I have installed Debian 11.4 (bullseye) with KDE on my lenovo Thinkpad X1 Carbon Gen 10.


The hardware is as follows:

00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation Device 4621 (rev 02)

00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation Device 46a6 (rev 0c) (prog-if 00 [VGA controller])

00:04.0 Signal processing controller: Intel Corporation Device 461d (rev 02)

00:06.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Device 464d (rev 02) (prog-if 00 [Normal decode])

00:07.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Device 466e (rev 02) (prog-if 00 [Normal decode])

00:07.2 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Device 462f (rev 02) (prog-if 00 [Normal decode])

00:08.0 System peripheral: Intel Corporation Device 464f (rev 02)

00:0a.0 Signal processing controller: Intel Corporation Device 467d (rev 01)

00:0d.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation Device 461e (rev 02) (prog-if 30 [XHCI])

00:0d.2 USB controller: Intel Corporation Device 463e (rev 02) (prog-if 40 [USB4 Host Interface])

00:0d.3 USB controller: Intel Corporation Device 466d (rev 02) (prog-if 40 [USB4 Host Interface])

00:14.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation Device 51ed (rev 01) (prog-if 30 [XHCI])

00:14.2 RAM memory: Intel Corporation Device 51ef (rev 01)

00:14.3 Network controller: Intel Corporation Device 51f0 (rev 01)

00:15.0 Serial bus controller [0c80]: Intel Corporation Device 51e8 (rev 01)

00:16.0 Communication controller: Intel Corporation Device 51e0 (rev 01)

00:16.3 Serial controller: Intel Corporation Device 51e3 (rev 01) (prog-if 02 [16550])

00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation Device 5182 (rev 01)

00:1f.3 Audio device: Intel Corporation Device 51c8 (rev 01) (prog-if 80)

00:1f.4 SMBus: Intel Corporation Device 51a3 (rev 01)

00:1f.5 Serial bus controller [0c80]: Intel Corporation Device 51a4 (rev 01)

04:00.0 Non-Volatile memory controller: Samsung Electronics Co Ltd NVMe SSD Controller PM9A1/980PRO (prog-if 02 [NVM Express])


For the installation with netinst I used an old ethernet usb

The first problem with the Thinkpad X1 is the netinst installation of Debian 11.4 with KDE. When the installation finishes and reboots, then KDE does not start. It is a problem with the SDDM display manager

If you change the display manager to GDM the KDE boots but HDMI does not work, I think it is some incompatibility with kernel 5.10.

The easy solution is to install with netinst Debian 11.4 and not choose to install any graphical environment, only ssh server.

Once Debian is installed without a graphical environment, boot up and login as root.

The goal is to install Kernel 5.18 from Debian backports, so we have to add the repository to /etc/apt/source.list, I also added the contrib non-free.

My source.list file is like this:

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ bullseye main contrib non-free

deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian/ bullseye main contrib non-free

deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security/ bullseye-security main contrib non-free

deb-src http://security.debian.org/debian-security/ bullseye-security main contrib non-free

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ bullseye-updates main contrib non-free

deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian/ bullseye-updates main contrib non-free

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ bullseye-backports main contrib non-free

And now we write:

apt-get update

apt-get upgrade

apt-get install linux-image-5.18.0-0.deb11.3-amd64 linux-headers-5.18.0-0.deb11.3-amd64

I also put the headers in case one day I need to install a driver from a manufacturer (for example a new ethernet usb).

Once the installation is complete, we do the following:

reboot now

and login as root

Now let's install KDE , I did it like this: (but there are several ways to do it):

apt install kde-full sddm

Now let's enable sound:

tee /etc/modprobe.d/sof-fix.conf <<<'options snd-intel-dspcfg dsp_driver=1'

now it will have sound, the only thing that won't work is the external microphone, you will have to use the headphones to talk.

And now we write:

reboot now

Now if everything has worked fine, Debian will boot with KDE and will have sound and HDMI will work.

Once in KDE, download the WIFI and Bluetooth firmware and install it.

For this we download the latest kernel firmware from the URL:

https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/firmware/linux-firmware.git/

Assuming the downloaded file is linux-firmware-20220815.tar.gz

From the terminal we do:

cd Downloads

tar xvzf linux-firmware-20220815.tar.gz

cd linux-firmware-20220815

su

cp intel/ibt-0040-0041.ddc /lib/firmware/intel/.

cp iwl* /lib/firmware/.

We now install the tlp to improve battery management:

apt-get install tlp tlp-rdw

apt-get install tp-smapi-dkms acpi-call-dkms

Now we reboot from KDE

On start-up it will detect the WIFI and Bluetooth.

And now you have the Thinkpad X1 Carbon Gen 10 with Debian 11 and KDE running perfectly. :)

note: If you need to virtualise any windows with Virtualbox, you must assign more than one processor to the windows virtual machine or you will have problems.