As of March 2018 Debian GNU/Linux is available for Windows users through the Windows store as an app for the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL).
The app gives you a Debian stable command line environment running on the Windows kernel. Most of the packages in Debian stable should "just work".
Any software relying on systemd or low-level hardware accessibility might fail due to missing support from the current Windows kernel interface.
As WSL is a pretty new project from Microsoft improvement can be expected to happen with every new Windows 10 stable channel release (approx. every 6 months).
The app launcher will be updated for stable release features respectively.
To use the store app you have to enable the WSL subsystem first by following the guide.
Afterward just install the "Debian GNU/Linux" app from the store.
You will be asked to define a linux user and password upon first start. This user will also be given sudo rights.
Please use the Windows store review/feedback to report bugs or wishes for now. This wiki page will be updated with a FAQ if repeated help is necessary.
There is a IRC channel on OFTC to discuss WSL related stuff: #debian-wsl
Code & Issues
The app code will reside in salsa and be accessible for every DD/DM:
You can also leave known issues there.