["FileSystem"] > FilesystemHierarchyStandard
The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) defines the main directories and their contents in Linux and other Unix-like computer operating systems.
The process of developing a standard ["filesystem"] hierarchy began in August 1993 with an effort to restructure the file and directory structure of ["Linux"]. The FSSTND (Filesystem Standard), a filesystem hierarchy standard specific to the Linux operating system, was released on February 14, 1994. Subsequent revisions were released on October 9, 1994 and March 28, 1995.
In early 1996, the goal of developing a more comprehensive version of FSSTND to address not only Linux, but other Unix-like systems was adopted with the help of members of the BSD development community. As a result, a concerted effort was made to focus on issues that were general to Unix-like systems. In recognition of this widening of scope, the name of the standard was changed to Filesystem Hierarchy Standard or FHS for short.
The FHS is maintained by the Free Standards Group, a non-profit organization consisting of major software and hardware vendors, such as HP, IBM and Dell. Still, the vast majority of the Linux distributions, including those developed by members of the Free Standards Group, do not follow this proposed standard. In particular, paths specifically created by the FHS editors, such as /media/ and /srv/, do not see widespread usage. Some Unix and Linux systems break with the FHS in favor of a different approach, as in Gobo Linux.
All files and directories appear under the ["root directory"] "/", even if stored on different physical devices.
A description of the hierarchy specified in the FHS
Essential command executable (binaries) for all users (e.g., cat, ls, cp) ?BR (especially files required to boot or rescue the system)
Boot loader, [:Kernel:kernels] and [:Initrd:initrd] files
devices files (e.g., :/dev/null)
Host-specific system-wide configuration files (from et cetera)
Users' home directories
Libraries essential for the binaries in /bin/ and /sbin/ ?BR (library required to boot or rescue the system)
Some files and fragment that were "recovered" during the previous fsck (Not part of FHS)
Temporarily mounted filesystems
Mount points for removable media such as CD-ROMs (appeared in FHS-2.3)
Add-on application software packages ?BR Pre-compiled, non ".deb" binary distribution (tar'ed..) goes here.
Virtual filesystem documenting kernel and process status, mostly text files (e.g., uptime, network)
Home directory for the root user
System administrative binaries (e.g., init, route, ifup) (system binaries) ?BR (files required to boot or rescue the system)
- SE-Linux runtime settings (Not part of FHS).
Site-specific data which is served by the system (Not part of FHS).
The filesystem for exporting kernel objects.?BR (many /proc/* files should have been here...)
Secondary hierarchy for shareable, read-only data (formerly from UNIX source repository, now from UNIX system resources) ?BR (files that not-required to boot or rescue the system)
/usr/include/ : Standard include files
/usr/share/ : Architecture-independent (shared) data
/usr/src/ : Source code (to build debian packages. see also /usr/local/src/)
/usr/!X11R6/ : X Window System, Version 11 Release 6
/usr/local/ : Tertiary hierarchy for local data installed by the system administrator
- /usr/local/bin : locally compiled binaries, local shell script, etc.
/usr/local/src : Source code (place where to extract and build non debian'ized stuffs)
Variable data, such as logs, databases, websites, and temporary spool (e-mail..) files
"The Directory Tree" overview (Debian GNU/Linux Installation Guide [http://www.debian.org/releases/etch/i386/apcs02.html i386], [http://www.debian.org/releases/etch/amd64/apcs02.html amd64]..)
[http://www.pathname.com/fhs/] Home of the FHS standard
http://www.debian.org/doc/packaging-manuals/fhs/ - FHS mirrored at Debian