add salvaging and (belatedly) multiarch
multiarch or multi-arch? still, at least nobody thinks it's multi arch
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|Archive qualification :: See [[#qualification|qualification]]. Not to be confused with "arch-qualified" meaning "with an architecture tag specified (for [[#multi-arch|multi-arch]] support)"||Archive qualification :: See [[#qualification|qualification]]. Not to be confused with "arch-qualified" meaning "with an architecture tag specified (for [[#multiarch|multiarch]] support)"|
A glossary for terms specific to Debian.
If you don't find the entry you wanted below, check
kernelnewbies.org's Kernel Glossary
- or simply try your mystery word as a wiki pagename!
Alternatively, you can add it yourself. If you can't define it yourself you can put ToDo instead, but always check the sites mentioned above - if it isn't Debian-specific, an existing definition elsewhere is likely to be more helpful.
See Application Manager.
Short for "Architecture Not Allowed In Source"; used in bug reports for package removal, usually indicating that the number of architectures for which the package is to be built has been reduced. Nothing to do with the name Anaïs (cf. britney etc.).
- Application Manager (AM)
A Debian member who is assigned to an applicant to collect the information needed by the Debian account managers to decide about an application. One application manager can be assigned to more than one applicant. Nothing to do with software applications or package management.
A package management system that handles fetching the list of packages, resolving package dependencies, etc. It then uses dpkg to perform the actual package installation, removal, etc. The package apt provides the commandline tool apt(8) (along with apt-get(8) and apt-cache(8)) but other APT front-ends exist such as aptitude and synaptic.
- The type of system a piece of software is built for:
(Not Debian-specific) A general category of hardware (such as "486" or "little-endian"), or a variant of some piece of software tailored for this hardware; may specifically mean the category as determined by some particular tool, such as arch(1) or dpkg-architecture(1).
One of the platforms for which Debian packages are built, known by labels such as amd64 or mipsel, and also differentiated by the OS kernel used - the same hardware (not literally an Intel 386 processor) may dualboot i386 and kfreebsd-i386 architectures. See also port, release architecture.
- Can mean:
- Archive qualification
A port (and former release architecture, superseded by armel and no longer maintained) using the Linux kernel on ARM/StrongARM hardware, a CPU type originally created for the Acorn Archimedes (ARM being an acronym for Acorn RISC Machine).
A port (and current release architecture) using the Linux kernel on newer armel-style hardware with an FPU. It explicitly targets version 7 of the ARM architecture, using the hard-float version of the ARM EABI.
Backports are versions of packages from testing and unstable that have been rebuilt to be able to install and run on the stable distribution. Official backports are now hosted alongside the standard repositories.
- Backports Security Advisory (BSA)
- Base system
Binary packages with priority required or important; a minimalist set of packages installed before everything else on a new system. Designed to provide just the things you'd be surprised to find missing on a usable UNIX system. Not to be confused with the even smaller essential or minbase sets.
- Short for build dependency, or for the Build-Depends control field declaring such a dependency. Often used in changelog entries when mentioning that some build dependency has been added, removed, or altered.
- B-D-Indep (B-D-I)
- Short for Build-Depends-Indep, the control field used for build dependencies needed only for "build-indep" as opposed to "build-arch" compilation targets.
A wanna-build state.
The transition-tracker utility used by the Release Team.
- Several potentially confusing (but not Debian-specific) meanings:
- Any non-textfile, such as a JPEG format image.
Any ELF executable (often used generically to include shellscripts and other non-binary executables normally found in a bin directory).
The output of a build process - see binary package.
- Binary package
(As in "Bits from the DPL") Frequently used title for progress updates and event reports sent to the mailinglists.
The codename for Debian 1.3, release date: 1997.
The set of scripts that manages the migration of packages into testing. Originally it was one of many similar FTPmaster scripts with names like katie and madison, most of which have since been swallowed up by DAK.
Short for "Backports Security Advisory"
A wanna-build state
The codename for Debian 1.1, release date: 1996.
Short for "Common Debian Build System" (provided by cdbs).
Call For Votes.
Short for "collaborative maintenance"; a repository for packages that don't belong to any particular team but would benefit from being team-maintained. On alioth all DDs had access as automatic members of the collab-maint group; the salsa equivalent is simply debian.
- Configuration file
- Additional, external software, in either of two senses:
- In various project upstreams, a collection of extra software produced by third parties and included into a distribution "without warranty".
- Control file
As defined in Debian Policy:
The control file included in the debian directory of each source package contains dependency information required to build the package, and has separate stanzas containing further information for each binary-package.
- Custom Debian Distribution (CDD)
The old name for a subset of Debian configured to support a particular target group out-of-the-box. Now known as Debian Pure Blends.
- Has two related Debian-specific meanings:
General hacker jargon for superfluous junk, with a Debian-specific extra meaning in FTP master terminology: "crufty" .debs are ones that need to be identified and removed from the archive (see NBS, NVIU), a process known as "decrufting".
Abbreviations such as d-d-a are commonly used as shorthand names for Debian mailinglists (in this case, debian-devel-announce).
(Short for "Debian Archive Kit") The toolset used to manage the Debian repositories - see DakHowTo.
Short for "Debian Account Manager".
Short for "Debian Developer".
Short for "Debian Data Export".
Short for the "Debian Documentation Project".
Short for the Debian Description Translation Project.
- Two things distinguished by capitalization:
- Debian Account
- Debian Account Manager (DAM)
- Debian Contributor
A general term for active members of the Debian community, whether or not they have DD status. This term is sometimes used to emphasize that people contribute to Debian in other ways as well as by maintaining packages (as recognized by general resolution).
- Debian Data Export (DDE)
- Debian Developer (DD)
- Debian Developer's Reference (DevRef)
- Debian Documentation Project
A Debian sub-project covering various documentation issues. See webpages.
- Debian Installer (D-I)
- Debian Linux Kernel Handbook
- Debian Maintainer (DM)
The status of a person who has passed the Debian Maintainer process. A Debian Maintainer is granted some limited rights over packages - in particular, the right to upload packages to the Debian archives. DMs aren't yet members of the Debian Project, so can't for example vote in project elections. See also Debian Developer, Salsa account. Not to be confused with the role of package Maintainer.
- Debian Maintainer Dashboard
- Debian Package Tracker
- Debian Policy Manual
- Debian Project
- Debian Project Leader (DPL)
The official representative of the Debian Project to the outside world, with internal managerial and coordinatory duties; elected annually. See https://www.debian.org/devel/leader.
- Debian Project News (DPN)
A newsletter with a variable schedule sent out to debian-news, collecting information of interest to the Debian community in general.
- Debian Pure Blends
- Debian Security Advisory (DSA)
- Debian System Administrators (DSA)
- Debian Weekly News (DWN)
A newsletter that ran (less regularly than the name suggests) from 1999 until 2007; replaced by the Debian Project News.
- Debian Women (D-W)
A subproject founded in 2004 to encourage more women to use Debian and to join the Debian project. The Debian-Women initiative is supported by both men and women.
Short for (the late) "Debian External Health Status" service.
A set of directories on ftp-master (ranging from "0-day" to "15-day") that receive uploads not intended for immediate processing, usually to give the package's maintainer an opportunity to check the acceptability of an NMU before it goes into the archive. Compare deferred.
- Dependency-based boot
A scheme for organizing service startup, now standard in init systems; "dependency-based" here means checking for things like networking and mounted file systems, not package installation relationships.
- Dependency package
(Plus more rarely dep-wait-removed) A wanna-build state.
- Developer News
See Misc Developer News.
Short for the Debian Developer's Reference.
A batch job for updating the dak database and generating a new version of the mirror metadata.
- Distribution (distro, dist)
- Can mean:
Another name for the Debian Package Tracker.
- Can mean:
See Debian Maintainer.
- DM-Upload-Allowed (DMUA)
Short for "Debian Project Leader".
The Debian Python Modules Team, who work to improve the Python modules situation in Debian.
Short for "Debian URL Checker", a service monitoring Homepage and VCS links.
- Dummy package
A control file variable similar to but not part of the package priority mechanism; "Essential: yes" causes package-management tools to refuse any orders to remove the binary package in question. The essential package set provides the absolute minimal functionality that must be available and usable on the system at all times. The idea is, if you're hit by a software or hardware failure halfway through an upgrade, leaving your package database in an inconsistent state, the essential packages should still work well enough to boot the system and perform repairs. See also "Important: yes", required, and pseudo-essential.
The codename for Debian 4.0, release date: 2007.
(Plus more rarely failed-removed) A wanna-build state.
- Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
The distribution development freeze is a period of time when the Debian Project is working to finalize and stabilize the content of the testing distribution (resolving Release Critical bugs, making final tweaks to Debian-Installer, deciding the contents of the CDs, etc.) before its release as the new stable. Debian's release policy is one of Release when Ready, so the length of the freeze period isn't fixed, but it tends to last something like six months and may be subdivided into "transition freeze", "soft freeze", and "full/hard freeze" milestones.
- Front Desk
- A team functioning as a first point of contact for Debian. Can mean:
Short for "Fails To Build Reproducibly"
- FTP master
- Several things, none of which necessarily involve the File Transfer Protocol:
The ftp-master server, the primary copy of the Debian archive.
Senior members of this team also rank as "FTP Masters".
Renaming the team was discussed in 2017.
One proposal was the "Filtering The Packages" team
Short for "For Those Who Care About" (compare "Bits...").
- General Resolution (GR)
Short for "General Resolution".
The codename for Debian 2.0, release date: 1998.
An i18n mailinglist label used to put work "on hold", warning that any work done on updates now is likely to be wasted.
A "port" (or rather the original release architecture, and still a current one) using the Linux kernel on 32-bit hardware - the kind dominating the PC market through the 90s/00s and known variously as IBM-clone, x86, IA-32, or (W)Intel-compatible computers.
- Three Debian-specific meanings:
The second-highest package priority.
A somewhat experimental and patchily documented control file variable confusingly similar to but not directly related to the above; "Important: yes" causes package management tools (or at least APT) to insist on explicit confirmation of any orders to remove the binary package in question. The idea is that "Important" packages are ones like an init-system that some kinds of minimal chroot or similar can do without, but which should resist casual attempts to remove them from a normal machine where they are installed. Compare the slightly stronger "Essential: yes".
- In terms of software, can mean:
To set up an Operating System (e.g. with Debian-Installer), or otherwise introduce software onto a system (e.g. with install(1)). Examples include installing a bootable image to your boot-sector, a homebrew kernel in /boot, or a shellscript in /usr/local/sbin. The Debian system is designed to permit various forms of local installation performed outside the package database, but you have to keep track of them yourself.
In APT (or front-ends), a particular action. Note however that install and remove can each be used to perform the opposite function, if given an appropriate suffix (e.g.: apt install foo- bar- will remove packages foo and bar).
A wanna-build state.
(Not Debian-specific) A highly ambiguous initialism, which can mean:
- Internet Protocol, the primary communications protocol on the net.
- Internet Protocol address (as in "what's your IP?").
- Instruction Pointer address (as in "segfault at ip 000000000000dead").
- Intellectual Property, the intangible assets covered by copyright/licensing/patent/trademark law.
Short for "Intent To Orphan", used to label messages from a Maintainer giving advance warning of the orphaning of packages. Not an official part of the WNPP system, but useful as a way of letting interested developers stake claims.
Short for "Intent To Review"; an i18n mailinglist label (for human consumption) used to indicate that localization work is ongoing; also the message sent to a package Maintainer as the first step in the Smith Project debconf review process.
- Kernel Handbook
See the Debian Linux Kernel Handbook.
Short for "Last Chance For Comment"; an i18n mailinglist label used to indicate that work has been done and calling for any last-minute corrections before it is declared finished.
The codename for Debian 5.0, release date: 2009.
Short for "Long Term Support"; see LTS. Debian releases are routinely given full security support on a longer timescale than most commercial software; this means extra support on top of that.
Sometimes seen as an alternative name for m32r.
- Maintainer Script
Short for Maintainer Script.
Short for "Mise à Jour" (French for "update"); an i18n mailinglist label used to indicate that a document needs to be updated and that the work is reserved for the previous translator.
- Mass bug filing (MBF)
Reporting a great number of bugs for the same problem. See the Debian Developer's Reference.
Short for "Mass Bug Filing".
A dependency package designed to automatically pull in a family of packages; may function as a shortcut to simplify installation of a full desktop environment. Sometimes hyphenated ("meta-package"), sometimes used as a synonym for plain dependency package.
Any process that involves transferring a large set of items, such as (most often in Debian) the automatic movement of packages from one suite to the next. No, it doesn't mean they travel in swarms, and they don't fly back in the winter.
A low bug severity.
- Misc Developer News
A bulletin collating minor news items of interest to Debian Developers sent out to debian-devel-announce whenever sufficient material has been collected on its Wiki page. Compare the Debian Project News.
A wanna-build state.
The queue on ftp-master for packages uploaded for the first time, which need to be reviewed first - see REJECT. This includes renames, packages moving between areas, and source-packages that build new binary packages.
- New Maintainer
See New Member
- New Member (NM)
The default bug severity.
- Can mean:
In aptitude(8) (e.g. aptitude search ?obsolete), any currently installed package which is not available (in any version) from any known archive. This usually means that the system has dist-upgraded to a new stable release that no longer contains that package. Transition packages don't register as obsolete in this sense.
One step older than oldstable (and likewise for oldoldoldstable and so on).
In a line like "Pin: origin 'dl.google.com'", it's a repository hostname to be associated with a "Pin-Priority:" line.
In a line like "Pin: release o='Google, Inc.'" (where the "o" stands for an "Origin:" line in a Release file), it's the name of the vendor or source organization behind the repository. This can also be used in aptitude searches such as "aptitude search '?origin(Debian Backports)'".
- Orphaned (O)
- Can mean:
- Package maintenance
- Package management
- Packages-arch-specific (P-a-s)
- Package Tracking System (PTS)
Short for "Python Applications Packaging Team".
Short for "Packages-arch-specific".
A BTS tag indicating that "a solution to this bug has been found and an upload will be made soon". In practice this may mean anything from "my regular sponsor is away for the weekend" to "it'll be folded into the scheduled major release in the new year".
The (former?) Package Entropy Tracker.
- Philosophy and Procedures (P&P)
An element in the New Member checking process in which applicants are evaluated on their understanding of the principles of free software and of best practice in cooperative development.
Short for "Package Installation, UPgrading And Removal Testing Suite" - see piuparts.
- Point release
- Can mean:
- (Not Debian-specific) A physical hardware interface.
- (Not Debian-specific) A TCP networking endpoint identified by port number.
- (Not Debian-specific) A platform that software has been converted to run on.
A person who is working on a Debian port.
The codename for Debian 2.2, release date: 2000.
A port (not yet a release architecture but available via debports) using the Linux kernel on a slightly more obscure variant of powerpc hardware; "SPE" stands for "Signal Processing Extension" (and not as you might have guessed "Synergistic Processing Element").
A ranking system for binary packages, indicating how important it is for users to have them installed, and ranging from required down to optional (now that extra is being deprecated). See Debian Policy.
A label applied to binary packages such as libc6 that are not themselves essential but are dependencies or pre-dependencies from essential packages, which has a similar effect. apt itself is not an example, but is a sort of pseudo-pseudo-essential special case as it refuses to try to remove itself.
Short for "Package Tracking System".
Short for "Quality Assurance" - see qa.debian.org.
The term used for the judgment as to whether something is in a fit state to be officially part of a release - whether a particular port will be a release architecture, whether a desktop will be the default on install media, etc.
- R3, R^3, or R³
Short for Rules-Requires-Root.
- Has several easily confused meanings, mostly not Debian-specific:
- Short for "Release Candidate", in version strings (v1.9~rc5 comes before v1.9).
Short for "Radio Controlled" (see rc-buggy)
In a filename such as ~/.bashrc, indicates a type of configuration-file - usually interpreted as short for "runtime configuration"
sometimes seen as an unofficial permanent codename for experimental, punning on the name of the Radio Controlled toy car in the original Toy Story.
see Debian Release
- Release Architecture
- Release Critical (RC)
A bug that cannot be allowed in stable; a release cannot occur until all such bugs have been handled (by removal if necessary). Currently these are the bugs with critical, grave and serious severity level.
- Can mean:
In Debian package management, to uninstall a package, especially in a fashion that leaves behind conffiles (thus if you remove and then reinstall a package you won't lose your custom setup). See purge.
In APT (or front-ends), a particular action. Note however that install and remove can each be used to perform the opposite function, if given an appropriate suffix (e.g.: apt remove foo+ bar+ will install packages foo and bar).
(Of a bug) general enough, or reported in sufficient detail, to enable the maintainer/upstream developers to trigger it in a test environment;
(Of a package build process) deterministic enough to enable users/distributors to verify for themselves that a given binary is produced from its declared sources rather than (e.g.) incorporating malware - see ReproducibleBuilds.
- RequestTracker (RT)
The codename for Debian 1.2, release date: 1996.
- A word with several technical uses (not Debian-specific), all deriving from the same metaphor of a node structure with a root and branches:
Short for "Request of Stable Release Manager"; used in bug reports for package removal, to indicate that it has been agreed with the powers that be.
Short for "Request Tracker".
- Salsa (guest) account
A newly defined streamlined process for taking over responsibility for neglected packages.
The codename for Debian 3.1, release date: 2005.
- Can mean:
Sometimes seen as an alternative name for sh4.
Not to be confused with schlubs.
Short for SHared LIBrarieS - that is, dynamically loadable subroutines compiled into object files so that a single copy loaded into memory can be accessed by as many different processes as need it. Normally have the file extension .so, followed by interface-version numbers.
A special file defined in Debian Policy for tracking shared library dependencies.
The permanent codename for unstable ("Still In Development" is an unofficial backronym). While other codenames cycle through from testing to stable to oldstable, the name "Sid" stays in the same place permanently.
The codename for Debian 2.1, release date: 1999.
- Can mean:
A package origin defined by an entry in a sources.list(5) file.
A bash(1) builtin that executes commands from a file.
- Source package
- Can mean:
(Not Debian-specific) A developer meeting dedicated to intensive work on some project - see Sprints.
The codename for Debian 6.0, release date: 2011.
- Stable Update Announcement (SUA)
A package priority (the lowest priority that's installed by default).
- Can mean:
Short for "Travail à Faire" (French for "work to do"); an i18n mailinglist label used to indicate that a volunteer is needed to handle some work. Originated on debian-l10n-french, but now also used for instance in the Smith Project.
- Tasks and Skills (T&S)
An element in the New Member checking process in which applicants are evaluated on their technical knowledge.
The testing-security suite is only roughly the testing equivalent of stable's security support, because it is run by a different ?team and because most new package versions fixing security bugs can simply go through unstable as usual.
Short for "This Is Not Legal Advice"; compare IANAL.
- Transition package
A dependency package designed to automatically replace one package with another, to smooth over a rename or similar migration (especially for users performing a dist-upgrade). Not connected with library transitions.
See Tasks and Skills.
- Ultimate Debian Database (UDD)
Used to tag bug reports requesting a freeze exception.
In APT (or front-ends), the process of refreshing the package-management system's information about what packages are available from the registered sources. Not to be confused with (or omitted before) an upgrade.
- Can mean:
A wanna-build state.
- A term with various potentially confusing senses (not Debian-specific):
- An actual human being currently logged into the system.
- Any service recipient (including for instance remote processes accessing a web server).
- An account, which may belong to a user in the first sense or just be a "system" account.
In chmod(1), the specific user (in the above sense) with ownership of a file.
Any normal, unprivileged account (thus "as a user" versus "as root").
- Any normal, non-technical human user, likely also to be a user in the above sense.
The string (corresponding to a numeric uid) that identifies a user to the system. Ambiguous when written as "user name" - root is a username; "Professor Sam Q. McRandom" is a user name.
(Of a process) Running outside the kernel; everything up to and including init(8) is a user process in this sense. Ambiguous when written as "user space" (which may mean storage capacity available to users).
- Virtual package
A tool forming part of the autobuild system that maintains a database of the build status of packages; see definitions.
- WaT or WAT
"Where are They?" or "Where Art Thou?" (depending on which era of the acronym we are talking about). The process of trying to get in touch with inactive Debian members and eventually removing their membership or getting them active again.
The codename for Debian 7, release date: 2013.
The lowest bug severity (which can include things that aren't literally bugs at all).
The codename for Debian 3.0, release date: 2002.
- X Strike Force (XSF)
- "Yet Another Debianization Aid", a (former) packaging tool, now deprecated and removed.
A character from the Toy Story series not yet used as a codename for a Debian release.
The file extension used for Ubuntu automatic debug packages, implemented in Debian as dbgsym packages - see AutomaticDebugPackages
- .d.o, .d.n, .dc.o
Short for ".debian.org", ".debian.net" and ".debconf.org". Examples: "wiki.d.o", "lists.d.o".
Sometimes all elements are abbreviated, as in p.d.o, which may mean either packages.debian.org or planet.debian.org. Sometimes even the dots are left out as in debian-www@ldo for email@example.com.
libolla offers some support for such abbreviated domain names
The file extension used for (proposed) separate translation packages - see Dep-4.