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Secure Shell (SSH) Server

What is Secure Shell?

FreedomBox runs openssh-server server by default allowing remote logins from all interfaces. If your hardware device is connected to a monitor and a keyboard, you may login directly as well. Regular operation of FreedomBox does not require you to use the shell. However, some tasks or identifying a problem may require you to login to a shell.

Setting Up A User Account

FreedomBox First Log In: Admin Account

When creating an account in FreedomBox's web interface for the first time, this user will automatically have administrator capabilities. Admin users are able to log in using ssh (see Logging In below) and have superuser privileges via sudo.

Default User Account

The pre-built FreedomBox images have a default user account called "fbx". However the password is not set for this account, so it will not be possible to log in with this account by default.

There is a script included in the freedom-maker program, that will allow you to set the password for this account, if it is needed. To set a password for the "fbx" user:

1. Decompress the image file.

2. Get a copy of freedom-maker from

3. Run sudo ./bin/passwd-in-image <image-file> fbx.

4. Copy the image file to SD card and boot device as normal.

The "fbx" user also has superuser privileges via sudo.

Logging In

Who can log in to FreedomBox by SSH?

FreedomBox administrative users may use SSH to to log in to FreedomBox. The user 'fbx' is created by FreedomBox and is an administrative super-user. There are options which allow ordinary users to log in:

With a new FreedomBox you may log in as fbx using ssh, and other ordinary users will be able to log in after adjusting the user or Secure Shell settings above in this section. The root user account will have no password set and will not be able to log in.

SSH Client Software

SSH client in included in many operating systems including Linux, Microsoft Windows, and Apple MacOS. SSH is included in Chromebooks, but requires some configuration by the user. In most cases you can run SSH from a terminal or command prompt as shown here, using your FreedomBox hostname or IP address:

$ ssh freedombox.local

If your client computer does not have SSH available, PuTTY is a popular free software client program which complies with the Debian Free Software Guidelines. PuTTY has a graphical interface to remember and manage your SSH connections. See External links below for more information about PuTTY.

Cockpit as an SSH Alternative

The Cockpit Server Administration Terminal app available from the Cockpit Tools menu is an alternative shell access tool to SSH. Like SSH your connection to a FreedomBox terminal is secured. Cockpit is a good choice for users who do not wish to enable the SSH server or those who prefer to connect through a web browser. With either tool you will be presented with the FreedomBox bash command line interface.

Some users prefer to run SSH instead of, or in addition to, Cockpit. Command shell users tend to like SSH because it's something that they are already using. Users with Linux or Unix system administration experience tend to rely on this connection method because it is a simpler service which is thought to be more likely to be available if problems arise.

Refer to the Let's Encrypt and Cockpit sections of this manual to configure Cockpit and SSL certificates for security.

SSH over Local Network

To login via SSH, to your FreedomBox:

$ ssh fbx@freedombox.local

Replace fbx with the name of the user you wish to login as. fbx and users in admin group will be able to login on the terminal directly. Other users will be denied access.

freedombox should be replaced with the hostname. Alternatively, you can substitute the hostname by its IP address as found in the Quick Start process:

$ ssh fbx@

If your FreedomBox has a domain name you can also use it:

$ ssh

If you repeatedly try to login as a user and fail, you will be blocked from logging in for some time. This is due to libpam-abl package that FreedomBox installs by default. To control this behavior consult libpam-abl documentation.

Here we've used a .local network name (using multicast DNS), a local network IP address, and a DNS name to connect to FreedomBox using SSH.

SSH over the Internet

If your router is configured accordingly or your FreedomBox is directly exposed to the internet, you can also use a public domain name or a public IP address in the same fashion we'd do for the local network. Multicast DNS won't work here, though.

Let's look at connecting by SSH to FreedomBox using other networks now.

SSH over Tor

If in FreedomBox you have enabled onion services via Tor, you can access your FreedomBox using ssh over Tor. On a GNU/Linux computer, install netcat-openbsd.

$ sudo apt-get install netcat-openbsd

Edit ~/.ssh/config to enable connections over Tor.

$ nano ~/.ssh/config

Add the following:

Host *.onion
  port 22
  ProxyCommand nc -X 5 -x %h %p

Replace USERNAME with, e.g., an admin username (see above).

Note that in some cases you may need to replace 9050 with 9150.

Now to connect to the FreedomBox, open a terminal and type:


Replace USERNAME with, e.g., an admin username, and ADDRESS with the onion service address for your FreedomBox.

SSH Over Pagekite

If in FreedomBox you are using Pagekite to expose services to the Internet, you can access your FreedomBox using SSH over Pagekite. On a GNU/Linux computer install netcat-openbsd.

$ sudo apt-get install netcat-openbsd

Edit ~/.ssh/config to enable connections over Pagekite.

$ nano ~/.ssh/config

Add the following:

Host *
  CheckHostIP no
  ProxyCommand /bin/nc -X connect -x %h:443 %h %p

Now to connect to FreedomBox, open a terminal and type:

$ ssh

Replace USERNAME with, e.g., an admin username, and KITENAME with your kite name provided by as configured in FreedomBox.

Becoming Superuser

After logging in, if you want to become the superuser for performing administrative activities:

$ sudo su

Make a habit of logging in as root only when you need to. If you aren't logged in as root, you can't accidentally break everything.

Changing Password

To change the password of a user managed by FreedomBox's web interface, use the change password page. However, the fbx default user is not managed by FreedomBox's web interface and its password cannot be changed through it.

To change password on the terminal, log in to your FreedomBox as the user whose password you want to change. Then, run the following command:

$ passwd

This will ask you for your current password before giving you the opportunity to set a new one.

SSH Keys

The next step for SSH security and convenience is to understand and use ssh keys. If you logged in to FreedomBox the first time using ssh following the instructions above you specified a username and password to log in. In this section you'll learn about Server Fingerprints and host keys, authorized keys, and reasons to use these to make connection easier and more secure.

By default SSH is configured to prefer to use keys while still allowing you to use a username and password to log in. At the end of this section you will be able to:

SSH Public and Private Keys

SSH keys are generated in pairs called a key pair. There is a public key and a private key for each key pair. The public key encrypts data which can only be read using the private key, and the private key encrypts data which can only be read using the public key. This is called an asymmetric cryptography system. SSH will distribute your public keys automatically to the other connected system while keeping your private keys safe.

Using SSH keys creates a powerful set of security features:

Create your personal SSH keys on your client computer using ssh-keygen

You will create an SSH key pair on your client computer. We'll use the defaults and will not specify a password. Just press the Enter key when you are prompted for an SSH key password. This is very simple using the ssh-keygen command with no arguments. Here is how to run the command and a sample of the output the ssh-keygen program will give to you:

$ ssh-keygen
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa): 
Created directory '/home/username/.ssh'.
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
Enter same passphrase again: 
Your identification has been saved in /home/username/.ssh/id_rsa
Your public key has been saved in /home/username/.ssh/
The key fingerprint is:
SHA256:nHcTP5DBKxBOgt8BFMyb2QUs//t8ge+8vw2zjOuE71U username@clientpc
The key's randomart image is:
+---[RSA 3072]----+
|     ==++o ..    |
|    . +++ . .o   |
|     . O.+  +.   |
|      =.+.. .+   |
|        S...o.o E|
|         ..o...o |
|          ....+. |
|          .+ =o+.|
|           +O+*++|

That's all you need to do. You now have a personal SSH key pair on your client computer.

Verify your FreedomBox Server Fingerprint

On your first time connecting to FreedomBox using ssh you may have noticed a message similar to this:

$ ssh fbx@freedombox.local
The authenticity of host 'freedombox.local (' can't be established.
ED25519 key fingerprint is SHA256:TwJFdepq7OaTXcycoYfYE8/lRtuOxUGCrst0K/RUh4E.
This key is not known by any other names.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no/[fingerprint])? 

There are a few things to understand about this message:

Go to FreedomBox in your web browser. Click on the System menu, and then Secure Shell. The second section of this page is, Server Fingerprints. There is an ED25519 key entry on this page:









Compare the ED25519 fingerprint on the FreedomBox Secure Shell page with the ED25519 fingerprint received by the ssh client in the first-connection example above. If these fingerprints are the same then you may be confident that you are connecting to your FreedomBox.

If you'd like to walk through these steps but you have already made the first connection, you can reset that. Issue this command on your ssh client computer.

$ ssh-keygen -R freedombox.local

This removes the record of your known connection to FreedomBox. Now open your Secure Shell system configuration page on FreedomBox to the Server Fingerprints section. Next connect to FreedomBox with your ssh client and properly verify the server fingerprint before indicating yes to the host authenticity question. Having done this correctly you can be certain that when you make an SSH connection to FreedomBox you are connecting to your server.

Each time you connect to a new SSH server you will be given the opportunity to verify the server fingerprint. If you connect to FreedomBox using different names or IP address (local IP, DNS name, Pagekite name, TOR .onion address...) you will be asked once for each name or address, but the fingerprint will not change.

Your server fingerprints are not private information. The fingerprint is a summary of a public key shared by the server which is used encrypt information sent to the SSH server. Your server public key is also not private information. You could share fingerprints and public keys with the world and the security of your FreedomBox will not be diminished.

Share your personal SSH key with FreedomBox using ssh-copy-id

By now you have a personal key pair, and you have verified the identity of FreedomBox. FreedomBox still does not know about your identity, and will ask you for your password when you try to log in by ssh. The ssh-copy-id program will tell FreedomBox to accept your personal key as your password.

$ ssh-copy-id username@freedombox.local
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
username@freedombox.local's password: 

Number of key(s) added: 1

Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh 'username@freedombox.local'"
and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.

This step adds your personal public key to your user account on FreedomBox. With this step complete the FreedomBox SSH server will compare the key sent by the client computer with the key stored on FreedomBox. If these match then you will be logged in without the need to give a password. Try it now:

$ ssh freedombox.local
Linux freedombox 6.1.0-18-amd64 #1 SMP PREEMPT_DYNAMIC Debian 6.1.76-1 (2024-02-01) x86_64

                         .--._    _.--.
                        (     \  /     )
                         \     /\     /
                          \_   \/   _/
                           /        \
                          (    /\    )
                           `--'  `--'


FreedomBox is a pure blend of Debian GNU/Linux. Web interface is available at
https://localhost/ . FreedomBox manual is available in /usr/share/doc/freedombox
and from the web interface.

The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent
permitted by applicable law.
You have new mail.
Last login: Sun Mar 17 14:27:03 2024 from

Once you have added your client SSH key to FreedomBox you will be able to connect using that one key by every method of addressing your FreedomBox:

Block SSH password guessing attempts by disabling password authentication

Once you are able to connect to FreedomBox by ssh using a key and not entering a password you can take a step to improve the security of FreedomBox. If your FreedomBox is accessible from the internet you may notice that there are repeated attempts to log in to your FreedomBox from the internet. A good password is your first line of defense, and FreedomBox has additional features which protect you from these intrusion attempts. You can stop this nonsense completely by disabling password authentication for Secure Shell.

Go to your FreedomBox System menu. Click the Secure Shell configuration link. Look under Configuration and select, "Disable password authentication"

Click the, "Update setup," button and it's done. This will stop all password guessing intrusion attempts using ssh. You can log in using your key, and nobody else will be able to log in by guessing a password.

Remote Host Identification has Changed : What it means and what to do

You may eventually experience an alarming message when you try to log in to your FreedomBox with SSH. You will see a message similar to this.

Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
It is also possible that a host key has just been changed.
The fingerprint for the RSA key sent by the remote host is
Please contact your system administrator.
Add correct host key in /home/username/.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message.
Offending RSA key in /home/username/.ssh/known_hosts:2
  remove with:
  ssh-keygen -f "/home/username/.ssh/known_hosts" -R ""
Host key for has changed and you have requested strict checking.
Host key verification failed.

This message tells you something important. It's usually not threatening, but there is the possibility that an attack could be made on a computer or network which can also produce this. What's important is that you'll do the same thing in either case.

The nature of this message is that the trust relationship you make with the SSH server through the fingerprint verification and key exchange with ssh-copy-id has been broken. Reading this error message closely, the issue is that the key fingerprint sent by FreedomBox at connection time does not match the key stored on the SSH client at the time you did the fingerprint verification. This could mean a few different things:

Fix this by removing the FreedomBox entry from the client computer. On your laptop or desktop do the command as written exactly as in the the error message you receive (don't copy one from the message above!).

$ ssh-keygen -f /home/username/.ssh/known_hosts -R "" 
# Host found: line 2
# Host found: line 3
/home/username/.ssh/known_hosts updated.
Original contents retained as /home/username/.ssh/known_hosts.old

In so doing you have removed the FreedomBox fingerprint verification step we've done. Go back to the Verify your FreedomBox Server Fingerprint section above and complete the steps again. For good measure, make an effort to see that you are connected to your own FreedomBox in case you are being attacked.

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