As of March 2018 Debian GNU/Linux is available for Windows users through the Windows store as an app for the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL).
The app gives you a Debian stable command line environment running on the windows kernel. Most of the deb packages in Debian stable should "just work".
Any software relying on systemd or low-level hardware accessibility might fail due to missing support from the current windows kernel interface.
As WSL is a pretty new project from Microsoft improvement can be expected to happen with every new Windows 10 stable channel release (approx. every 6 months).
The app launcher will be updated for stable release features respectively.
To use the store app you have to enable the WSL subsystem first by following the guide at https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/wsl/install-win10.
Afterward just install the "Debian GNU/Linux" app from the store.
You will be asked to define a linux user and password upon first start. This user will also be given sudo rights.
Please use the windows store review/feedback to report bugs or wishes for now. This wiki page will be updated with a FAQ if repeated help is necessary.
The app code resides in salsa and is accessible for every DD/DM: