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|echo "$HOSTNAME" > /srv/jail/$JID/hostname||echo "$HOSTNAME" > /srv/jail/$JID/etc/hostname|
A complete Debian GNU/kFreeBSD system should work within a jail, on a GNU/kFreeBSD or regular FreeBSD host system, with a few limitations.
Jails work a lot like Linux OpenVZ. On the host you can see all processes running in all jails. Within a jail, you can only see the processes running in that jail.
Be aware that some files in /proc or /sys, such as /proc/mounts, are not partitioned per jail, and this may leak some (read-only) information about the host, or other guests' mountpoints.
Some features such as sysvipc are not namespaced for individual jails, so for security reasons they are disabled by default. fakeroot requires this to be enabled. Running more than one postgresql-server instance in a shared sysvipc namespace would clash, and not normally work.
The raw_sockets feature is normally disabled, to prevent IP spoofing from inside the jail. The ping tool will not work properly as a result.
Creating a new jailed system
JID=101 MIRROR="http://http.debian.net/debian" debootstrap \ --exclude=devd,dmidecode,isc-dhcp-client,isc-dhcp-common,kldutils,pf,vidcontrol \ wheezy /srv/jail/$JID "$MIRROR" HOSTNAME=jail$JID.example.com IP=10.1.0.$JID echo "$HOSTNAME" > /srv/jail/$JID/etc/hostname echo "$IP $HOSTNAME" >> /srv/jail/$JID/etc/hosts
The --exclude to debootrap lists some packages that are probably not useful in a jailed system. The devd package will typically not work in a jail.
Ensure the jailed system's /etc/resolv.conf is suitable. If a DNS resolver runs on the host system, you should reference it by unicast (public or private) IP address such as "nameserver 10.1.0.1", instead of e.g. "nameserver 127.0.0.1".
The jailed system will not have a loopback interface unless you create one.
Starting or stopping a jail
Assuming a debootstrap'd installation already exists in /srv/jail/$JID/, here is an example of how to start it up inside a jail:
JID=101 # Linux-like /proc and /sys filesystems mount -t linprocfs linprocfs /srv/jail/$JID/proc mount -t linsysfs linsysfs /srv/jail/$JID/sys # Ramdisk required for /run mount -t tmpfs tmpfs /srv/jail/$JID/run # A restricted, read-only /dev filesystem mount -t devfs devfs /srv/jail/$JID/dev # Compatibility symlink from /dev/shm to /run/shm ln -s /run/shm /srv/jail/$JID/dev/ # Optionally enable networking HOSTNAME=jail$JID.example.com # :XXX: this IP address *must* be assigned to one of the host's interfaces before the guest can use it IP=10.1.0.$JID mkdir -p /var/run/jail jail -J /var/run/jail/$JID.jid -c jid=$JID \ name=jail$JID \ path=/srv/jail/$JID \ host.hostname=$HOSTNAME \ ip4.addr=$IP \ command=/bin/sh -- -c "/etc/init.d/rc S && /etc/init.d/rc 2"
You may want to install and configure locales on the first boot:
apt-get install locales dpkg-reconfigure locales
If openssh-server is installed within the jail, you should be able to SSH into it like a virtual private server.
jls (to list running jails) is not available yet. 709225
jexec is not available yet, but you can probably get by with:
# jail -m jid=$JID command=/bin/bash # cd
A jail stops 'running' when all processes within it exit. (Within the jail, /etc/init.d/rc 0 ; exec kill -1 might be a way to force a shutdown?)
The libjail package was not distributed with Squeeze. The kernel functionality has existed since FreeBSD 4.x however, so it may work if you can build the necessary userland tools.