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<<TableOfContents(2)>>

== Keyboard configuration ==
<<TableOfContents(3)>>

== Basic keyboard configuration ==
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{{{#!wiki blue
# dpkg-reconfigure keyboard-configuration <<BR>>
# service keyboard-setup restart
{{{
# dpkg-reconfigure keyboard-configuration
# service keyboard-setup restart
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{{{#!wiki yellow
udevadm trigger --subsystem-match=input --action=change
{{{
 
# udevadm trigger --subsystem-match=input --action=change
Line 35: Line 35:
You can also edit {{{/etc/default/keyboard}}} manually, here's an example: == Modern keyboard configuration (input method) ==

The simple keyboard input mechanism realized by the above configuration can't support some languages, such as Chinese and Japanese, properly.

The installation of the input method framework package such as DebianPkg:ibus (or DebianPkg:fcitx5) together with associated packages enables to support all languages.

When any of the input method framework packages are installed and activated, the X Window based keyboard configuration settings are ignored.

For GNOME system (the default Debian Desktop environment), DebianPkg:ibus package is automatically installed and activated. The keyboard input needs to be configured from its GUI '''{{{Settings -> Keyboard}}}''' for basic configurations. For more complicated configuration such as swapping '''{{{CapsLock}}}''' and '''{{{Ctrl}}}''', you need to install DebianPkg:gnome-tweak and use it.

For non-GNOME system, the stand alone GUI configuration command '''{{{ibus-setup}}}''' can set up the input methods for DebianPkg:ibus. Under those desktop environments, menu entry of their keyboard configuration utility or pop-up menu entry offered by clicking the associated tray icon may start '''{{{ibus-setup}}}''' for you. For KDE, this menu is '''{{{System_settings -> Hardware -> Input_devices/keyboard}}}'''.

== Multi-language keyboard configuration strategy ==

People who wish to set up a single keyboard input environment for multiple (European) languages without the input method framework should consider following configuration strategy.

 * If the input method package is installed, deactivate it by executing '''{{{im-config -n none}}}'''.
 * Select the correct keyboard model. (US/ISO)
 * Select the desirable keyboard layout. E.g., English (US International AltGr Unicode combining,alternative)

People who wish to set up multiple dynamically-switchable keyboard input environments for multiple languages should consider following configuration strategy.

 * Install input method framework package such as DebianPkg:ibus
 * (optional) Install pertinent input method engine package such as DebianPkg:ibus-anthy
 * Activate desirable input engine by adding it from menu such as '''{{{Settings -> Keyboard --> Input Sources}}}'''.
 * Switch among input methods with by pressing '''{{{GUI-SPACE}}}'''.

Please note that the input method framework such as DebianPkg:ibus provides functionality to enter many Unicode characters for European languages without additional engine packages after the proper GUI based configuration.

== Keyboard configuration Tips ==

=== Manual configuration of keyboard ===

You can edit {{{/etc/default/keyboard}}} manually instead of running '''{{{dpkg-reconfigure keyboard-configuration}}}'''.

Here's an example:
Line 59: Line 94:
== Modern keyboard configuration (input method) ==

The simple keyboard input mechanism realized by the above configuration can't support some languages, such as Chinese and Japanese, properly.

The installation of the input method framework package such as DebianPkg:ibus (or DebianPkg:fcitx5) together with associated packages enables to support all languages.

When any of the input method framework packages are installed and activated, the X Window based keyboard configuration settings are ignored.

For GNOME system (the default Debian Desktop environment), DebianPkg:ibus package is automatically installed and activated. The keyboard input needs to be configured from its GUI '''{{{Settings -> Keyboard}}}''' for basic configurations. For more complicated configuration such as swapping '''{{{CapsLock}}}''' and '''{{{Ctrl}}}''', you need to install DebianPkg:gnome-tweak and use it.

For non-GNOME system, the stand alone GUI configuration command '''{{{ibus-setup}}}''' can set up the input methods for DebianPkg:ibus. Under those desktop environments, menu entry of their keyboard configuration utility or pop-up menu entry offered by clicking the associated tray icon may start '''{{{ibus-setup}}}''' for you. For KDE, this menu is '''{{{System_settings -> Hardware -> Input_devices/keyboard}}}'''.

== Multi-language keyboard configuration strategy ==

People who wish to set up a single keyboard input environment for multiple (European) languages without the input method framework should consider following configuration strategy.

 * If the input method package is installed, deactivate it by executing '''{{{im-config -n none}}}'''.
 * Select the correct keyboard model. (US/ISO)
 * Select the desirable keyboard layout. E.g., English (US International AltGr Unicode combining,alternative)

People who wish to set up multiple dynamically-switchable keyboard input environments for multiple languages should consider following configuration strategy.

 * Install input method framework package such as DebianPkg:ibus
 * (optional) Install pertinent input method engine package such as DebianPkg:ibus-anthy
 * Activate desirable input engine by adding it from menu such as '''{{{Settings -> Keyboard --> Input Sources}}}'''.
 * Switch among input methods with by pressing '''{{{GUI-SPACE}}}'''.

== How to set keyboard layout in initramfs ==
=== How to set keyboard layout in initramfs ===
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{{{#!wiki blue
# update-initramfs -u
}}}

== How to enable USB keyboard in initramfs ==
{{{
# update-initramfs -u
}}}

=== How to enable USB keyboard in initramfs ===
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{{{#!wiki blue
# update-initramfs -u
}}}

== How to switch a keyboard layout in X11 / graphical desktop environment or ttyX console ==

=== GNOME ===

The keyboard layout can be changed on '''{{{Settings -> Keyboard -> Input Sources}}}''' (or '''{{{Settings -> Region & Languages -> Input Sources}}}'''). One can also change it via CLI using dconf/gsettings by adding keys to '''{{{/org/gnome/desktop/input-sources/sources}}}'''.

For releases older than Stretch, these layouts include minority languages and dialects, as well as very specific configurations, and are hidden by default in the GUI.
{{{
 # update-initramfs -u
}}}

=== How to dynamically activate Linux console settings ===

In order to activate changed settings in {{{/etc/default/keyboard}}} without reboot, run [[DebianMan:1/setupcon|setupcon(1)]].

=== How to dynamically activate X Window settings ===

If the input method framework is not active, you can switch the keyboard layout of X Window system from the terminal, e. g.:
{{{
 $ setxkbmap de
 $ setxkbmap fr
 $ setxkbmap us
}}}

Of special interest for keyboard hardware with us layout might be the ''altgr-intl'' variant (this provides a simple !AltGr mapping for many umlauts and special symbols):
{{{
 $ setxkbmap -rules evdev -model evdev -layout us -variant altgr-intl
}}}
or
{{{
 $ setxkbmap -model pc105 -layout us -variant altgr-intl
}}}

To configure a simple key for toggling between multiple configured keyboard layouts, see Option !XkbOptions in Section !InputClass somewhere within the xorg config file collection (see [[https://forums.freebsd.org/threads/solved-setxkbmap-xinitrc.48412/#post-270733|[SOLVED] Setxkbmap .xinitrc]]).

=== How to dynamically manage GNOME input source settings ===

For GNOME, you can check the current input source setting from the command line using:
{{{
 $ gsettings get org.gnome.desktop.input-sources xkb-options
}}}

For GNOME, you can reset it from the command line, if necessary, using:
{{{
 $ gsettings reset org.gnome.desktop.input-sources xkb-options
}}}

For GNOME, you can create a custom keyboard shortcut to select a particular input source by assigning command to '''{{{Settings -> Keyboard -> Keyboard Shortcuts}}}'''. E.g. the following will select the first input source:

{{{
gdbus call --session --dest org.gnome.Shell --object-path /org/gnome/Shell --method org.gnome.Shell.Eval "imports.ui.status.keyboard.getInputSourceManager().inputSources[1].activate()"
}}}


== Troubleshooting ==

=== very old GNOME (currently not an issue@2022) ===

The keyboard layout was changed on '''{{{Settings -> Region & Languages -> Input Sources}}}'''). For releases older than Stretch (released @2020), these layouts include minority languages and dialects, as well as very specific configurations, and were hidden by default in the GUI for Stretch (during its testng?).

One can set it via CLI using dconf/gsettings by adding keys to '''{{{/org/gnome/desktop/input-sources/sources}}}'''.
Line 146: Line 197:
{{{#!wiki yellow
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.input-sources show-all-sources true
{{{
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.input-sources show-all-sources true
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=== KDE ===

KDE does this via System_settings/Hardware/Input_devices/keyboard - Most people doing dual languages will simply select the correct keyboard model and then go to the layout tab and select English(US International AltGr Unicode combining,alternative ).

Use your favorite desktop keyboard layout switcher applet.

=== Generic / Console ===

In order to activate changed settings in {{{/etc/default/keyboard}}} without reboot, run [[DebianMan:1/setupcon|setupcon(1)]].

=== Generic / Terminal ===

You can also switch the layout from the terminal, e. g.:
{{{#!wiki yellow
$ setxkbmap de <<BR>>
$ setxkbmap fr <<BR>>
$ setxkbmap us
}}}

Of special interest for keyboard hardware with us layout might be the ''altgr-intl'' variant (this provides a simple !AltGr mapping for many umlauts and special symbols):
{{{#!wiki yellow
$ setxkbmap -rules evdev -model evdev -layout us -variant altgr-intl
}}}
or
{{{#!wiki yellow
$ setxkbmap -model pc105 -layout us -variant altgr-intl
}}}

To configure a simple key for toggling between multiple configured keyboard layouts, see Option !XkbOptions in Section !InputClass somewhere within the xorg config file collection (see [[https://forums.freebsd.org/threads/solved-setxkbmap-xinitrc.48412/#post-270733|[SOLVED] Setxkbmap .xinitrc]]).

== Troubleshooting ==

If changes to {{{/etc/default/keyboard}}} do not apply after restarting, it is possible that the changes are being overridden by gsettings. For instance, if XKBOPTIONS set in {{{/etc/default/keyboard}}} are not working, check using:
{{{#!wiki yellow
gsettings get org.gnome.desktop.input-sources xkb-options
}}}
and reset if necessary:
{{{#!wiki yellow
gsettings reset org.gnome.desktop.input-sources xkb-options
}}}

IBus can also sometimes override settings from {{{/etc/default/keyboard}}}. The keyboard setup dialog in GNOME 3 will modify IBus's configuration directly, but for users of other X environments, you can use the {{{ibus-setup}}} command to modify the settings for IBus. To force it to defer to the settings from {{{/etc/default/keyboard}}}, run {{{ibus-setup}}}, go to the ''Advanced'' tab, and check ''Use system keyboard layout''.

=== kitty terminal and input method ===

GPU based terminal emulator DebianPkg:kitty doesn't use X, GTK, nor QT library. In order to activate input method to enter some characters for Chinese or Japanese, you need to follow {{{/usr/share/doc/kitty/README.Debian}}}.

Translation(s): English - Français - Italiano - Português (Brasil) - Русский


Portal/IDB/icon-wiki-portal.png

Debian wiki keyboard portal. This portal covers all aspects of configuring keyboards on Debian.

Basic keyboard configuration

To configure the keyboard, you have to install keyboard-configuration. The package console-setup is also needed.

The keyboard settings are stored in /etc/default/keyboard file provided by the keyboard-configuration package. Other packages use this to configure both the Linux kernel and the X Window system to realize consistent keyboard experiences under the Linux console and the X Window system.

You can change your keyboard settings using:

 # dpkg-reconfigure keyboard-configuration
 # service keyboard-setup restart

As usual, it will prompt you for the model of keyboard (what the keyboard *is*), and then for the keyboard layout (what the keys should *do*). Use this tool to change your keyboard map, e. g. from QWERTY to QWERTZ or to Dvorak, or for non-English layouts.

To apply new settings, restarting the keyboard-setup service should suffice, otherwise you can try to restart kernel input system via udev:

 # udevadm trigger --subsystem-match=input --action=change

or reboot the whole OS.

Modern keyboard configuration (input method)

The simple keyboard input mechanism realized by the above configuration can't support some languages, such as Chinese and Japanese, properly.

The installation of the input method framework package such as ibus (or fcitx5) together with associated packages enables to support all languages.

When any of the input method framework packages are installed and activated, the X Window based keyboard configuration settings are ignored.

For GNOME system (the default Debian Desktop environment), ibus package is automatically installed and activated. The keyboard input needs to be configured from its GUI Settings -> Keyboard for basic configurations. For more complicated configuration such as swapping CapsLock and Ctrl, you need to install gnome-tweak and use it.

For non-GNOME system, the stand alone GUI configuration command ibus-setup can set up the input methods for ibus. Under those desktop environments, menu entry of their keyboard configuration utility or pop-up menu entry offered by clicking the associated tray icon may start ibus-setup for you. For KDE, this menu is System_settings -> Hardware -> Input_devices/keyboard.

Multi-language keyboard configuration strategy

People who wish to set up a single keyboard input environment for multiple (European) languages without the input method framework should consider following configuration strategy.

  • If the input method package is installed, deactivate it by executing im-config -n none.

  • Select the correct keyboard model. (US/ISO)
  • Select the desirable keyboard layout. E.g., English (US International ?AltGr Unicode combining,alternative)

People who wish to set up multiple dynamically-switchable keyboard input environments for multiple languages should consider following configuration strategy.

  • Install input method framework package such as ibus

  • (optional) Install pertinent input method engine package such as ibus-anthy

  • Activate desirable input engine by adding it from menu such as Settings -> Keyboard --> Input Sources.

  • Switch among input methods with by pressing GUI-SPACE.

Please note that the input method framework such as ibus provides functionality to enter many Unicode characters for European languages without additional engine packages after the proper GUI based configuration.

Keyboard configuration Tips

Manual configuration of keyboard

You can edit /etc/default/keyboard manually instead of running dpkg-reconfigure keyboard-configuration.

Here's an example:

# KEYBOARD CONFIGURATION FILE

# Consult the keyboard(5) manual page.

XKBMODEL="pc105"
XKBLAYOUT="us,de,fr,ua,ru"
XKBVARIANT=""
XKBOPTIONS="grp:alt_shift_toggle"

BACKSPACE="guess"
  • XKBMODEL is a keyboard model variable (look at a /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst (plain text) or /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.xml (XML) for a full list);

  • XKBLAYOUT variable contains a list of used layouts;
  • "grp:alt_shift_toggle" sets a layout switching key combination (<Alt>+<Shift>).

Under the X environment, this keyboard layout setting in /etc/default/keyboard can be overridden by executing something like "setxkbmap us,ru -option grp:ctrl_shift_toggle" in the X startup configuration file ~/.xsessionrc . Please note that this is effective only for the X environment and the modern GUI environment may not be running under X environment.

See also:

How to set keyboard layout in initramfs

The appropriate section of /etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf needs to be changed to have a localized keyboard layout at boot time:

#
# KEYMAP: [ y | n ]
#
# Load a keymap during the initramfs stage.
#

KEYMAP=y

Apply changes:

 # update-initramfs -u

How to enable USB keyboard in initramfs

The initramfs-tools must include the usbhid module and its dependencies for USB keyboard support at boot time. Either the configuration file /etc/initramfs-tools/conf.d/driver-policy must include most modules, or they will have to be specified in another file:

#
# MODULES: [ most | netboot | dep | list ]
#
# most - Add most filesystem and all harddrive drivers.
#
# dep - Try and guess which modules to load.
#
# netboot - Add the base modules, network modules, but skip block devices.
#
# list - Only include modules from the 'additional modules' list
#

MODULES=most

If the configuration above was not set to include most modules, then the necessary modules have to be specified in the file /etc/initramfs-tools/modules:

# USB keyboard at boot
usbcore
uhci_hcd
ehci_hcd
usbhid

Apply changes:

 # update-initramfs -u

How to dynamically activate Linux console settings

In order to activate changed settings in /etc/default/keyboard without reboot, run setupcon(1).

How to dynamically activate X Window settings

If the input method framework is not active, you can switch the keyboard layout of X Window system from the terminal, e. g.:

 $ setxkbmap de
 $ setxkbmap fr
 $ setxkbmap us

Of special interest for keyboard hardware with us layout might be the altgr-intl variant (this provides a simple AltGr mapping for many umlauts and special symbols):

 $ setxkbmap -rules evdev -model evdev -layout us -variant altgr-intl

or

 $ setxkbmap -model pc105 -layout us -variant altgr-intl

To configure a simple key for toggling between multiple configured keyboard layouts, see Option XkbOptions in Section InputClass somewhere within the xorg config file collection (see [SOLVED] Setxkbmap .xinitrc).

How to dynamically manage GNOME input source settings

For GNOME, you can check the current input source setting from the command line using:

 $ gsettings get org.gnome.desktop.input-sources xkb-options

For GNOME, you can reset it from the command line, if necessary, using:

 $ gsettings reset org.gnome.desktop.input-sources xkb-options

For GNOME, you can create a custom keyboard shortcut to select a particular input source by assigning command to Settings -> Keyboard -> Keyboard Shortcuts. E.g. the following will select the first input source:

gdbus call --session --dest org.gnome.Shell --object-path /org/gnome/Shell --method org.gnome.Shell.Eval  "imports.ui.status.keyboard.getInputSourceManager().inputSources[1].activate()"

Troubleshooting

very old GNOME (currently not an issue@2022)

The keyboard layout was changed on Settings -> Region & Languages -> Input Sources). For releases older than Stretch (released @2020), these layouts include minority languages and dialects, as well as very specific configurations, and were hidden by default in the GUI for Stretch (during its testng?).

One can set it via CLI using dconf/gsettings by adding keys to /org/gnome/desktop/input-sources/sources.

The only way to make them visible is to enable the corresponding setting in gconf:

 $ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.input-sources show-all-sources true

For more information on this issue see https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=682240.

kitty terminal and input method

GPU based terminal emulator kitty doesn't use X, GTK, nor QT library. In order to activate input method to enter some characters for Chinese or Japanese, you need to follow /usr/share/doc/kitty/README.Debian.