This page gives directions on how to upgrade your Debian distribution.
How to release upgrade your distribution
Back up your data
Performing a release upgrade is never without risk. The upgrade may fail, leaving the system in a non-functioning state. USERS SHOULD BACKUP ALL DATA before attempting a release upgrade. DebianStability contains more information on these steps.
Upgrading a system can take several hours, depending on the number of installed packages and the speed of the system, especially its hard disks. While the download portion of the upgrade can be done separately, the actual install portion should be done in a single pass. Most of the upgrade process is quite hands-off, but some administrator action is needed towards the end of the process if the system has a custom configuration.
- Obtain a text shell.
- On desktop machines, switch to console tty via Ctrl+Alt+F3 (the upgrade should be done on a text console, because your desktop environment could freeze during post-install/service restarts, leaving the system in a broken state.)
- Run the following, by entering lines beginning with $ into the shell:
# First, ensure your system is up-to-date in it's current release. $ sudo apt update $ sudo apt upgrade # If you haven't already, ensure all backups are up-to-date. # In a text editor, replace the codename of your release with that of the next release in APT's package sources # For instance, the line # deb https://deb.debian.org/debian/ buster main # should be replaced with # deb https://deb.debian.org/debian/ bullseye main $ sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.d/* # Clean and update package lists $ sudo apt clean $ sudo apt update # Perform the major release upgrade, removing packages if required # Interrupting this step after downloading has completed is an excellent way to stress-test your backups $ sudo apt full-upgrade # Remove packages that are not required anymore # Be sure to review this list: you may want to keep some of them $ sudo apt autoremove # Reboot to make changes effective (optional, but recommended) $ sudo shutdown -r now
Now check the output of uname -a ; lsb_release -a and you should see info about the upgraded system.