?wiki:initramfs-tools is used in Debian to build the initramfs that contains the early userspace and the needed kernel modules to be able to mount any possible root.

Boot

Boot with rootdelay=9 to shorten the time of waiting for the root device to come up. Also it adds time to scsi device to settle before calling mdadm or lvm thus excluding potential races.

Rescue shell

Read man initramfs-tools to learn about the break= kernel parameter, which starts a debug shell.

Ok now you landed in the initramfs debug shell. The following steps should help to narrow down the problem.

initramfs content

It can happen that due to a bug in the initramfs creation a newer initramfs lacks important libraries or utilities. Easiest way is to compare the file list of working contra non-working initramfs.