Differences between revisions 28 and 46 (spanning 18 versions)
Revision 28 as of 2021-09-30 19:24:24
Size: 2072
Editor: ThiagoPezzo
Comment: fix Debian Installer i18n link
Revision 46 as of 2022-05-24 00:00:16
Size: 8642
Editor: OsamuAoki
Comment: xkbcomp and IM clarified
Deletions are marked like this. Additions are marked like this.
Line 2: Line 2:

= Debian Internationalization (I18n) and Localization (l10n) =
----
Line 7: Line 5:
[[FrontPage|Debian wiki]]'s internationalization and localization portal. = Internationalization and Localization =

[[FrontPage|Debian wiki]]'s internationalization (i18n) and localization (l10n) portal.
----

[[Debian]] has many services, softwares, interfaces and infrastructures to handle the complexity of its operations. Most of these mechanisms were built using English as the primary (and many times, the only) language. In order to cope with its "universal operating system" motto, many efforts are made to internationalize, localize and translate all possible interfaces:

 * '' '''I18N''' (internationalization) means modification of a software or related technologies so that a software can potentially handle multiple languages, customs, and so on in the world.''

 * '' '''L10N''' (localization) means implementation of a specific language for an already internationalized software.''
 . ~-[[https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/intro-i18n/ch-intro.en.html#s-intro-concepts|Introduction to i18n, Tomohiro KUBOTA]]-~

{{{#!wiki debian
[[https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch08.en.html|Debian Reference - Chapter 8. I18N and L10N]]<<BR>>
[[https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/developers-reference/best-pkging-practices.html#general-recommendations-for-authors-and-translators|Debian Developer's Reference - 6.6.2. General recommendations for authors and translators]]<<BR>>
}}}

<<TableOfContents(2)>>

## This section was based on the Brazilian page [[Brasil/Traduzir#frentes]]
<<Anchor(fronts)>>
== Localization fronts ==

This is an incomplete list of what is being localized in Debian. It should be useful to anyone interested in finding more information about specific areas of work:

 . <<Icon(checkmark.png)>> '''Web pages''': translate the [[https://www.debian.org/devel/website/translating|official and brand new Debian website]].
 . <<Icon(checkmark.png)>> '''Wiki pages''': the [[DebianWiki/EditorGuide#Translations|EditorGuide has a section]] about translating this important community-written document.
 . <<Icon(checkmark.png)>> '''Documents''': [[https://www.debian.org/doc/|official and non-official]]; one example is the [[https://debian.weblate.org/projects/debian-handbook/|Debian Handbook]].
 . <<Icon(checkmark.png)>> '''Publicity and News''': spread the Debian word through [[https://bits.debian.org/|Bits from Debian]], [[https://micronews.debian.org/|Micronews]], and [[https://www.debian.org/News/|Press Releases]] helping the [[Teams/Publicity|Publicity Team]].
 . <<Icon(checkmark.png)>> '''debconf templates''': here is [[https://www.debian.org/international/l10n/po-debconf/|a list with all languages and statistics]] related to PO files.
 . <<Icon(checkmark.png)>> '''Packages descriptions''': the [[https://www.debian.org/international/l10n/ddtp|DDTP project]] and its web frontend, the [[https://ddtp.debian.org/ddtss/index.cgi/xx|DDTSS]].
 . <<Icon(checkmark.png)>> '''debian-installer''': see the [[https://d-i.debian.org/doc/i18n-guide/|d-i i18n and l10n guide]] and help install Debian around the world.
 . <<Icon(checkmark.png)>> '''manpages''': Read the Fantastic Manuals [[https://manpages-l10n-team.pages.debian.net/manpages-l10n/|in your own language]].
 . <<Icon(checkmark.png)>> '''Services''': lots of [[Services|Debian services]] need to be internationalized and translated to be more accessible.

----
<<Anchor(infrastructure)>>
== Keyboard input infrastructure support ==

See portal site [[Keyboard]] for general keyboard input topics.

The i18n keyboard input keyboard infrastructure is supported by:
 * the input method (IM) framework -- for Wayland and X Window (The choice of the active IM can be configured by the DebianPkg:im-config package)
   * [[I18n/ibus|ibus]] -- the Default IM framework for GNOME Desktop: DebianPkg:ibus
   * [[I18n/Fcitx5|Fcitx5]] -- the alternative IM framework with special support functionalities for Chinese: DebianPkg:fcitx5
   * [[I18n/uim|uim]] -- the alternative IM framework written in Lisp: DebianPkg:uim (if you are a Emacs aficionado)
   * [[I18n/SCIM|SCIM]] -- the alternative IM framework: DebianPkg:scim (not in good shape)
 * xkbcomp -- only for X Window (Set it via ~/.xsession script): DebianPkg:x11-xkb-utils
   * See [[https://www.x.org/releases/X11R7.5/doc/man/man1/xkbcomp.1.html|xkbcomp(1)]] manpage

You can install multiple IM frameworks but can activate only one of them. The choice of the active IM framework is provided by DebianPkg:im-config which also provides reasonable default choice using your locale setting.

For fully functioning keyboard input infrastructure, you need to install pertinent IM engines and activate them using the mechanism provided by the IM framework.

Activation of IM framework overrides '''xkbcomp''' settings. The equivalent functionality of '''xkbcomp''' is offered internally by IM framework such as '''ibus'''.

----
<<Anchor(meetings)>>
== Meetings ==

These are meetings which cover the Debian project as a whole. For specific languages or teams, see the [[#l10nteams|Localization teams]] below.

 * DebConf: we usually run some ''BOFs'' and other discussions related to i18n/l10n.

'''Sprints''':

  * [[I18n/Sprint2012|Sprint2012]]: i18n sprint in Paris to prepare i18n.debian.org and ddtp.debian.org machines.

'''Extremadura Meetings''': [[I18n/Extremadura2008|2008]], [[I18n/Extremadura2007|2007]], [[I18n/Extremadura2006|2006]].

----
<<Anchor(teams)>>
== Localization teams ==

=== Debian I18n Team and contacts ===

 . {o} [[Teams/I18n|Debian I18n Team]]
 . {o} IRC: [[irc://irc.debian.org/debian-i18n|#debian-i18n]]
 . {o} Maililng list: DebianList:debian-i18n

=== Debian L10n teams ===

 * [[ca/L10n/Catalan|Catalan team]]
 * [[zh_CN/L10n/Chinese|Chinese team]]
 * [[nl/L10n/Dutch|Dutch team]]
 * [[fr/L10n/French|French team]]
 * [[de/L10n/German|German team]]
 * [[id/L10n/Indonesian|Indonesian team]]
 * [[it/L10n/Italian|Italian team]]
 * [[ja/L10n/Japanese|Japanese team]]
 * [[pl/L10n/Polish|Polish team]]
 * [[Brasil/Traduzir|Portuguese Brazilian team]]
 * [[ro/L10n/Romanian|Romanian team]]
 * [[ru/L10n/Russian|Russian team]]
 * [[scn/L10n/Sicilian|Sicilian team]]
 * [[es/L10n/Spanish|Spanish team]]
 * [[tr/L10n/Turkish|Turkish team]]
 * [[vi/L10n/Vietnamese|Vietnamese team]]

=== Mailing lists ===

 * [[https://lists.debian.org/i18n.html|Mailing lists]] about localization, translation, and support for users that don't speak English.

=== Language Support Improvements ===

 * [[I18n/TaiwanLocalizationProject|Taiwan Localization Project]]
  * [[I18n/TaiwanIndigenousLanguages|Taiwan Indigenous Languages]]
 * [[I18n/NorthAmericanIndigenousLanguages|North American Indigenous Languages]]
Line 11: Line 116:
{{{#!wiki debian
[[https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/developers-reference/best-pkging-practices.html#general-recommendations-for-authors-and-translators|Debian Developer's Reference - 6.6.2. General recommendations for authors and translators]]<<BR>>
[[https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/intro-i18n/|Introduction to i18n]]
}}}
== Past works ==
Line 16: Line 118:
## For long portal, you can use a TOC
<<TableOfContents(2)>>
These sections were put together for historical purposes.
Line 19: Line 120:
== General ==
 * [[I18n/BTSActions]]
 * [[I18n/ToDo]] (outdated: to be rewritten after [[I18n/Sprint2012]])
 * [[I18n/DDTP2]]: The future of the DDTP
== Infrastructure support ==
 * [[I18n/SCIM]]
 * [[I18n/ibus]] (like SCIM, actively developed)
 * [[I18n/Fcitx5]]
== Actions ==
 * [[I18n/SmithReviewProject]]: The Smith Review Project aimed to review English texts
== Proposals ==
 * [[I18n/TranslationDataDistribution]]
=== General ===

 * [[I18n/BTSActions|BTS Actions]]
 * [[I18n/ToDo|ToDo]] (outdated: to be rewritten after [[I18n/Sprint2012]])
 * [[I18n/DDTP2|DDTP2]]: The future of the DDTP

=== Actions ===

 * [[I18n/SmithReviewProject|Smith Review Project]]: The Smith Review Project aimed to review English texts.

=== Proposals ===

## * [[I18n/TranslationDataDistribution]]
Line 32: Line 134:
 * [[I18n/LanguagePacks]]
 * [[I18n/FrameworkIdeas1]]
 * [[I18n/FrameworkIdeas2]]
 * [[I18n/MALME]]
== Meetings ==
 * Extremadura Meetings
  * Past
   * [[I18n/Extremadura2008]]
   * [[I18n/Extremadura2007]]
   * [[I18n/Extremadura2006]]
 * DebConf
  * We usually run some BOFs and other discussions related to i18n/l10n
 * Sprints
  * [[I18n/Sprint2012]] : i18n sprint in Paris to prepare i18n.debian.org and ddtp.debian.org machines
== Language Support Improvements ==
 * [[I18n/TaiwanLocalizationProject]]
  * [[I18n/TaiwanIndigenousLanguages]]
 * [[I18n/NorthAmericanIndigenousLanguages]]
 * [[I18n/LanguagePacks|Language Packs]]
 * [[I18n/FrameworkIdeas1|Framework Ideas 1]]
 * [[I18n/FrameworkIdeas2|Framework Ideas 2]]
 * [[I18n/MALME|MALME]]

----
<<Anchor(resources)>>
Line 51: Line 142:
 * [[Teams/I18n|Debian I18n Team]]
 * [[https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/intro-i18n/|Introduction to i18n]]
 * [[https://www.debian.org/devel/website/translation_hints|Useful Translation Suggestions]]
Line 53: Line 146:
 * [[irc://irc.debian.org/debian-i18n|#debian-i18n]]  * [[https://www.debian.org/devel/website/translating|Translating Debian web pages]]
 * [[https://wiki.debian.org/DebianWiki/EditorGuide#Translations|Debian Wiki EditorGuide - translations]]
 * [[https://www.debian.org/international/l10n/ddtp|Debian Description Translation Project — DDTP]]

----

== See also ==

 * [[https://www.debian.org/international/|Debian international]] official website
 * [[https://www.debian.org/international/l10n/|Central Debian translation statistics]]
 * [[Locale]] - how to install/use Debian in your local language
 * [[https://www.debian.org/intro/cn|Content negotiation]] - how to display a webpage in your preferred language

----
Line 57: Line 163:
'''List of pages related to i18n/l10n in Debian:''' '''List of English pages related to i18n/l10n in Debian:'''
Line 62: Line 168:
CategoryPortal CategoryLocalization CategoryTeams  CategoryPortal | CategoryLocalization | CategoryTeams


Portal/IDB/icon-wiki-portal.png

Internationalization and Localization

Debian wiki's internationalization (i18n) and localization (l10n) portal.


Debian has many services, softwares, interfaces and infrastructures to handle the complexity of its operations. Most of these mechanisms were built using English as the primary (and many times, the only) language. In order to cope with its "universal operating system" motto, many efforts are made to internationalize, localize and translate all possible interfaces:

  • I18N (internationalization) means modification of a software or related technologies so that a software can potentially handle multiple languages, customs, and so on in the world.

  • L10N (localization) means implementation of a specific language for an already internationalized software.

  • Introduction to i18n, Tomohiro KUBOTA

Localization fronts

This is an incomplete list of what is being localized in Debian. It should be useful to anyone interested in finding more information about specific areas of work:


Keyboard input infrastructure support

See portal site Keyboard for general keyboard input topics.

The i18n keyboard input keyboard infrastructure is supported by:

  • the input method (IM) framework -- for Wayland and X Window (The choice of the active IM can be configured by the im-config package)

    • ibus -- the Default IM framework for GNOME Desktop: ibus

    • Fcitx5 -- the alternative IM framework with special support functionalities for Chinese: fcitx5

    • uim -- the alternative IM framework written in Lisp: uim (if you are a Emacs aficionado)

    • SCIM -- the alternative IM framework: scim (not in good shape)

  • xkbcomp -- only for X Window (Set it via ~/.xsession script): x11-xkb-utils

You can install multiple IM frameworks but can activate only one of them. The choice of the active IM framework is provided by im-config which also provides reasonable default choice using your locale setting.

For fully functioning keyboard input infrastructure, you need to install pertinent IM engines and activate them using the mechanism provided by the IM framework.

Activation of IM framework overrides xkbcomp settings. The equivalent functionality of xkbcomp is offered internally by IM framework such as ibus.


Meetings

These are meetings which cover the Debian project as a whole. For specific languages or teams, see the Localization teams below.

  • DebConf: we usually run some BOFs and other discussions related to i18n/l10n.

Sprints:

  • Sprint2012: i18n sprint in Paris to prepare i18n.debian.org and ddtp.debian.org machines.

Extremadura Meetings: 2008, 2007, 2006.


Localization teams

Debian I18n Team and contacts

Debian L10n teams

Mailing lists

  • Mailing lists about localization, translation, and support for users that don't speak English.

Language Support Improvements


Past works

These sections were put together for historical purposes.

General

Actions

Proposals


Resources


See also


Wiki pages

List of English pages related to i18n/l10n in Debian: