archive vs distribution vs release vs suite
"binary", "source", "package", and combos
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Area :: The term used in [[http://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/ch-controlfields.html|Debian Policy]] for the [[#main|main]], [[#contrib|contrib]], and [[#non-free|non-free]] divisions of the archive (also known as [[#component|component]]s)
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Binary :: Several potentially confusing (but non-Debian-specific) meanings:
* Any non-textfile, such as a JPEG format image
* Any executable (often used generically to include shellscripts and other non-binary executables normally found in a `bin` directory)
* The output of a build process - see [[#binary-package|binary package]]
Binary package :: An installable [[#.deb|.deb]] file as opposed to the [[#source-package|source package]] it's built from. The idea is that this is the "binary" compiled in the package building process (regardless of whether the output .deb contains a [[#binary|binary]] executable, documentation, or indeed Linux kernel [[#source|source]]code).
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Component :: The term used in [[DebMan:sources.list|sources.list(5)]] for the [[#main|main]], [[#contrib|contrib]], and [[#non-free|non-free]] archive [[#area|area]]s
* In various project upstreams, a collection of extra software produced by third parties and included into a distribution "without warranty"
* in Debian, software that is itself [[#dfsg|DFSG]]-compliant but requires software in [[#non-free|non-free]] to build or run usefully (or the archive [[#area|area]] such software is separated out into).
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DFSG :: Short for the Debian Free Software Guidelines; the rules of thumb included in the [[http://www.debian.org/social_contract|Debian Social Contract]] that can be used to judge whether material counts for the project's purposes as [[#free|free]]. The string `dfsg` is often appended to package names and version-strings to indicate that the upstream version has been slightly modified to allow it to stay in [[#main|main]].
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Free :: Compliant with the [[#dfsg|DFSG]], and eligible to go in [[#main|main]]
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Main :: The "truly Debian" archive [[#area|area]], reserved for [[#free|free]] software.
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Non-free :: Not compliant with the [[#dfsg|DFSG]]; also, the archive [[#area|area]] for software which is non-free but can be legally distributed by Debian.
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* (In Java, TeX, etc.) a unit of software with a single shared namespace
* (In Debian) See [[#source-package|source package] or [[#binary-package|binary package]]
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* A package origin defined by a line in [[DebianMan:5/sources.list|sources.list]]
* A [[DebianMan:1/bash|bash]] builtin that executes commands from a file
* Compilable code, the input of a build process - see [[#source-package|source package]]
Source package ::
* a unit of upstream software (with a single build system), which may correspond to several separate [[#binary-package|binary package]]s within Debian;
* the bundle of files (.dsc file, upstream tarball, etc) used as input to the package-building process.
Debian Glossary Only.
If you don't find the entry you wanted below, check
kernelnewbies.org's Kernel Glossary
- or simply try it as a wiki pagename!
Or you can add it yourself. If you can't define it yourself you can put ToDo instead, but always check the sites mentioned above - if it isn't Debian-specific, an existing definition elsewhere is likely to be more helpful.
A Debian member who advocates an application. Advocates should know the applicant fairly well and should be able to give an overview of the applicant's work, interests and plans. Advocates are often the sponsors of an applicant.
- Alioth (guest) account
People willing to participate in the packaging or development of a software can ask for an Alioth guest account, then ask for commit rights to a given project.
- Application Manager
A Debian member who is assigned to an applicant to collect the information needed by the Debian account managers to decide about an application. One application manager can be assigned to more than one Applicant.
Debian's Advanced Package Tool (or perhaps Advanced Packaging Tool - neither is "official"), a library that handles fetching the list of packages, resolving package dependencies, etc. It then uses dpkg to perform the actual package installation, removal, etc. The package apt provides the commandline tools apt-get and apt-cache, but other APT front-ends exist such as aptitude and synaptic.
(Not Debian-specific) a general category of hardware (such as "486" or "little-endian"), or a variant of some piece of software tailored for this hardware; may specifically mean the category as determined by some particular tool, such as arch or dpkg-architecture
One of the platforms for which Debian packages are built, known by labels such as amd64 or mipsel, and also differentiated by the OS kernel used - the same hardware (not literally an Intel 386 processor) may dualboot Squeeze i386 and kfreebsd-i386 architectures. See ports
- A set of files, such as a software repository
- Several potentially confusing (but non-Debian-specific) meanings:
- Any non-textfile, such as a JPEG format image
Any executable (often used generically to include shellscripts and other non-binary executables normally found in a bin directory)
The output of a build process - see binary package
- Binary package
An installable .deb file as opposed to the source package it's built from. The idea is that this is the "binary" compiled in the package building process (regardless of whether the output .deb contains a binary executable, documentation, or indeed Linux kernel sourcecode).
Short for Bug Tracking System
A system for synchronizing bug status in the Debian BTS with bug tracking systems like Bugzilla. See this mail.
Short for Common Debian Build System (provided by cdbs)
- In various project upstreams, a collection of extra software produced by third parties and included into a distribution "without warranty"
- Control file
As defined in Debian Policy:
the control file included in the debian directory of each source package contains dependency information required to build the package, and has separate stanzas containing further information for each binary package
the control file included in the DEBIAN directory of each binary .deb (formed from the corresponding stanza in the source control file) contains dependency information required to install the package, plus the package description etc.
- Custom Debian Distributions (CDD)
The old name for subsets of Debian configured to support a particular target group out-of-the-box. Now known as Debian Pure Blends
The Debian Developer's Packages Overview, which lists the packages maintained by a Debian Developer or Team
- Debian Account
- Debian Account Manager (DAM)
- Debian Developer (DD)
A Debian Project member who has gone through the New Maintainer process and had their application accepted is called a Debian Developer. (ToDo: DD/DM/DC/etc should all link to one central explanation of the distinction between them)
- Debian-Installer (D-I)
Debian Installer is the software used to initially install Debian on your hard disk. This should not be confused with the software used to install extra packaged software on a running Debian system (see apt).
- Debian New Maintainer
- Debian Maintainer (DM)
1. The status of a person who has passed the Debian Maintainer process. A Debian Maintainer is granted some rights to manage packages, in particular the right to upload packages to the archive. DMs aren't voting members of the Debian Project.
- Debian Policy Manual
- The document that describes what packages should contain, how they should be configured, and generally how packages fit together to create a Debian system.
- Debian Project
An organization of free software developers spread around the world with a common goal, to produce a completely free operating system. See the Debian web pages for more information.
- Debian Pure Blends
A subset of Debian that is configured to support a particular target group out-of-the-box. Debian Pure Blends were formerly known as Custom Debian Distributions (CDD).
Short for Debian External Health Status (see DEHS).
Short for the Debian Free Software Guidelines; the rules of thumb included in the Debian Social Contract that can be used to judge whether material counts for the project's purposes as free. The string dfsg is often appended to package names and version-strings to indicate that the upstream version has been slightly modified to allow it to stay in main.
- Distribution (dist)
- (Not Debian-specific) the complete set of software from one upstream project, considered as a unit. MacTeX is a TeX distribution, for instance, whereas NetBSD is a full Operating System distribution. This is the sense in which Debian is "a distribution".
A suite within the Debian archives capable of providing a fully functional OS on its own, unlike the supplementary ones such as "testing-security". This is the sense in which stable is "a distribution".
See Debian Maintainer.
The Debian Python Modules Team, who work to improve the Python modules situation in Debian.
The Debian System Administrators team, who handle the basic infrastructure of the project.
- Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
the FilesystemHierarchyStandard defines the main directories and their contents in Linux and other Unix-like computer operating systems. The Debian Policy Manual only explains the exceptions applying to Debian.
The distribution development freeze is a period of time when the Debian Project is working to finalize and stabilize the content of the testing distribution (resolving release critical bugs, making final tweaks to Debian-Installer, deciding the contents of the CDs, etc.) before it can be released as stable. Debian's release policy is one of Release when Ready, so the length of the freeze period isn't fixed, but it tends to last something like six months.
- Front Desk
Short for "Fails To Build From Source", a bugreport type produced by the build infrastructure when a package cannot be compiled. See qa.debian.org/FTBFS.
Short for "Intent to Translate", used by a translator who intends to start translating a document. This like the above is a mechanism to prevent duplication of efforts; see DDP.
- Mass bug filing
Reporting a great number of bugs for the same problem. See the Debian Developer's Reference.
Short for Mass Bug Filing.
An experienced Debian Member who takes responsibility for assisting a less experienced member or Applicant. Outside occasional efforts such as the Debian Women mentoring program, such relationships generally exist only on an informal and unofficial basis. Every Applicant has an advocate who may effectively act as a mentor; but despite the name of the debian-mentors mailing list, its primary function is to put new maintainers in touch with sponsors.
Short for Not Built from Source; one of the criteria used to detect candidates for automated package removal, in this case removing a binary package that isn't built from any remaining source package. See ftpmaster_Removals.
Short for NonMaintainerUpload; a version of a package that wasn't uploaded by an official Maintainer, but rather by another developer. This typically occurs for security updates, Mass Bug Filings, and when the maintainer is on holiday - see Debian Developer's Reference.
Short for Newer Version In Unstable; one of the criteria used to detect candidates for automated package removal, in this case removing an experimental build as superseded by a more recent build already present in unstable. See ftpmaster_Removals.
(Not to be confused with the following) In package management, a stray installed package with no reverse dependencies (such as a library for which the corresponding executable has been purged), which can be detected with tools such as deborphan. Such unwanted relics are now increasingly tracked by APT itself.
(Not to be confused with the above) Used in package QA to indicate that a package has no maintainer, and needs to be adopted (see ITA and WNPP). If the package has a Priority of standard or higher, the bug severity should be set to important. The term is similarly used to indicate documentation that the author is declaring abandoned; see DDP.
- (In Java, TeX, etc.) a unit of software with a single shared namespace
(In Debian) See source package] or [[#binary-package
Short for Python Applications Packaging Team
- Package Tracking System (PTS)
The Package Tracking System lets you follow almost everything related to the life of a package, and is of interest for co-maintainers, QA workers, and advanced users
APT pinning is the name given to the use of apt_preferences(5) to define a modified system of package-management priorities. This makes it possible, for instance, to run an essentially stable system but specify particular packages for which newer candidates (e.g. backports) will automatically be preferred for installation.
Short for Package Installation, UPgrading And Removal Testing Suite - see piuparts.
The popcon score of a Debian package (see http://popcon.debian.org/) is meant to reflect its "popularity"; it is derived from data generated via the package popularity-contest, which periodically and anonymously submits statistics about which Debian packages are installed on a system and whether they are used.
Short for Package Tracking System
Short for Quality Assurance - see qa.debian.org
The occasion of a new stable version of Debian being declared ready for production use;
Short for Request for Adoption; a WNPP bug tag indicating that (due to lack of time, interest, or other resources) the current maintainer is asking for someone else to maintain this package. They will maintain it in the meantime, but perhaps not in the best possible way. Compare Orphaned.
Short for Request for Documentation; a DDP bug tag indicating that a manual or other documentation on a given topic is not yet available on the DDP and the reporting user requests that DDP members should give it priority when deciding which documents need to be written.
Short for Request For Help; a WNPP bug tag indicating that the current maintainer wants to continue to maintain this package, but needs some help to do this. This may be because the maintainer is overstretched in general, or because this package is particularly hard to maintain, or because bugs require specialist expertise to fix.
Short for Request For Package; a WNPP bug tag indicating that the reporter has found an interesting piece of software and would like someone else to maintain it for Debian.
Short for Request of Maintainer; used in bug reports for package removal, to indicate that it has been agreed with the package's own maintainer.
- A word with several (non-Debian-specific) technical uses, all deriving from the same metaphor of a node structure with a root and branches:
- the root directory ("/") is the top level directory of the file system hierarchy - the part of the "directory tree" that everything else connects to.
- the root user (uid 0) is the so-called "superuser", with unlimited privileges - equivalent to the "Administrator" on some other operating systems. (This name might lead you to expect users to be arranged in some sort of organizational tree structure, but it just means that the superuser can modify the root directory.)
- the root window is the desktop background, the element of the graphical environment that all other windows are defined relative to. (Thus "root tile" as a synonym for "desktop wallpaper".)
- the root zone is the core of the DNS system, where the nameservers that are authoritative for Top Level Domains (the "root nameservers") live.
- the directory "/root" is the home directory of the root user. Not to be confused with the root directory as defined above.
Short for Request of Release Team; used in bug reports for package removal, to indicate that issues have been confirmed by the Release Team.
A package origin defined by a line in sources.list
A bash builtin that executes commands from a file
Compilable code, the input of a build process - see source package
- Source package
a unit of upstream software (with a single build system), which may correspond to several separate binary packages within Debian;
- the bundle of files (.dsc file, upstream tarball, etc) used as input to the package-building process.
a Debian Member with upload privileges who uses them on behalf of a package maintainer without such privileges. The sponsor is required to take responsibility for checking that there are no show-stopping quality issues, but is not recorded as the maintainer of the package. A sponsorship may be a one-off event, or the sponsor may also act informally as a mentor, helping to track down bugs and improve the packaging.
the stable distribution is the release recommended for production use. Each stable release is "promoted" from testing status as the result of a cycle of development, debugging, and integration that usually lasts about two years.
- A set of closely integrated packages (often multiple source packages)
Short for "This Is Not Legal Advice"; compare IANAL.
unstable is the Debian distribution where you can find the latest packages introduced into the Debian system.
Short for "Work-Needing and Prospective Packages" - a pseudopackage used to collect reports of packages (and potential packages) in need of (new) maintainers in Debian; see http://www.debian.org/devel/wnpp/, ITP, O, RFA, RFH, RFP.
- File extension used for the standard installable binary-package format used by Debian-based distributions.
File extension used for special packages containing Debian-Installer modules, not intended for installation on a normal system.