"
        Option "TopEdge" "50"
        Option "BottomEdge" "337"
        
        # Touch and "untouch" thresholds
        Option "FingerLow" "25"
        Option "FingerHigh" "50"
        
        # We DO NOT want palm triggering middle/right mouse
        # button events, so a tap has to be quite fast
        Option "MaxTapTime" "100"
        Option "MaxTapMove" "100"
        Option "MaxDoubleTapTime" "200"

        # Enable vertical (right) edge scrolling with one finger
        Option "VertEdgeScroll" "1"
        # Enable horizontal (bottom) edge scrolling with one finger
        Option "HorizEdgeScroll" "0"

        # Disable two finger scrolling, as we have the edge scrolling enabled already
        Option "VertTwoFingerScroll" "0"
        Option "HorizTwoFingerScroll" "0"

        # Left top corner of the touchpad shall be the middle mouse button
        # Bottom buttons tend to get triggered accidentally.
        Option "LTCornerButton" "2"

        # Right top corner of the touchpad shall be the right mouse button
        Option "RTCornerButton" "3"

        # Disable bottom corners
        Option "LBCornerButton" "0"
        Option "RBCornerButton" "0"

        # Fast taps
        Option "FastTaps" "0"

        # Disable tapping of the touchpad (excluding the corners, of course)
        ... ... ...
 Driver "synaptics"
        Option "CorePointer" "true"
 Option "SendCoreEvents" "true"
        ... ... ...
EndSection
}}}

SHMConfig is turned off because it is a security hole (a malicious user can track and control your pointer); see [[http://mjg59.livejournal.com/118588.html|mjg59: Why SHMConfig is off by default]]. Alternatives to using SHMConfig now exist (using xinput), but are not (to my knowledge) supported by a GNOME GUI.

Alternatively, you can manually configure the touchpad by editing {{{/etc/X11/xorg.conf}}} as described below. This is documented in the {{{synaptics(5)}}} man page, which is accessible by typing:
{{{
man 5 synaptics
}}}

For reference, see also:
 * [[https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SynapticsTouchpad|SynapticsTouchpad]] at Ubuntu wiki
 * [[http://www.thinkwiki.org/wiki/Synaptics_TouchPad_driver_for_X|Synaptics TouchPad driver for X]] at ThinkWiki (ThinkPad)
 * [[http://w1.894.telia.com/~u89404340/touchpad/|Synaptics TouchPad driver for XOrg/XFree86]] – driver homepage

=== Basic configuration ===

<!> Addition of "{{{Section "ServerLayout"}}}" to {{{/etc/X11/xorg.conf}}} is important to get "{{{SHMConfig}}}" enabled properly by enabling '''Synaptics Touchpad'''.

The following basic {{{/etc/X11/xorg.conf}}} will enable your touchpad in a sane mode under normal lenny. I mean no more accidental clicks by touching it but you can move pointer and scroll browser vertically.

{{{
# xorg.conf (X.Org X Window System server configuration file)

Section "ServerLayout"
    Identifier "Simple Layout"
    InputDevice "Generic Keyboard" "CoreKeyboard"
    InputDevice "Synaptics Touchpad" "CorePointer"
    InputDevice "Configured Mouse" "SendCoreEvents"
    Screen "Default Screen" 0 0
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
 Driver "kbd"
 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
 Option "XkbModel" "jp106"
 Option "XkbLayout" "jp"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
 Identifier "Synaptics Touchpad"
 Driver "synaptics"
 Option "SendCoreEvents" "true"
 Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
 Option "SHMConfig" "true"
 Option "MaxTapTime" "0"
 Option "HorizScrollDelta" "0"
 Option "VertScrollDelta" "30"
Line 781: Line 499:

        # Movement speed settings
        Option "MinSpeed" "0.2"
        Option "MaxSpeed" "0.6"
        Option "AccelFactor" "0.35"

        # Palm detection. Does not seem to work on Macbook
        Option "PalmDetect" "1"
        Option "PalmMinWidth" "10" #1-15
        Option "PalmMinZ" "200" #1-255

        # Various other variables
        Option "UpDownScrolling" "0"
        Option "LeftRightScrolling" "0"
EndSection
}}}



To find out about the synaptics options, type ''man synaptics'' in a terminal.

=== Processor ===

==== CPU frequency scaling ====

CPU frequency scaling is governed by SPEEDSTEP_CENTRINO kernel module.
EndSection

# In case you have USB mouse
Section "InputDevice"
 Identifier "Configured Mouse"
 Driver "mouse"
EndSection


Section "Device"
 Identifier "Configured Video Device"
EndSection

Section "Monitor"
 Identifier "Configured Monitor"
EndSection

Section "Screen"
 Identifier "Default Screen"
 Monitor "Configured Monitor"
EndSection
}}}

<!> Section "InputDevice" with "Generic Keyboard" should be adjusted to your original localized configuration of xorg.conf generated by "{{{sudo dpkg-reconfigure -phigh xserver-xorg}}}". This example is for Japanese system.

You can configure your touch pad by installing "{{{gsynaptics}}}" package or similar. Under GNOME, you can access it from "System" -> "Preferences" -> "Touchpad".

{i} If you insist to have "tap to click" feature enabled but wish to prevent accidental taps while you're typing, it is advisable to run syndaemon after starting X with something like following command:

{{{
 $ syndaemon -i 2 -t -d
}}}

As for missing mouse butons, see "Mouse 2nd and 3rd buttons". (I found relying on taps can get quite annoying. See below if you wish.)

=== Mouse 2nd and 3rd buttons ===

==== X level emulation for lenny ====

Left Apple key (keycode = 115, sometimes called left command key) may be used as replacements for mouse 2nd and 3rd buttons.
 * "Right click" by "Apple-key"
 * "Midle click" by "Shift-Apple-key"

This can be done by including following code in the {{{~/.xsessionrc}}} start up script of your home directory as:
{{{
/usr/local/bin/mousekeys &
}}}

and create startup script {{{/usr/local/bin/mousekeys}}} as:
{{{
# wait for some program, here gnome-panel
until ps -C gnome-panel >/dev/null; do sleep 1 ; done
# set xmodmap, DEL is Fn-Delete, BS is Delete
xmodmap - << EOF >/dev/null 2>/dev/null
keycode 115 = Pointer_Button3 Pointer_Button2
keycode 157 = KP_Equal
keycode 19 = 0 parenright 0 Scroll_Lock
keycode 215 = Print Sys_Req
keycode 216 = Insert
keycode 217 = Pause Break
EOF
}}}

This binds these keys to mouse keys and some missing keys. (You may execute these from X terminal emulators too.)

<!> Redifinition of "keycode 19" for normal "0" key is for Japanese keyboard. Please adjust these key redifinitions as you like.

For GNOME, enable mouse keys by keyboard from "System" -> "Preferences" -> "Keyboard" -> "Mouse Keys" -> "Allow to control the pointer using keyboard" : "check to enable".

Alternatively, you may use "{{{xkbset m}}}" command by installing the {{{xkbset}}} pacakage.

Alternatively, you can use Fn-F8(keycode = 215), Fn-F9(keycode = 216), and Fn-F10(keycode = 217) keys on system without keyboad light with:
{{{
xmodmap - << EOF
keycode 215 = Pointer_Button1
keycode 216 = Pointer_Button2
keycode 217 = Pointer_Button3
EOF
}}}

If you would like to use other keys, here's how to do it:

 * Start gnome-terminal
 * Run xev, it will display the X11 events it picks up
 * Locate the keycode of the key you want to use:
  * Press the key you want locate and locate the KeyPress event in gnome-terminal
  * Write down the {{{keycode}}} of the keyevent
 * Run {{{xmodmap -e "keycode 115 = Pointer_Button3 Pointer_Button2"}}} to update your keyboard map (for this login session only for test.)

Instead of using generic X startup code via {{{~/.xsessionrc}}}, you may set it up via GNOME specific startup method: "System" -> "Preferences" -> "Sessions" -> "Startup programs" -> "Add" -> ...

<!> It is not wise to use {{{~/.xsession}}} to add small X startup code since this requires you to create the full X startup code.

<!> "{{{sleep}}}" command in the startup script "{{{/usr/local/bin/mousekeys}}}" was needed to avoid running "{{{xmodmap}}}" command too early. Otherwise, I do not see "xmodmap -pke" reflecting changes. Somehow, mouse keys only were working and regular key redifinitions were not working.

==== Kernel level emulation ====

<!> This needs to be verified. (osamu, based on debian-jp ML) Under new X system of recent Ubuntu jaunty and Debian squeeze, this may be your only option.

Recent kernel comea with "DeviceDrivers - Macintosh device drivers - Support for mouse button 2+3 emulation" enabled: {{{CONFIG_MAC_EMUMOUSEBTN=y}}}

Following entries in {{{/etc/sysctl.conf}}} can enable Kernel level mouse button 2+3 emulation:

{{{
dev.mac_hid.mouse_button_emulation = 1
dev.mac_hid.mouse_button2_keycode = 116
dev.mac_hid.mouse_button3_keycode = 108
}}}

{i} You may run each of these lines as an argument to "{{{sysctl -w}}}", but without the spaces. Example {{{sysctl -w dev.mac_hid.mouse_button_emulation=1}}}

{i} Here, "keycode = 116" is "Super_R" (Right-Apple) and "keycode = 108" is "KP_Enter" on US keyboard.

{i} Alternatively, you may pick "keycode = 115" for "Super_L" (Left-Apple) and "keycode = 209" for "Hiragana_Katakana" on JPN keyboard.


=== Touchpad for the new 2008 unibody Macbook and Macbook Pro ===

Note: this infomation is too old. bcm5974 is already in to Linux kernel from 2.6.27.

The new unibody MacBook Pro requires a new touchpad driver to work. This is discussed over at Ubuntu (http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=840040). The driver bcm5974.ko is available here http://bitmath.org/code/bcm5974-dkms/. The snag is that there is no deb and installation is via the DKMS system (http://linux.dell.com/dkms/). But I managed it, so you almost certainly can.

First install git.
{{{
# aptitude install git-core
}}}
Then download the latest source for the bcm5974 driver and the usbhid module, which you also need.
{{{
$ git clone http://bitmath.org/git/bcm5974-dkms.git
 ...
$ git clone http://bitmath.org/git/usbhid-dkms.git
 ...
}}}
You'll need to download the dkms too. I used the ubuntu deb at http://linux.dell.com/dkms/
{{{
# dpkg -i dkms_2.0.20.4-0ubuntu1_all.deb
}}}
Then build a deb of the bcm5974 driver.

{{{
$ cd bcm5974-dkms/
}}}
Follow the instructions in the HACKING file, but not until the end.

{{{
$ make bump
}}}
You'll need debhelper and dpkg-dev installed to make the deb.

{{{
# dpkg-buildpackage
# cd ..
}}}

This makes the deb. Make the deb for the usbhid module.
{{{
$ cd usbhid-dkms/
$ make bump
$ dpkg-buildpackage
cd ..
}}}

Now you should have two packages which you can install. dpkg uses dkms to make the modules.

{{{
# dpkg -i bcm5974-dkms_1.1.1_all.deb usbhid-dkms_0.11.1_all.deb
# modprobe bcm5974
}}}
This should install and load the module. Now all you need is to edit xorg.conf.

xorg.conf:
{{{
Section "Module"
   Load "glx"
   Load "synaptics"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
   Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
   Driver "kbd"
   Option "CoreKeyboard"
   Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
   Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
   Option "XkbLayout" "gb"
   Option "XkbOptions" "lv3:rwin_switch,apple:badmap"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"

   Identifier "Synaptics Touchpad" Driver "synaptics"
   Option "SendCoreEvents" "true"
   Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
   Option "Protocol" "auto-dev"
   Option "SHMConfig" "true"
   Option "New AccelFactor" "0.03"
   Option "LeftEdge" "0"
   Option "RightEdge" "1280"
   Option "RightEdge" "1280"
   Option "TopEdge" "0"
   Option "BottomEdge" "800"
   Option "MinSpeed" "0.94"
   Option "MaxSpeed" "1"
   Option "AccelFactor" "0.0015"
#tapping

   Option "RTCornerButton" "2"
   Option "RBCornerButton" "3"
   Option "LTCornerButton" "2"
   Option "LBCornerButton" "3"
   Option "FingerHigh" "30"
   Option "FingerLow" "20"
   Option "MaxTapTime" "150"
   Option "FastTaps" "0"
   Option "TapButton1" "1"
   Option "TapButton2" "2"
   Option "TapButton3" "3"
#edge scroll

   Option "VertEdgeScroll" "0"
   Option "HorizEdgeScroll" "0"
   Option "VertScrollDelta" "5"
   Option "HorizScrollDelta" "0"
#two finger scroll

   Option "VertTwoFingerScroll" "1"
   Option "HorizTwoFingerScroll" "1"
EndSection

Section "Device"
   Identifier "Configured Video Device"
   Driver "nvidia"
EndSection

Section "Monitor"
   Identifier "Configured Monitor"
EndSection

Section "Screen"
   Identifier "Default Screen"
   Monitor "Configured Monitor"
EndSection

Section "ServerLayout"
   Identifier "Main Layout"
   Screen "Default Screen"
   InputDevice "Synaptics Touchpad"
   InputDevice "Generic Keyboard"
EndSection

}}}

This set up gives you tapping 1, 2, or 3 fingers for left, middle, and right clicks and two-finger scrolling.

== Processor ==

=== CPU frequency scaling ===

==== CPU frequency scaling in kernel (basics) ====

CPU frequency scaling is governed by SPEEDSTEP_CENTRINO kernel module. You should also enable the ''acpi_cpufreq'' module and one of its methods ''cpufreq_ondemand'' or ''cpufreq_conservative''.
Line 810: Line 762:
}}}

If that does not work, you can also use the ''acpi_cpufreq'' module:

{{{
Line 816: Line 763:
}}}


'''CPU frequency scaling in kernel'''
echo cpufreq_ondemand >> /etc/modules
}}}

Here, I chose the ''cpufreq_ondemand'' for responsiveness.

==== CPU frequency scaling in kernel (customization) ====

<!> For lenny, these do not seem to be needed anymore.
Line 830: Line 781:
 
Line 833: Line 783:
 
Line 839: Line 788:
 
Line 844: Line 792:
'''CPU frequency scaling in userspace'''

In case you want more complex CPU frequency scaling schemes, you can just load the module ''cpufreq_userspace'', set it as default (see above) install [http://packages.debian.org/powernowd powernowd] or [http://packages.debian.org/cpufreqd cpufreqd] package for CPU frequency scaling. There are several other daemons available, but those two work quite well.
==== CPU frequency scaling in userspace ====

In case you want more complex CPU frequency scaling schemes, you can just load the module ''cpufreq_userspace'', set it as default (see above) install [[DebianPkg:powernowd|powernowd]] or [[DebianPkg:cpufreqd|cpufreqd]] package for CPU frequency scaling. There are several other daemons available, but those two work quite well.
Line 850: Line 798:
==== CPU throttling ====
=== CPU throttling ===
Line 861: Line 808:
Line 871: Line 817:
}}}

==== Powertop ====

If you are serious about saving power, take a look at [http://www.linuxpowertop.org/powertop.php Powertop] program. It is a very good interactive program that gives suggestions on how to minimize CPU wakeups. I was able to drop wakeups from around 1500 to roughly 400 with the aid of this program.

=== infrared receiver ===
Use the usual HID device; kernel patch available as of 2006-07-17.

 * Sample userland utility implementation http://www.netfort.gr.jp/~dancer/diary/junk2006/20060712-usb-macbook-ir.c

If the {{{appleir}}} driver is also compiled as a module, change the line described in the keyboard section of this page to the following, so {{{appletouch}}} and {{{appleir}}} get loaded before usbhid:

{{{
install usbhid /sbin/modprobe appletouch; /sbin/modprobe appleir; /sbin/modprobe --ignore-install usbhid $CMDLINE_OPTS
}}}

Also add {{{appleir}}} to /etc/initramfs-tools/modules and re-run {{{update-initramfs}}}.

On debian testing with kernel 2.6.21 I couldn't make hiddev work.
However, I have succeeded to make the remote work like this :

1)I have downloaded this patch http://www.madingley.org/macmini/kernel/ir.patch and copied each piece of it into my kernel sources (most of it goes into appleir.c)

2)After that I have added "CONFIG_USB_APPLEIR=m" at the section "USB HID Boot Protocol drivers" in the .config file from the kernel source.

3)I have recompiled and installed the modules.

4)I have loaded the appleir module with "modprobe appleir" and added "appleir" to /etc/modules to have it loaded at boot.

5)I have installed lirc and lirc-x with apt-get

6)I have created /etc/lirc/lircd.conf with some infos found on the web :
{{{
# this config file was automatically generated
# using lirc-0.8.0(userspace) on Fri Oct 20 01:12:42 2006
#
# contributed by Michael Olson
#
# brand: APPLE_REMOTE
# model no. of remote control:
# devices being controlled by this remote: 1
#

  begin remote

    name APPLE_REMOTE
    bits 8
    eps 30
    aeps 100

    one 0 0
    zero 0 0
    gap 135863
    pre_data_bits 24
    pre_data 0x800100
    toggle_bit 0

    begin codes
     KEY_MENU 0x8B
     KEY_PP 0xA4
     KEY_N 0xA3
     KEY_P 0xA5
     KEY_VU 0x73
     KEY_VD 0x72
    end codes

 end remote
}}}
7)I have changed the following lines in /etc/lirc/hardware.conf :
{{{
# Run "lircd --driver=help" for a list of supported drivers.
DRIVER="dev/input"
# If DEVICE is set to /dev/lirc and devfs is in use /dev/lirc/0 will
# be
# automatically used instead
DEVICE="/dev/input/event1"
MODULES=""
# Default configuration files for your hardware if any
LIRCD_CONF="/etc/lirc/lircd.conf"
}}}
The tricky part is that /dev/input/event1 is not correct, so we have to generate the correct input event at each reboot.
I have installed "lsinput" and modified the startup script /etc/init.d/lirc, by adding the following lines just before ". /etc/lirc/hardware.conf" :
{{{
mac_input=$(lsinput 2>&1 | grep -B 5 "Mac mini" | head -n 1)
sed -i "s;DEVICE=\".*\";DEVICE=\"$mac_input\";" /etc/lirc/hardware.conf
}}}

Now everything should be fine.

8)To test if it works, write into ~/.lircrc :
{{{
  begin
    flags = startup_mode
    mode = irexec
  end

  begin irexec

    begin
     prog = irexec
     remote = APPLE_REMOTE
     button = KEY_N
     config = xmms
     repeat = 0
    end

  end irexec
}}}
and start irexec with "irexec -d".

9) Now if you press the "next" key on the remote it should open xmms (if you have it installed).

=== iSight ===

On old Macbooks iSight might work with the linux-uvc driver with patches.
It is installable with

{{{
# aptitude install linux-uvc-source linux-uvc-tools
}}}

Once the source and tools are installed, then:
{{{
# m-a prepare
# m-a a-i linux-uvc
# mount -t hfsplus /dev/sda2 /mnt/mac/
# macbook-isight-firmware-loader /mnt/mac/System/Library/Extensions/IOUSBFamily.kext/Contents/PlugIns/AppleUSBVideoSupport.kext/Contents/MacOS/AppleUSBVideoSupport
}}}
=== Powertop ===
If you are serious about saving power, take a look at [[http://www.linuxpowertop.org/powertop.php|Powertop]] program. It is a very good interactive program that gives suggestions on how to minimize CPU wakeups. I was able to drop wakeups from around 1500 to roughly 400 with the aid of this program.

With up-to-date lenny/sid, it's possible to drop to around 100 wakeups (with wifi and compiz).

== Infrared Receiver ==

Infrared receiver on MacBook is an HID device. For lenny,
 * lirc lirc_0.8.3-3_amd64.deb
 * lirc-modules-source lirc-modules-source_0.8.3-3_all.deb

Install them and follow their instruction.

== iSight ==

Although linux kernel supports the iSight device with linux-uvc driver, sometimes the iSight device on (older Tiger ?) MacBooks requires firmware binary blob to be loaded while it is intialized.

 * MacBook 1,1 (originally Tiger)
 * MacBook 2,1 (originally Tiger)

Here is the method to extract required firmware blob from MacOS Tiger partition. Please note MacOS Finder will not see these files.

Locate the firmware from MacOS X terminal console shell or Linux, and note the location, you will need this later:

{{{
# mkdir -p /MacOSX
# mount -t hfsplus /dev/sda2 /MacOSX
# ls /MacOSX/System/Library/Extensions/IOUSBFamily.kext/Contents/PlugIns/AppleUSBVideoSupport.kext/Contents/MacOS/AppleUSBVideoSupport
}}}
Note firmware driver from MacOS X '''10.6 (Snow Leopard)''' may not work with isight-firmware-tools.

Now we install the needed packages:

{{{
# aptitude install module-assistant linux-uvc-source isight-firmware-tools
}}}
When installing isight-firmware-tools, debconf asks about the path to the firmware. Specify the location you have found above. For squeeze, neither module-assistant nor linux-uvc-source are needed since it uses linux-image-2.6.32-5.

Once the source and tools are installed, you should have /lib/firmware/isight.fw . If not, something went wrong installing isight-firmware-tools.

To try to extract the firmware again (only do this if you don't have /lib/firmware/isight.fw ) :

{{{
# dpkg-reconfigure -plow isight-firmware-tools
}}}
Keep repeating this until you get the /lib/firmware/isight.fw .

{{{
Line 1000: Line 867:
}}}

Test it with Ekiga.

{{{
# aptitude install ekiga libpt-plugins-v4l2
$ ekiga
}}}

If you are using a semi-recent Macbook, the linux-uvc drivers from the Debian repositories won't probably work - at least not with Debian Etch. Drivers from Testing or Unstable does also not work (backported linux-uvc-0.1.0.svn54 from SID). Luckily there are at least two patched versions of the linux-uvc drivers especially for the iSight. Finding them is not trivial unless you know where to look (svn rev.100 bundle: http://i-nz.net/projects/linux-kernel/). Probably the best way to find them is to go to [http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_name=mactel-linux-users Mactel-linux-users mailinglist archive] and search for "iSight". By following the threads you'll find the various patched linux-uvc drivers. Don't bother downloading any patches, as they are meant to be applied against specific old (svn) revisions of linux-uvc drivers and probably many chunks will be rejected. Go for the s.c. "bundles" which contain whole patched linux-uvc code.

The patched drivers are relatively easy to build and install: just do a "make && make install" and you're set. In case build fails, just do a

{{{
aptitude install apt-file
apt-file update
apt-file search name_of_the_missing_header_file
}}}

After this install the ''something-dev'' package that apt-file gave you, and try again, until the build and install ends without errors. Then do

{{{
modprobe -r uvcvideo
modprobe uvcvideo
}}}

Now you can test the driver with Ekiga, as shown above. Alternatively you can use mplayer to test the driver. First edit ''$HOME/.mplayer/config'' and add this line to it:

{{{
# Write your default config options here!
# $HOME/.mplayer/config
# Built-in iSight
# This works at least for a 9/2006 Core Duo Macbook
tv=driver=v4l2:input=1:width=320:height=240:device=/dev/video0:outfmt=uyvy:fps=24
}}}

Then launch mplayer for console:

{{{
mplayer tv://
}}}

If you see your face, iSight is probably working :). Attention! I only see a green video, nevertheless it works with ekiga!

'''NOTE:''' When you get your iSight working, ''copy the iSight firmware somewhere safe''. Mac OS X updates ''might'' contain new iSight firmware which could break the Linux iSight support. In this case you can revert back to the old, working firmware.
# /etc/init.d/hal restart
}}}
Test it with Cheese.

{{{
# aptitude install cheese
$ cheese
}}}
If you see your face, iSight is probably working :).

If it could not detect the iSight, '''shutdown''' and start Mac again ('''not by rebooting'''). Also check '''V4L''' related information.
Line 1048: Line 880:
   * http://linux-uvc.berlios.de
   * http://blogs.gnome.org/view/rbultje/2006/07/18/0
   * http://zaheer.merali.org/articles/2006/07/21/isight-linux-thank-you-ronald (with screencast!)
   * http://johannes.sipsolutions.net/MacBook/iSight
   * http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_name=mactel-linux-users
   * http://i-nz.net/projects/linux-kernel/ (Bundle SVN (rev.100 + isight.patch) + Howto)

=== Kernel patch and hardware tool resource ===

[http://www.mactel-linux.org/ Mactel-Linux] has mactel specific kernel patch and hardware tool resource. Its subversion archive can be seen at http://svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/mactel-linux by the browser or retrieved by:
  * http://linux-uvc.berlios.de
  * http://bersace03.free.fr/ift/
  * http://blogs.gnome.org/view/rbultje/2006/07/18/0
  * http://zaheer.merali.org/articles/2006/07/21/isight-linux-thank-you-ronald (with screencast!)
  * http://johannes.sipsolutions.net/MacBook/iSight
  * http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_name=mactel-linux-users
  * http://i-nz.net/projects/linux-kernel/ (Bundle SVN (rev.100 + isight.patch) + Howto)
  * http://www.rickycampbell.com/isight-intrepid/

== Support of SMC ==

[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Management_Controller|SMC]] means System Management Controller.

The gentoo wiki suggests loading the "applesmc" module, which works fine for me (albertl7). Among other things, t allows me to control the medium fan speed, which I increase because my Macbook gets so hot. I put this is rc.local:

{{{
echo "4000" > /sys/devices/platform/applesmc.768/fan1_min
}}}
The gentoo wiki has a different path, so it might be different on all the various Macbook computers. The higher fan speed makes more noise, but I'm comfortable with that.

There are a few packages available over the Internet to control the fan(s) speed depending on the temperature reported by the various hardware sensors, for instance [[https://github.com/MikaelStrom/macfanctld|macfanctld]]. Binaries (which may or may not work on Debian) can be downloaded from [[https://launchpad.net/~mactel-support/+archive/ppa]].

== Direct EFI Boot support ==

CONFIG_FB_IMAC support is for booting from ELILO (EFI). You are most probably using lilo/rEFIt to boot, using IMAC driver will make your screen appear scrambled. Use CONFIG_FB_I810 driver instead.

== CPU Core Temperature Sensor ==

[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model-specific_register|Model-specific register (MSR)]] can be used access CPU temperature sensor. You can use many standard applets to display temperature on lenny.

= See also =
* [[MacBook/Legacy]] – dated but still at times informative tips for older Debian and kernel versions

= Resources =

== Primary resources ==

[[http://www.mactel-linux.org/|Mactel-Linux]] has mactel specific kernel patch and hardware tool resource. Its subversion archive can be seen at http://svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/mactel-linux by the browser or retrieved by:
Line 1062: Line 923:
=== Kernel ===

CONFIG_FB_IMAC support is for booting from ELILO (EFI). You are most probably using lilo/rEFIt to boot, using IMAC driver will make your screen appear scrambled. Use CONFIG_FB_I810 driver instead.
Line 1068: Line 925:
=== Hardware Sensors ===

 - cpu temperature found through CPU MSR feature
tool available from: http://mactel-linux.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/mactel-linux/trunk/tools/temperature/

You need to load the msr module before using the coretemp tool : ''modprobe msr'', or put ''msr'' in /etc/modules to make the module load on every boot.

Download {{{Makefile}}} and {{{coretemp.c}}}.

{{{
$ make
$ sudo ./coretemp
CPU 0: 69 C
CPU 1: 69 C
}}}

 - hddtemp package provides support for hdd temperature monitoring

{{{
$ sudo hddtemp /dev/sda
/dev/sda: ST98823AS: 38°C
}}}

 - I2C sensor is detected but not sure if it's functional

Note: no sensors are detected below, just EEPROMs.

MacBook contains the 82801G (ICH7 Family) and [http://www.lm-sensors.org/wiki/SupportedDevices ICH7 is supported by lm_sensors since sensors 2.9.0] by the [http://www.lm-sensors.org/browser/lm-sensors/trunk/doc/busses/i2c-i801 i2c-i801 kernel driver] which has been in the kernel since 2.6.11.

{{{
# sensors-detect revision 1.413 (2006/01/19 20:28:00)

...
Probing for PCI bus adapters...
Use driver `i2c-i801' for device 00:1f.3: Intel ICH7
Probe succesfully concluded.

We will now try to load each adapter module in turn.
Module `i2c-i801' already loaded.
If you have undetectable or unsupported adapters, you can have them
scanned by manually loading the modules before running this script.

 To continue, we need module `i2c-dev' to be loaded.
 If it is built-in into your kernel, you can safely skip this.
 i2c-dev is not loaded. Do you want to load it now? (YES/no): yes
 Module loaded succesfully.

 We are now going to do the adapter probings. Some adapters may hang halfway
 through; we can't really help that. Also, some chips will be double detected;
 we choose the one with the highest confidence value in that case.
 If you found that the adapter hung after probing a certain address, you can
 specify that address to remain unprobed. That often
 includes address 0x69 (clock chip).

Next adapter: SMBus I801 adapter at efa0
Do you want to scan it? (YES/no/selectively):
Client found at address 0x08
Client found at address 0x38
Probing for `Philips Semiconductors SAA1064'... Failed!
Client found at address 0x3a
Probing for `Philips Semiconductors SAA1064'... Failed!
Client found at address 0x44
Probing for `Maxim MAX6633/MAX6634/MAX6635'... Failed!
Client found at address 0x50
Probing for `SPD EEPROM'... Success!
    (confidence 8, driver `eeprom')
Probing for `DDC monitor'... Failed!
Probing for `Maxim MAX6900'... Failed!
Client found at address 0x52
Probing for `SPD EEPROM'... Success!
    (confidence 8, driver `eeprom')
Client found at address 0x69


....

Driver `eeprom' (should be inserted):
  Detects correctly:
  * Bus `SMBus I801 adapter at efa0'
    Busdriver `i2c-i801', I2C address 0x50
    Chip `SPD EEPROM' (confidence: 8)
  * Bus `SMBus I801 adapter at efa0'
    Busdriver `i2c-i801', I2C address 0x52
    Chip `SPD EEPROM' (confidence: 8)


I will now generate the commands needed to load the I2C modules.

To make the sensors modules behave correctly, add these lines to
/etc/modules:

#----cut here----
# I2C adapter drivers
i2c-i801
# I2C chip drivers
eeprom
#----cut here----

# uname -a
Linux coreduo 2.6.18-rc1dancer #2 SMP Sun Jul 9 09:57:01 JST 2006 i686 GNU/Linux
}}}

== Old hardware issues ==
=== USB ===
usual EHCI, UHCI stuff

=== Gigabit Ethernet ===

Your kernel must have support for the ''Yukon Gigabit Ethernet'' driver known as '''sky2'''; this is available in Debian 4.0 Etch (or kernel 2.6.16 and above).

See [http://bugs.debian.org/378521 #378521]

=== Video ===
915resolution now works automatically;
the below (old) instructions show how to do it manually, but this is no longer necessary:

{{{
aptitude install 915resolution
915resolution -c 945 54 1280 800
}}}

then edit ''/etc/default/915resolution''
{{{
#
# 915resolution default
#
# find free modes by /usr/sbin/915resolution -l
# and set it to MODE
# e.g. use MODE=54
MODE=54
#
# and set resolutions for the mode.
# e.g. use XRESO=1024 and YRESO=768
XRESO=1280
YRESO=800
#
# We can also set the pixel mode.
# e.g. use BIT=32
# Please note that this is optional,
# you can also leave this value blank.
BIT=32
}}}

Adjust the ''Monitor'' section of ''/etc/X11/xorg.conf''
{{{
Section "Monitor"
        Identifier "Color LCD"
        Option "DPMS"
        HorizSync 28-64
        VertRefresh 43-60
        Modeline "1280x800@60" 83.91 1280 1312 1624 1656 800 816 824 841
EndSection
}}}

and make sure the ''Screen'' sections uses "1280x800" as default resolution in the ''Modes'' lines
and finally

{{{
/etc/init.d/915resolution start
}}}

== Resources ==
== Secondary resources ==
Line 1231: Line 928:
 * http://sharealike.org/index.php?p=258&more=1&c=1&tb=1&pb=1  * http://sharealike.org/index.php/2006/05/26/macbook-triple-boot-howto-with-debian-etch-and-xp-upgrade-version/
Line 1236: Line 933:
 * http://www.netfort.gr.jp/~dancer/diary/junk2006/debianmeetingresume200607-presentation-english.pdf for English-version presentation 
  see http://tokyodebian.alioth.debian.org/2006-07.html for Japanese instructions
 * http://www.netfort.gr.jp/~dancer/diary/junk2006/debianmeetingresume200607-presentation-english.pdf for English-version presentation
  . see http://tokyodebian.alioth.debian.org/2006-07.html for Japanese instructions
Line 1239: Line 936:
 * http://dentifrice.poivron.org/laptops/macbook/
Line 1244: Line 942:
 * [[http://lists.debian.org/debian-devel/2006/07/msg00008.html|Original thread in debian-devel ML]]
 * http://www.michaelvkim.net/?p=5
Line 1245: Line 946:
CategoryLaptop  . CategoryLaptopComputer
 . CategoryMacintoshComputer
----
CategoryDeveloper

Translation(s): English - ?Español - Français


What is a MacBook

MacBook is a series of laptop PCs sold by Apple Inc. There are several different models with different internal hardwares.

You can find the version of a MacBook in the "About this Mac" menu in OSX, or dmidecode output from Linux.

See the list of MacBooks.

Installation Overview

  • Update OS X. It's always good to start from a clean, backed-up and up-to-date install of OS X.
  • Partitioning Disks.
  • Installing Debian.
  • Configuring a boot manager.
  • Post-install Debian configuration specific for ?MacBooks.

Debian installation

See also: InstallingDebianOn/Apple

Single boot (Debian only)

<!> It is advisable to leave OS X installed, as the computer's firmware can only be updated from OS X.

This requires you to set up system with EFI bootloader. We should see this happen real soon for squeeze.

Double boot - Mac OS X & Debian

Partition Disks

A clean install of Mac OS X will create three drive partitions:

  • EFI: a 200 MB partition at the beginning of the disk.
  • OS X: an HFS+ partition that includes OS X and user space.
  • Recovery HD: A 600 MB recovery partition that includes the OS X installer and basic utilities.

To run Debian, you will want two partitions: one for the Debian OS, and one for swap space for Debian. You will shrink the OS X partition, so decide how much space you want to give your OS X and Debian partitions. See this table on deciding swap space size.

If you would like a shared partition between OS X and Debian, consider creating a partition now. Also see the ''Cross-mount file systems'' below.

Reboot your computer, holding down Command+R to enter Recovery Mode. In the File Menu, select Utilities > Disk Utility. Select the hard drive entry, and enter the Partition tab. Shrink the OS X partition (by default named "Macintosh HD") and create the Debian OS and Debian swap partitions.

<!> If you experience errors like "you can't perform this resize unless it has a booter" when attempting to resize the OS X partition, change the volume from CoreStorage to HFS+

Install Debian

Get an installer image: To install Debian, you will need an installer image to boot from, either on a CD, DVD, or USB stick.

Debian offers various installer images. The network install is a minimal image containing few packages. Other other packages are downloaded as needed from the internet. This works well if you have a wired ethernet connection. As new Macs don't have an on-board ethernet port, an ethernet-to-thunderbolt adaptor will be required and will work during the Debian install process.

Get the amd64 image which works with Macbook 2007+ architecture. Mount the image onto a mountable physical volume (CD, DVD or USB stick). Here are instructions for mounting an ISO image onto a USB stick.

Insert the Debian install volume into your computer and hold down the Option key while booting. This will bring up the OS X Startup Manager. Select the Debian installation drive.

When asked, install Debian via the Graphical Install. The Expert Install provides more options, but are unnecessary for most users.

Follow along through the installation screens.

When asked to Partition Disks, configure Debian to use the partitions created previously. The Debian OS partition should mount as the system partition in the / location on the filesystem, and the swap space partition should be configured as well. ext4 is a good default for filesystem.

Also consider creating a partition for exchanging data between Linux and Mac OS X, see Section ''Cross-mount file systems'' below.

In Software Selection screen, you should select a desktop environment, which will be the windowing, graphical user interface for interacting with the operating system.

Continue through the install until complete.

Debian installs GRUB, a boot manager and loader, on the hard drive's EFI partition. Debian also configures the computer's firmware to open the GRUB boot manager instead of entering directly into the Mac OS X boot loader.

Boot Management

A boot manager, on computer start-up, lets the user decide which operating system to load. If you are planning on dual booting OS X and Debian, this is the easiest way to manage this process.

On installation, Debian sets GRUB as the default boot manager and boot loader. Turning on the computer will start GRUB, and start Debian. OS X can be booted by holding down the Option key at power on and entering OS X from Apple's Startup Manager. Some find this a usable way to control booting between OSes.

If you want a more user-friendly boot manager, rEFInd is a boot manager which presents a screen to select which operating system to boot at power on. rEFInd works out-of-the-box after installation with OS X and Linux installs on the machine.

Other boot managers are available such as GRUB and LiLo, which require configuration to boot OS X.

Installing rEFInd

If you will use rEFInd as rEFInd for boot management, disable the GRUB boot manager which Debian configured by resetting the computer's NVRAM (hold Command, Option, P and R when turning on the computer). The Linux kernel doesn't require a separate boot loader since version 3.3, so you can also remove the GRUB boot loader from the EFI partition.

To install rEFInd, download the latest stable version on the SourceForge project page onto your Macintosh HD. Restart your computer in Recovery Mode (hold Command and R when booting), and open a Terminal. Navigate to the rEFInd folder, and run the bundled install script (Also see Installing rEFInd). When you restart your computer, the rEFInd screen will come up, allowing you to boot into OS X or Debian.

[!!] Finish the installation: Remove the ejected installation CD and select <Continue>. During reboot select Linux from the Mac rEFIt menu.

GRUB as bootloader

Installing lenny using GRUB

Lenny install CD can install GRUB as bootloader. Its dialogue can be misleading if you wish to install bootloader to MBR. You must create proper MBR/GPT hybrid. It can be done by:

  • gptsync command on Linux

  • menu from rEFIt boot loader

Switching from LILO to GRUB

If you wish to switch from lilo to GRUB:

The package to use is the grub-pc package, which uses GRUB 2. (GRUB Legacy is no longer supported.)

Boot Loader

The most delicate part of installing operating systems, other than drive partitioning (which can destroy data), is configuring the boot loader, which can render your system unbootable. Best practice has been changing with improved development of GRUB and supporting software.

Currently the best stable (lenny and squeeze) configuration is:

This allows multi-booting to Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows, yields accelerated hardware, and does not require LILO to be run every time a kernel or init ramdisk change occurs. For squeeze installer, this is the default.

Example: If you install Debian on /dev/sda3, install grub on /dev/sda3 (instead of /dev/sda) and run gptsync in rEFIt on next reboot. You will find a Linux boot option in rEFIt menu and selecting Linux will load GRUB.

In future, but not in squeeze, it may be able to use:

This is supposed to be simpler to rEFIt + GRUB 2 (BIOS version), but it may lack 3D acceleration.

In the past, (etch?), pratice was:

  • chain loading by first loading rEFIt (in EFI), then using LILO.

This worked, but had the usual limitations of LILO (system wouldn’t boot if forgot to run lilo after kernel changes, etc.), and was necessary because GRUB Legacy does not support Macbooks.

Any OS can be selected as default if you use GRUB 2 in EFI, or rEFIt then the BIOS version of GRUB 2 (so long as Linux is the first non-Mac partition).

See IntelMac/BootLoader for further details.

Cross-mount file systems

To make a double boot system really useful it is desirable to cross-mount file systems, i.e. to make Mac OS X-filesystems readable (and writable) under Linux and vice versa. Mac OS X uses a file system called HFS+ while Linux uses ext3.

Even though cross-mounting is possible in either direction, there seems to be some scepticism (and possibly bad experience?) concerning the reliability, so that the common advice seems to be to only use small partitions mounted under both operating systems and use them for data exchange. Mounting and using large partitions for regular usage under both operating systems seems to be not advisable. (Please let us know if you have experience with that.)

Mount Mac OS X filesystems (HFS+) under Linux

If you want to mount a Mac OS X-filesystem under Linux in read-write mode (not read-only) then you have to turn off journaling first under Mac OS X. If you leave journaling on, you can only mount in read-only mode and will not be able to write or modify files in the Mac OS X-filesystem. This is a trade-off, of course, because journaling gives you security that your Mac system lacks if you turn it off. It might thus be advisable to have one partition for the Mac operating system with journaling (which is the default) mounted from Linux read-only (if at all) and one partition with user data without journaling mounted from Linux read-write. See HOWTO hfsplus for more information about HFS+ under Linux.

Step 1 (if mounting read-write) - turn off journaling under Mac OS X: If you want to mount the Mac OS X-filesystem in read-write mode (not read-only) then you have to turn off journaling.

(i) Boot into Mac OS X.

(ii) Start a terminal.

(iii) As root (e.g. with sudo) use diskutil to turn off journaling (Disabling journaling via diskutil):

mac:user> sudo /usr/sbin/diskutil disableJournal /data

This assumes your partition is mounted to the directory /data. If you want to turn off journaling for your Mac operating system partition, use / instead.

(iv) Reboot into Linux.

Step 2 - mount the Mac OS X-filesystem under Linux: If /dev/sda2 contains the HFS+-filesystem of the Mac OS X you want to mount, then run under Linux the following as root Dave Taylor, 2005-05-14.

root# mkdir /media/macdata
root# mount -t hfsplus /dev/sda2 /media/macdata

This mounts /dev/sda2 on the directory /media/macdata (only read-only if the HFS+ partition is using journaling, which is the default when Mac OS X creates a HFS+ partition). Of course, you can also create and mount on a different directory.

  • Verify: To check whether your mount was successfull, as root go into the directory /media/macdata and list the files, create a file, and remove it again. To check whether users have access, as root create a directory for that user in /media/macdata, change ownership to that user, change into that directory, su to that user and perform the same test actions as before (list, create and delete a file).

Step 3 (optional) - edit fstab to auto-mount at boot time: If you want to mount the partition automatically at boot time, you have to add an entry like the following in the file /etc/fstab.

/dev/sda2   /media/macdata   hfsplus   defaults   0   2
  • Verify: To check whether automount should work, unmount the partition (if it is still mounted from Step 2), and remount it with the -a option.

    root# umount /media/macdata
    root# mount -a
    Then perform the same checks as in Step 2.

TROUBLESHOOTING (cannot write on HFS+ filesystem anymore): If you cannot write on the HFS+ filesystem anymore, boot into Mac OS X and perform a filesystem check, maybe that helps Linux on an Apple iBook G4.

Mount Linux filesystems (ext3) under Mac OS X

To mount Linux filesystems (ext3) under Mac OS X the best open source option is to use MacFUSE and Fuse ext2. Once installed, reboot and execute:

$ cd /Volumes
$ mkdir  Linux_Home
$ sudo fuse-ext2 /dev/disk0s5 Linux_Home/

You should now see your partition in the finder.

Hardware configuration

Devices that work

The following features work for lenny (kernel 2.6.26):

  • Ethernet (as of kernel 2.6.16) (works out-of-the-box) (sky2)
  • Video (as of 2.6.26 works out of the box)
  • Sound (as of kernel 2.6.18) (works out-of-the-box) (snd_hda_intel)
  • CD-R (works out-of-the-box)
  • backlight (works out-of-the-box)
  • bluetooth (works out-of-the-box)
  • Suspend (works out of the box in 2.6.26)
  • Video (works out of the box in 2.6.26)
  • USB usual EHCI, UHCI stuff

In addition to these, the following features work for lenny with kernel from backports.org (kernel 2.6.30):

  • Free wireless driver for atheros (works out of box in 2.6.30)

Wireless

?MacBooks include a wireless card, which varies from model to model. Identify your network card and install the firmware packages needed for the operating system to use it. See MacBook/Wireless.

Backlight + Volume + CD Eject button

Backlight keys (Fn+F1 and Fn+F2) work using Julien Blache's pommed (there is a new project homepage at alioth); you can even turn off the backlight using the keyboard; pommed also enables the CD Eject button's functionality, Fn behaviour and remote control. Besides, you can also install gpomme: a GTK+ client suitable for all environments (you should start it when your session starts) and wmpomme (a ?WindowMaker dockapp)

By default on Debian testing, the F1, F2 ... FX keys are disabled and act like Fn+F1, Fn+F2 ... To enable the keys and make use of Fn+FX, modify /etc/pommed.conf by changing fnmode = 1 to fnmode = 2 and restart pommed with /etc/init.d/pommed restart.

Backlight also works using frankie's backlight, that can be controlled with macbook-backlight-control.

To enable the sound keys (Fn+F3, Fn+F4 and Fn+F5), you have to modify /etc/pommed.conf : change init = -1 to init = 80 and (at least on Macbook 2) change volume = "PCM" to volume = "Front" and after that restart pommed with /etc/init.d/pommed restart. (Are you sure? I've set it to PCM. If so please explain why)

Video

Video now works automatically withour manually installing 915resolution.

Configure highres video playback

For highres video playback something like the following is needed in the Device section:

        Option          "LinearAlloc" "6144"
        Option          "CacheLines" "1080"

External monitor

Note when using an external display: unless the display resolution is in the small builtin supported list (it won't be if it's widescreen or highres) then you may need to use 915resolution to set a mode for the external display.

Note when using multiple displays: the order for ?MonitorLayout is "pipe a, pipe b" but this corresponds to "screen 1, screen 0", not "screen 0, screen 1" as you might expect (and isn't documented in the man page...)

You need a mini-DVI/VGA adaptor.

Configure dual screen

Dual screen configuration for etch does not work for xorg 7.2 and later on lenny. Just use the usual single-screen xorg.conf, and configure output later.

You can control X with xrandr.

LVDS is the liquid display, VGA is the external output. (see output of xrandr command)

To enable dual screen

xrandr --output VGA --mode 1024x768
xrandr --output VGA --right-of LVDS

or in one big command including handling of disabling unneeded output:

xrandr --output TMDS-1 --off  --output LVDS --mode 1280x800 --crtc 1 --output VGA --mode 800x600  --right-of LVDS --crtc 0

You also need to set 'Virtual' the get the most out of you hardare, this is the overall space you have to work with in your screens. The intel driver supports a max of 2048x2048 before turning off DRI. I dont thik you can chnage this while X is running so xrandr won't be able to make use the extra space until x is restarted. If you have a wide screen already, I suggest setting up the macbook below the screen as you can then fit a 1920x1200 monitor.

Section "Screen"
        Identifier      "Default Screen"
        SubSection      "Display"
                Virtual 2048 2048
        EndSubSection
EndSection

To disable dual screen, simply specify VGA to off

xrandr --output VGA --off

Color Profile

You can use the Color Profile from Mac OS X. Copy *.icc from /Library/ColorSync/Profiles/Displays/.

Install xcalib and enable the Color Profile:

xcalib ColorProfile.icc

Alternatively, install argyll and enable the Color Profile:

dispwin ColorProfile.icc

Xcalib has more flexible options to e.g. inverse screen or setup night vision, whereas dispwin supports xrandr so can calibrate secondary screen.

Sound

{i} This is written under linux-image-2.6.26-1-amd64 @ version=2.6.26-2 as of 2008-080-17 for lenny.

It works out of box with ALSA after disabling mute.

In case you have trouble, reconfigure sound system with "dpkg-reconfigure linux-sound-base" to use ALSA. Then udev system picks snd_hda_intel and required modules with proper parameters at boot time.

Please note Surround output is connected to speaker via headphone plug. Neither Center nor Front are connected. You need to customize mixer default to unmute Surround to hear sound and optionally maximize its volume for ease of use. (You can do this via alsamixer or gnome volume control. For gnome volume control, you need to customize it to get menu for surround enabled.)

For MacBook Aluminum (late 2008)

  • Open Terminal.
  • Run alsamixer (as root).
  • Set all up Master, PCM, Line-Out and switch from 2ch to 6ch.
  • Run alsactl store and enjoy.

Keyboard

After the standard installation of Debian Linux, what you type on the keyboard might not be what you see on the screen, and some characters, such as curly brackets, might not be available at all. This is due to an incorrect keyboard mapping. In particular you might want to add/change/configure the following:

Swapped keys: Even if you have chosen the correct general keyboard layout, e.g. German for a German keyboard, there may still be keys swapped, e.g. you press the '<' key and get a '^' and vice versa. This can be corrected with a global option.

Alt-Gr: Alt-Gr stands for 'alternate graphic' and is a modifier key, much like Shift or Ctrl, used to type special characters, typically the 'third symbol' on the lower right of a key. The Mac keyboard does not have such a key, so we want to configure the right Apple key as an Alt-Gr key.

Function keys: You may also want to configure the function keys.

The keyboard mappings are configured separately for the X11 (X Window) system and for the consoles.

X11 (X Window)

The recommended place to configure the keyboard mapping for X11 is the configuration file /etc/X11/xorg.conf, which has the advantage of effecting all users. Each user can also configure his/her keyboard individually in the (Gnome) Desktop Preferences.

/etc/X11/xorg.conf:

To set options for the keyboard you can use the XkbOptions field in the keyboard section of file /etc/X11/xorg.conf. To activate the right Apple key as an Alt-Gr key add "lv3:rwin_switch". To correct the swapped keys add "apple:badmap". To do both combine them with a separating comma, as shown below.

Section "InputDevice"
        Identifier      "Generic Keyboard"
        Driver          "kbd"
        Option          "CoreKeyboard"
        Option          "XkbRules"      "xorg"
        Option          "XkbModel"      "pc105"
        Option          "XkbLayout"     "it"
        Option          "XkbOptions"    "lv3:rwin_switch,apple:badmap"
EndSection

To activate the changes restart X11 by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace, but close all sensitive applications first.

Remark by some other author: Instead of "it" (Italian layout), you might want to choose your layout). Also, more important, I had to insert:

Section "InputDevice"
        ...             ...             ...
        Option          "XkbVariant"    "mac"
        ...             ...             ...
EndSection

Desktop Preferences:

It is probably best to change the keyboard mappings discussed here centrally in /etc/X11/xorg.conf. However, it is also possible to change them in the Desktop Preferences. For Gnome click 'Desktop' -> 'Preferences' -> 'Keyboard'.

For the basic keyboard definition go to 'Layouts'. As 'keyboard model' choose '?MacBook/MacBook Pro (Intl)' (although 'Generic 105-key (Intl) PC' seems to work fine as well). As 'selected layout' add and make default 'Germany' -> 'Macintosh' or 'Macintosh, eliminate dead keys' (although 'Germany Eliminate dead keys' seems to work fine as well).

For the configurations under discussion here go to 'Layout Options'. To configure the right Apple key as an Alt-Gr key select 'Third level choosers' -> 'Press Right Win-key to choose 3rd level.'. To correct the swapped keys select 'Miscellaneous compatibility options' -> 'Swap keycodes of two keys when Mac keyboards are misdetected by kernel.'.

When I did this I actually got obscure error messages. So this seems to be buggy and I would not recommend it also for this reason.

<!> For squeeze users, xorg has changed the way they handle the keyboard settings. There is a unified config file for xorg and console keyboard settings (xorg.conf keyboard entry will be ignored in most cases). Therefore, you should try to edit the file /etc/default/keyboard. For example, when using a french mac layout, the file should look like this:

XKBMODEL="pc105"
XKBLAYOUT="fr"
XKBVARIANT="mac"
XKBOPTIONS="lv3:rwin_switch"

More Over, level 3 switch might not work currently, due to bug 531771. You can circumvent it by replacing /usr/share/X11/xkb/symbols/pc with this file (be aware that an update of the xkb-data package might erase your changes, so having a backup might help).

Consoles

To configure the right Apple key as an Alt-Gr key for the consoles (the black and white screen you get with Ctrl-Alt-F1 etc.) add the following line to /etc/console-tools/remap.

s/keycode 126 =/keycode 126 = AltGr/;

Correcting swapped keys should also be possible, but I have not figured out how to do that yet.

To set up the correct keyboard mappings in the console do:

dpkg-reconfigure -p low console-data

and select "Select keymap from the full list" and then select "pc / qwerty / British / Apple USB / Standard" (or whatever country you prefer).

Fn-key behaviour

If you want to change the bahaviour of the Fn-keys look at /etc/pommed.conf after you've installed pommed on lenny. (Or look at the parameters of the hid kernel module.)

Has anyone made the fn key work? --> Yes, on ?MacBook2,1(osamu) with current stable (lenny, 2.6.26). The use of pommed program as written above makes it work better.

Other issues

Screenshots:

Alternatively you can work around this with xmodmap and xkbset for missing keys and mouse clicks. xkbset is useful for emulating mouse buttons with the keyboard.

xmodmap -e "keycode 115 = Alt_L"           # left-apple
xmodmap -e "keycode 116 = Zenkaku_Hankaku" # right-apple
xmodmap -e "keycode 108 = Pointer_Button3 Pointer_Button2" # KP-ENTER
xkbset m

379789 has been filed to track down a problem with keymap

{i} See below "Mouse 2nd and 3rd buttons" for mouse click emulation and fixing unresponseve Keypad equal in num lock mode.

To work around issues of missing/unresponsive keys on the MacBook Japanese models with older Linux kernel, see MacBookJp for helpful scripts (Japanese page but scripts are in English). This problem has been fixed in Debian kernel 2.6.24-1-amd64 for sid (as of Feb 4, 2008). If the patch is present the kernel outputs a message: "Fixing up MacBook JIS keyboard report descriptor".

Synaptics Touchpad

The touchpad is made by Synaptics, and should work out of the box. However, you may wish to configure it in various ways, notably:

  • turning off “Tapping” (tap keypad to click)
  • allow right/middle button clicking via certain tapping or key combinations
  • other changes – deactivate when typing, allow scrolling, multi-finger tapping, etc.

The easiest way to configure the touchpad (in lenny) is using gsynaptics (Note: plural!), which provides a GNOME interface to configuration. In squeeze, this is replaced by gpointing-device-settings.

Configuration can be found (once the package is installed) in the menu at:

  • System > Preferences > Touchpad

Using gsynaptics requires adding one line to /etc/X11/xorg.conf as follows. Add the line:

        Option          "SHMConfig"             "true"

to the Synaptics Touchpad section. For example, the following section works:

Section "InputDevice"
        Identifier      "Synaptics Touchpad"
        Driver          "synaptics"
        Option          "SendCoreEvents"        "true"
        Option          "Device"                "/dev/input/mice"
        Option          "SHMConfig"             "true"
EndSection

You should now be able to use the configuration dialog.

Remark by some other author: For me, this did not work. I had to insert one extra line, see below:

Section "InputDevice"
        ...             ...                     ...
        Driver          "synaptics"
        Option          "CorePointer"           "true"
        Option          "SendCoreEvents"        "true"
        ...             ...                     ...
EndSection

SHMConfig is turned off because it is a security hole (a malicious user can track and control your pointer); see mjg59: Why SHMConfig is off by default. Alternatives to using SHMConfig now exist (using xinput), but are not (to my knowledge) supported by a GNOME GUI.

Alternatively, you can manually configure the touchpad by editing /etc/X11/xorg.conf as described below. This is documented in the synaptics(5) man page, which is accessible by typing:

man 5 synaptics

For reference, see also:

Basic configuration

<!> Addition of "Section "ServerLayout"" to /etc/X11/xorg.conf is important to get "SHMConfig" enabled properly by enabling Synaptics Touchpad.

The following basic /etc/X11/xorg.conf will enable your touchpad in a sane mode under normal lenny. I mean no more accidental clicks by touching it but you can move pointer and scroll browser vertically.

# xorg.conf (X.Org X Window System server configuration file)

Section "ServerLayout"
    Identifier     "Simple Layout"
    InputDevice    "Generic Keyboard" "CoreKeyboard"
    InputDevice    "Synaptics Touchpad" "CorePointer"
    InputDevice    "Configured Mouse" "SendCoreEvents"
    Screen         "Default Screen" 0 0
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
        Identifier      "Generic Keyboard"
        Driver          "kbd"
        Option          "XkbRules"      "xorg"
        Option          "XkbModel"      "jp106"
        Option          "XkbLayout"     "jp"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
        Identifier      "Synaptics Touchpad"
        Driver          "synaptics"
        Option          "SendCoreEvents"        "true"
        Option          "Device"                "/dev/input/mice"
        Option          "SHMConfig"             "true"
        Option          "MaxTapTime"            "0"
        Option          "HorizScrollDelta"      "0"
        Option          "VertScrollDelta"       "30"
        Option          "TapButton1"            "0"
        Option          "TapButton2"            "0"
        Option          "TapButton3"            "0"
EndSection

# In case you have USB mouse
Section "InputDevice"
        Identifier      "Configured Mouse"
        Driver          "mouse"
EndSection


Section "Device"
        Identifier      "Configured Video Device"
EndSection

Section "Monitor"
        Identifier      "Configured Monitor"
EndSection

Section "Screen"
        Identifier      "Default Screen"
        Monitor         "Configured Monitor"
EndSection

<!> Section "?InputDevice" with "Generic Keyboard" should be adjusted to your original localized configuration of xorg.conf generated by "sudo dpkg-reconfigure -phigh xserver-xorg". This example is for Japanese system.

You can configure your touch pad by installing "gsynaptics" package or similar. Under GNOME, you can access it from "System" -> "Preferences" -> "Touchpad".

{i} If you insist to have "tap to click" feature enabled but wish to prevent accidental taps while you're typing, it is advisable to run syndaemon after starting X with something like following command:

 $ syndaemon -i 2 -t -d 

As for missing mouse butons, see "Mouse 2nd and 3rd buttons". (I found relying on taps can get quite annoying. See below if you wish.)

Mouse 2nd and 3rd buttons

X level emulation for lenny

Left Apple key (keycode = 115, sometimes called left command key) may be used as replacements for mouse 2nd and 3rd buttons.

  • "Right click" by "Apple-key"
  • "Midle click" by "Shift-Apple-key"

This can be done by including following code in the ~/.xsessionrc start up script of your home directory as:

/usr/local/bin/mousekeys &

and create startup script /usr/local/bin/mousekeys as:

# wait for some program, here gnome-panel
until ps -C gnome-panel >/dev/null; do sleep 1 ; done
# set xmodmap, DEL is Fn-Delete, BS is Delete
xmodmap - << EOF >/dev/null 2>/dev/null
keycode 115 = Pointer_Button3 Pointer_Button2
keycode 157 = KP_Equal
keycode  19 = 0 parenright 0 Scroll_Lock
keycode 215 = Print Sys_Req
keycode 216 = Insert
keycode 217 = Pause Break
EOF

This binds these keys to mouse keys and some missing keys. (You may execute these from X terminal emulators too.)

<!> Redifinition of "keycode 19" for normal "0" key is for Japanese keyboard. Please adjust these key redifinitions as you like.

For GNOME, enable mouse keys by keyboard from "System" -> "Preferences" -> "Keyboard" -> "Mouse Keys" -> "Allow to control the pointer using keyboard" : "check to enable".

Alternatively, you may use "xkbset m" command by installing the xkbset pacakage.

Alternatively, you can use Fn-F8(keycode = 215), Fn-F9(keycode = 216), and Fn-F10(keycode = 217) keys on system without keyboad light with:

xmodmap - << EOF
keycode 215 = Pointer_Button1
keycode 216 = Pointer_Button2
keycode 217 = Pointer_Button3
EOF

If you would like to use other keys, here's how to do it:

  • Start gnome-terminal
  • Run xev, it will display the X11 events it picks up
  • Locate the keycode of the key you want to use:
    • Press the key you want locate and locate the ?KeyPress event in gnome-terminal

    • Write down the keycode of the keyevent

  • Run xmodmap -e "keycode 115 = Pointer_Button3 Pointer_Button2" to update your keyboard map (for this login session only for test.)

Instead of using generic X startup code via ~/.xsessionrc, you may set it up via GNOME specific startup method: "System" -> "Preferences" -> "Sessions" -> "Startup programs" -> "Add" -> ...

<!> It is not wise to use ~/.xsession to add small X startup code since this requires you to create the full X startup code.

<!> "sleep" command in the startup script "/usr/local/bin/mousekeys" was needed to avoid running "xmodmap" command too early. Otherwise, I do not see "xmodmap -pke" reflecting changes. Somehow, mouse keys only were working and regular key redifinitions were not working.

Kernel level emulation

<!> This needs to be verified. (osamu, based on debian-jp ML) Under new X system of recent Ubuntu jaunty and Debian squeeze, this may be your only option.

Recent kernel comea with "?DeviceDrivers - Macintosh device drivers - Support for mouse button 2+3 emulation" enabled: CONFIG_MAC_EMUMOUSEBTN=y

Following entries in /etc/sysctl.conf can enable Kernel level mouse button 2+3 emulation:

dev.mac_hid.mouse_button_emulation = 1
dev.mac_hid.mouse_button2_keycode = 116
dev.mac_hid.mouse_button3_keycode = 108

{i} You may run each of these lines as an argument to "sysctl -w", but without the spaces. Example sysctl -w dev.mac_hid.mouse_button_emulation=1

{i} Here, "keycode = 116" is "Super_R" (Right-Apple) and "keycode = 108" is "KP_Enter" on US keyboard.

{i} Alternatively, you may pick "keycode = 115" for "Super_L" (Left-Apple) and "keycode = 209" for "Hiragana_Katakana" on JPN keyboard.

Touchpad for the new 2008 unibody Macbook and Macbook Pro

Note: this infomation is too old. bcm5974 is already in to Linux kernel from 2.6.27.

The new unibody MacBook Pro requires a new touchpad driver to work. This is discussed over at Ubuntu (http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=840040). The driver bcm5974.ko is available here http://bitmath.org/code/bcm5974-dkms/. The snag is that there is no deb and installation is via the DKMS system (http://linux.dell.com/dkms/). But I managed it, so you almost certainly can.

First install git.

# aptitude install git-core

Then download the latest source for the bcm5974 driver and the usbhid module, which you also need.

$ git clone http://bitmath.org/git/bcm5974-dkms.git
 ...
$ git clone http://bitmath.org/git/usbhid-dkms.git
 ...

You'll need to download the dkms too. I used the ubuntu deb at http://linux.dell.com/dkms/

# dpkg -i dkms_2.0.20.4-0ubuntu1_all.deb

Then build a deb of the bcm5974 driver.

$ cd bcm5974-dkms/

Follow the instructions in the HACKING file, but not until the end.

$ make bump

You'll need debhelper and dpkg-dev installed to make the deb.

# dpkg-buildpackage
# cd ..

This makes the deb. Make the deb for the usbhid module.

$ cd usbhid-dkms/
$ make bump
$ dpkg-buildpackage
cd ..

Now you should have two packages which you can install. dpkg uses dkms to make the modules.

# dpkg -i bcm5974-dkms_1.1.1_all.deb usbhid-dkms_0.11.1_all.deb
# modprobe bcm5974

This should install and load the module. Now all you need is to edit xorg.conf.

xorg.conf:

Section "Module"
   Load    "glx"
   Load    "synaptics"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
   Identifier      "Generic Keyboard"
   Driver          "kbd"
   Option          "CoreKeyboard"
   Option          "XkbRules"      "xorg"
   Option          "XkbModel"      "pc105"
   Option          "XkbLayout"     "gb"
   Option          "XkbOptions"    "lv3:rwin_switch,apple:badmap"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"

   Identifier      "Synaptics Touchpad" Driver  "synaptics"
   Option  "SendCoreEvents"        "true"
   Option  "Device"                "/dev/input/mice"
   Option  "Protocol"              "auto-dev"
   Option  "SHMConfig"             "true"
   Option  "New AccelFactor"       "0.03"
   Option  "LeftEdge"              "0"
   Option  "RightEdge"             "1280"
   Option  "RightEdge"             "1280"
   Option  "TopEdge"               "0"
   Option  "BottomEdge"            "800"
   Option  "MinSpeed"              "0.94"
   Option  "MaxSpeed"              "1"
   Option  "AccelFactor"           "0.0015"
#tapping

   Option  "RTCornerButton"        "2"
   Option  "RBCornerButton"        "3"
   Option  "LTCornerButton"        "2"
   Option  "LBCornerButton"        "3"
   Option  "FingerHigh"            "30"
   Option  "FingerLow"             "20"
   Option  "MaxTapTime"            "150"
   Option  "FastTaps"              "0"
   Option  "TapButton1"            "1"
   Option  "TapButton2"            "2"
   Option  "TapButton3"            "3"
#edge scroll

   Option  "VertEdgeScroll"        "0"
   Option  "HorizEdgeScroll"       "0"
   Option  "VertScrollDelta"       "5"
   Option  "HorizScrollDelta"      "0"
#two finger scroll

   Option  "VertTwoFingerScroll"   "1"
   Option  "HorizTwoFingerScroll"  "1"
EndSection

Section "Device"
   Identifier      "Configured Video Device"
   Driver "nvidia"
EndSection

Section "Monitor"
   Identifier      "Configured Monitor"
EndSection

Section "Screen"
   Identifier      "Default Screen"
   Monitor "Configured Monitor"
EndSection

Section "ServerLayout"
   Identifier "Main Layout"
   Screen "Default Screen"
   InputDevice "Synaptics Touchpad"
   InputDevice "Generic Keyboard"
EndSection

This set up gives you tapping 1, 2, or 3 fingers for left, middle, and right clicks and two-finger scrolling.

Processor

CPU frequency scaling

CPU frequency scaling in kernel (basics)

CPU frequency scaling is governed by SPEEDSTEP_CENTRINO kernel module. You should also enable the acpi_cpufreq module and one of its methods cpufreq_ondemand or cpufreq_conservative.

echo speedstep_centrino >> /etc/modules
echo acpi_cpufreq >> /etc/modules
echo cpufreq_ondemand >> /etc/modules

Here, I chose the cpufreq_ondemand for responsiveness.

CPU frequency scaling in kernel (customization)

<!> For lenny, these do not seem to be needed anymore.

To avoid unnecessary overhead you can let kernel scale the CPU frequency automatically. Just load module cpufreq_ondemand or cpufreq_conservative. The ondemand-module is perhaps better choice if you want the system to be as responsive as possible.

Next add this to /etc/rc.local or to another startup script:

# Switch on "ondemand" CPUfreq governor
# This is more reliable and faster than using userspace governor and
# a userspace program to control CPU frequency.
# You have to do this for each CPU.
echo ondemand > /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_governor
echo ondemand > /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu1/cpufreq/scaling_governor
# The "ondemand" governor in kernels prior to 2.6.22 something tend to
# have a bit high sampling rate, so we will modify it according to
# http://www.linuxpowertop.org/known.php
# This is not _required_, but reduces the amount of wake-up calls the
# processor makes each second
cat /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/ondemand/sampling_rate_max > /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/ondemand/sampling_rate
cat /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu1/cpufreq/ondemand/sampling_rate_max > /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu1/cpufreq/ondemand/sampling_rate

CPU frequency scaling in userspace

In case you want more complex CPU frequency scaling schemes, you can just load the module cpufreq_userspace, set it as default (see above) install powernowd or cpufreqd package for CPU frequency scaling. There are several other daemons available, but those two work quite well.

You can use gkfreq to monitor the CPU frequency in gkrellm (currently it only supports one processor but can be easily modified to support 2 cores - I have send a small patch to the maintainer) : http://www.peakunix.net/gkfreq/

CPU throttling

CPU throttling means forcing the processor(s) to idle for a certain amount of their time. When processor is not heavily loaded this saves battery but also slows the processor down. With 1st generation Macbook switching both cores to 50% throttling so that they are idle 50% of the time can give maybe 30-40 minutes of extra battery life. The Macbook is perfectly usable even both processors are running at 1Ghz (scaled down) and throttled to 50%. So in most cases, it's a good idea to use CPU throttling when using battery.

There are various ways to enable CPU throttling. It is probably easiest to use laptop-mode, and make sure that throttling is enabled in /etc/laptop-mode/laptop-mode.conf:

# Should laptop mode tools control the CPU throttling? This is only useful
# on processors that don't have frequency scaling.
# (Only works when you have /proc/acpi/processor/CPU*/throttling.)
CONTROL_CPU_THROTTLING=1
# Legal values are "maximum" for the maximum (slowest) throttling level,
# "minimum" for minimum (fastest) throttling level, "medium" for a value
# somewhere in the middle (this is usually 50% for P4s), or any value listed
# in /proc/acpi/processor/CPU*/throttling. Be careful when using "maximum":
# this may be _very_ slow (in fact, with P4s it slows down the processor
# by a factor 8).
BATT_CPU_THROTTLING=medium
LM_AC_CPU_THROTTLING=minimum
NOLM_AC_CPU_THROTTLING=minimum

Powertop

If you are serious about saving power, take a look at Powertop program. It is a very good interactive program that gives suggestions on how to minimize CPU wakeups. I was able to drop wakeups from around 1500 to roughly 400 with the aid of this program.

With up-to-date lenny/sid, it's possible to drop to around 100 wakeups (with wifi and compiz).

Infrared Receiver

Infrared receiver on MacBook is an HID device. For lenny,

  • lirc lirc_0.8.3-3_amd64.deb
  • lirc-modules-source lirc-modules-source_0.8.3-3_all.deb

Install them and follow their instruction.

iSight

Although linux kernel supports the iSight device with linux-uvc driver, sometimes the iSight device on (older Tiger ?) ?MacBooks requires firmware binary blob to be loaded while it is intialized.

  • MacBook 1,1 (originally Tiger)

  • MacBook 2,1 (originally Tiger)

Here is the method to extract required firmware blob from MacOS Tiger partition. Please note MacOS Finder will not see these files.

Locate the firmware from MacOS X terminal console shell or Linux, and note the location, you will need this later:

# mkdir -p /MacOSX
# mount -t hfsplus /dev/sda2 /MacOSX
# ls /MacOSX/System/Library/Extensions/IOUSBFamily.kext/Contents/PlugIns/AppleUSBVideoSupport.kext/Contents/MacOS/AppleUSBVideoSupport

Note firmware driver from MacOS X 10.6 (Snow Leopard) may not work with isight-firmware-tools.

Now we install the needed packages:

# aptitude install module-assistant linux-uvc-source isight-firmware-tools

When installing isight-firmware-tools, debconf asks about the path to the firmware. Specify the location you have found above. For squeeze, neither module-assistant nor linux-uvc-source are needed since it uses linux-image-2.6.32-5.

Once the source and tools are installed, you should have /lib/firmware/isight.fw . If not, something went wrong installing isight-firmware-tools.

To try to extract the firmware again (only do this if you don't have /lib/firmware/isight.fw ) :

# dpkg-reconfigure -plow isight-firmware-tools

Keep repeating this until you get the /lib/firmware/isight.fw .

# modprobe uvcvideo
# /etc/init.d/hal restart

Test it with Cheese.

# aptitude install cheese
$ cheese

If you see your face, iSight is probably working :).

If it could not detect the iSight, shutdown and start Mac again (not by rebooting). Also check V4L related information.

Support of SMC

SMC means System Management Controller.

The gentoo wiki suggests loading the "applesmc" module, which works fine for me (albertl7). Among other things, t allows me to control the medium fan speed, which I increase because my Macbook gets so hot. I put this is rc.local:

echo "4000" > /sys/devices/platform/applesmc.768/fan1_min

The gentoo wiki has a different path, so it might be different on all the various Macbook computers. The higher fan speed makes more noise, but I'm comfortable with that.

There are a few packages available over the Internet to control the fan(s) speed depending on the temperature reported by the various hardware sensors, for instance macfanctld. Binaries (which may or may not work on Debian) can be downloaded from https://launchpad.net/~mactel-support/+archive/ppa.

Direct EFI Boot support

CONFIG_FB_IMAC support is for booting from ELILO (EFI). You are most probably using lilo/rEFIt to boot, using IMAC driver will make your screen appear scrambled. Use CONFIG_FB_I810 driver instead.

CPU Core Temperature Sensor

Model-specific register (MSR) can be used access CPU temperature sensor. You can use many standard applets to display temperature on lenny.

See also

* MacBook/Legacy – dated but still at times informative tips for older Debian and kernel versions

Resources

Primary resources

Mactel-Linux has mactel specific kernel patch and hardware tool resource. Its subversion archive can be seen at http://svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/mactel-linux by the browser or retrieved by:

 $ svn co https://mactel-linux.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/mactel-linux mactel-linux

Helpful guide on compiling a mactel kernel: http://gentoo-wiki.com/HARDWARE_Apple_MacBook

Secondary resources



CategoryDeveloper