Debian Repository Format
This document is a work in progress that documents the structure of the official Debian repository and the format that is officially understood by clients. Its purpose is to define how a Debian repository should be structured, and how clients should interpret this. The goal is to become a sub-policy eventually.
Debian Repository Format
- "Release" files
- Legacy per-component-and-architecture Release files
- "Packages" Indices
- "Sources" Indices
- "Contents" indices
- "Translation" indices
- indices acquisition via hashsums (by-hash)
- indices difference files (diffs)
- Debian installer files - udeb packages
- Flat Repository Format
- See Also
Debian package archives are primarily used to store and retrieve packages automatically.
Most if not all package managers use libapt for package retrieval from external media and the internet.
The sources.list man page specifies this package source format:
deb uri distribution [component1] [component2] [...]
and gives an example:
deb https://deb.debian.org/debian stable main contrib non-free
Here deb specifies that this is source for binary packages, deb-src is for source packages.
An archive can have either source packages or binary packages or both but they have to be specified separately to apt.
The uri, in this case https://deb.debian.org/debian specifies the root of the archive. Often Debian archives are in the debian/ directory on the server but can be anywhere else (many mirrors for example have it in a pub/linux/debian directory, for example).
The distribution part (stable in this case) specifies a subdirectory in $ARCHIVE_ROOT/dists. It can contain additional slashes to specify subdirectories nested deeper, eg. stable/updates. distribution typically corresponds to Suite or Codename specified in the Release files. FIXME is this enforced anyhow?
To download packages from a repository apt would download a InRelease or Release file from the $ARCHIVE_ROOT/dists/$DISTRIBUTION directory.
InRelease files are signed in-line while Release files should have an accompanying Release.gpg file.
The Release file lists the index files for the distribution and their hashes (the index file listed are relative to Release file location).
To download the index of the main component, apt would scan the Release file for hashes of files in the main directory. eg. https://deb.debian.org/debian/dists/testing/main/binary-i386/Packages.gz which would be listed in https://deb.debian.org/debian/dists/testing/Release as main/binary-i386/Packages.gz
Binary package indices are in binary-$arch subdirectory of the component directories. Source indices are in source subdirectory.
Package indices list specific source or binary packages relative to the archive root.
To avoid file duplication binary and source packages are usually kept in the pool subdirectory of the archive root. The Packages and Sources indices can list any path relative to archive root, however. It is suggested that packages are placed in a subdirectory of archive root other than dists rather than directly in archive root. Placing packages directly in the archive root is not tested and some tools may fail to index or retrieve packages placed there.
The Contents and Translation indices are not architecture-specific and are placed in dists/$DISTRIBUTION/$COMPONENT directory, not architecture subdirectory.
Types of files
The "Release" files, "Packages" and "Sources" indices, and files called "Index" that are used for translations and differences are control files, as defined in Policy, Chapter 5. In addition to the rules for control files, field names shall be generated using the case defined in this document, that is, code creating repositories shall be case-sensitive, but code reading repositories should not be case-sensitive.
The file "Release.gpg" contains an OpenPGP signature. All files used for differences (all files in the .diff directories, except for the Index) are ed-style patch files. All files ending in ".deb" are Debian packages, all files ending in ".udeb" are Debian packages for the installer. Files ending in ".dsc" are Debian source package descriptions. They specify what files comprise the source package, typically .orig.tar and .debian.tar archives compressed using one of the supported compression methods. There might be other types of files in a repository (and files of the same type at different locations), but they are out of scope for this document.
Compression of indices
Unless a compression is indicated by the filename of the indices below, and index may be compressed in one or multiple of the following formats:
- No compression (no extension)
- XZ (.xz extension)
- Gzip (.gz extension, usually for Contents files, and diffs)
- Bzip2 (.bz2 extension, usually for Translations)
- LZMA (.lzma extension)
Clients must support xz compression, and must support gzip and bzip2 if they want to use the files that are listed as usual use cases of these formats. Support for all three formats is highly recommended, as gzip and bzip2 are historically more widespread.
Servers should offer only xz compressed files, except for the special cases listed above. Some historical clients may only understand gzip compression, if these need to be supported, gzip-compressed files may be offered as well.
A repository must not include different packages (different content) with the same package name, version, and architecture. When a repository is meant to be used as a supplement to another repository this should hold for the joint main+supplement repository as well.
A Sources index may contain multiple versions of one source package. A Packages index may contain multiple versions of one binary package, for the same architecture and/or multiple architectures (that is, all and the native architecture). In the official Debian archive, this is used to keep around old versions of an Architecture: all package that is still needed by the other packages.
The file "dists/$DIST/InRelease" shall contain meta-information about the distribution and checksums for the indices, possibly signed with an OpenPGP clearsign signature (for example created by "gpg -a -s --clearsign"). For older clients there can also be a "dists/$DIST/Release" file without any signature and the file "dists/$DIST/Release.gpg" with a detached OpenPGP signature of the "Release" file, compatible with the format used by the GnuPG options "-a -b -s".
The following fields have a well defined meaning:
- These fields are optional. They may be displayed to the user by package management tool or used for pinning. It is suggested that any repository published for other users to use fills meaningful information in these fields so that the user can tell apart different repositories.
- In Debian repositories the indices are stored in a directory named after Suite or Codename (actually one is symlinked to the other). The Release file may specify other location, though.
- These fields determine layout of the repository and should contain something meaningful to the user. In Debian these fields may contain lowercase characters, numbers, - and _. Other characters (eg. uppercase letters) should also work but these fields are used for file paths so use of special characters that might need special treatment in URIs or filesystem is discouraged.
- These fields are purely functional and used mostly internally by packaging tools.
- MD5Sum, SHA1, SHA256
NotAutomatic and ButAutomaticUpgrades
Servers shall provide the InRelease file, and might provide a Release files and its signed counterparts with at least the following keys:
- Suite and/or Codename
Still having a unsigned Release file and MD5Sum is currently highly recommended.
Clients may accept missing Release files, and Release files without the fields required for servers. They might reject Release files that do not contain at least one of the fields defined herein.
Whitespace separated unique single words identifying Debian machine architectures as described in Architecture specification strings, Section 11.1. The field identifies which architectures are supported by this repository. A client should give a warning if it has a repository configured which doesn't support the machine architecture(s) configured in the client. Servers are allowed to declare support for an architecture even if they currently don't distribute indexes for this architecture. Clients should treat a missing entry for an architecture-specific index of a supported architecture as if that index file would exist, but is empty. If a server is not specifying the supported architectures with this field client behavior is unspecified in this case.
The presents of the architecture all in this field indicates that the architecture-specific indexes do not include information about Architecture:all packages and have instead their own index file with the architecture all. Clients must download the all index files in this case, but must not download them if the Architectures field does not include all.
An optional field with a temporary and very specific usecase: Servers who already support and distribute indexes for the architecture all, but still include their content in the architecture-specific indexes as well can use this field to exclude certain indexes from the handling defined in the Architectures field. Clients should support the value Packages, which excludes the Packages indexes from this handling. If they don't support it they will download needlessly duplicated data, which they have to deal with correctly.
The field's purpose is to decouple the introduction of indexes like Contents-all from the introduction of Packages-all. Support by clients (if they choose to support it at all) is therefore bound to disappear after the transition to all for all indexes is done.
Optional field indicating the origin of the repository, a single line of free form text.
Optional field including some kind of label, a single line of free form text.
Typically used extensively in repositories split over multiple media such as repositories stored on CDs.
The Suite field may describe the suite. A suite is a single word. In Debian, this shall be one of oldstable, stable, testing, unstable, or experimental; with optional suffixes such as -updates.
The Codename field shall describe the codename of the release. A codename is a single word. Debian releases are codenamed after Toy Story Characters, and the unstable suite has the codename sid, the experimental suite has the codename experimental.
The Version field, if specified, shall be the version of the release. This is usually a sequence of integers separated by the character . (full stop).
The Date field shall specify the time at which the Release file was created. Clients updating a local on-disk cache should ignore a Release file with an earlier date than the date in the already stored Release file.
The Valid-Until field may specify at which time the Release file should be considered expired by the client. Client behaviour on expired Release files is unspecified.
The format of the dates is the same as for the Date field in .changes files; and as used in debian/changelog files, and documented in Policy 4.4 ( Debian changelog: debian/changelog), but all dates must be represented as an instance of UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) as it is the case e.g. in HTTP/1.1, too. Thus, generating a valid value for the Date field can be achieved by running date -R -u.
Date: Sat, 02 Jul 2016 05:20:50 +0000
The time zone must be specified using one of the strings +0000, UTC, GMT, or Z. Other values, such as different time zones, must not be used. Using the numerical value +0000 is recommended.
The numerical values for day, hour, minute, and second must be zero padded. Clients should also accept non-zero-terminated values for historical compatibility reasons.
Clients may accept other formats in addition to the specified one, but files should not contain them.
A whitespace separated list of areas.
Components: main contrib non-free
May also include be prefixed by parts of the path following the directory beneath dists, if the Release file is not in a directory directly beneath dists/. As an example, security updates are specified in APT as:
deb https://security.debian.org/ stable/updates main)
The Release file would be located at https://security.debian.org/dists/stable/updates/Release and look like:
Suite: stable Components: updates/main updates/contrib updates/non-free
MD5Sum, SHA1, SHA256
note the upper-case S in MD5Sum (unlike in Packages and Sources files)
These fields are used for two purposes:
- describe what package index files are present
- when release signature is available it certifies that listed index files and files referenced by those index files are genuine
Those fields shall be multi-line fields containing multiple lines of whitespace separated data. Each line shall contain
- The checksum of the file in the format corresponding to the field
The size of the file (integer >= 0)
- The filename relative to the directory of the Release file
Each datum must be separated by one or more whitespace characters.
- The checksum and sizes shall match the actual existing files. If indexes are compressed, checksum data must be provided for uncompressed files as well, even if not present on the server.
- Any file should be checked at least once, either in compressed or uncompressed form, depending on which data is available. If a file has no associated data, the client shall inform the user about this under possibly dangerous situations (such as installing a package from that repository). If a file does not match the data specified in the release file, the client shall not use any information from that file, inform the user, and might use old information (such as the previous locally kept information) instead.
- Clients may not use the MD5Sum and SHA1 fields for security purposes, and must require a SHA256 or a SHA512 field.
NotAutomatic and ButAutomaticUpgrades
The NotAutomatic and ButAutomaticUpgrades fields are optional boolean fields instructing the package manager. They may contain the values "yes" and "no". If one the fields is not specified, this has the same meaning as a value of "no".
If a value of "yes" is specified for the NotAutomatic field, a package manager should not install packages (or upgrade to newer versions) from this repository without explicit user consent (APT assigns priority 1 to this) If the field ButAutomaticUpgrades is specified as well and has the value "yes", the package manager should automatically install package upgrades from this repository, if the installed version of the package is higher than the version of the package in other sources (APT assigns priority 100).
Specifying "yes" for ButAutomaticUpgrades without specifying "yes" for NotAutomatic is invalid.
An optional boolean field with the default value "no". A value of "yes" indicates that the server supports the optional "by-hash" locations as an alternative to the canonical location (and name) of an index file. A client is free to choose which locations it will try to get indexes from, but it is recommend to use the "by-hash" location if supported by the server for its benefits for servers and clients. A client may fallback to the canonical location if by-hash fails.
An optional field containing a comma separated list of OpenPGP key fingerprints to be used for validating the next Release file. The fingerprints must consist only of hex digits and may not contain spaces. The fingerprint specifies either the key the Release file must be signed with or the key the signature key must be a subkey of. The later match can be disabled by appending an exclamation mark to the fingerprint.
If the field is present, a client should only accept future updates to the repository that are signed with keys listed in the field. The field should be ignored if the Valid-Until field is not present or if it is expired.
Compatibility: This feature was introduced in APT 1.3 and required the concrete key used to sign the repository to be listed, that is, if a subkey is used, the subkey fingerprint must be listed in the field. APT 1.8 added automatic subkey support and support for disabling it via ! as used by gnupg. As APT before 1.8 will choke on this new syntax it should be avoided until all expected users have a sufficiently recent client.
A hint that package downloads will require authorization. This allows clients to prevent use of that repository if authorization has not been provided, avoiding problems with failing downloads.
Currently in beta in apt 1.8, with the limitations that (1) the auth data must be provided in auth.conf(.d) files, not sources.list, and (2) it must be provided for the hostname, not a subdirectory on the domain. It is expected that APT 1.9 and later will solve the second limitation.
Deprecated. Will be removed in a future apt version, as it breaks local mirroring of such repos if the local mirror is unauthorized but apt requires auth data and the local http server rejects authorization credentials for unprotected resources.
Legacy per-component-and-architecture Release files
Servers may provide legacy Release files in "dists/$DIST/$COMP/binary-$ARCH/Release".
It should contain only the following fields:
- Archive (old name for Suite)
- Acquire-By-Hash (optional)
- Component: $COMP (singular variant of Components)
- Architecture: $ARCH (current architecture)
Clients must not use them.
The files dists/$DIST/$COMP/binary-$ARCH/Packages (and dists/$DIST/$COMP/debian-installer/binary-$ARCH/Packages for udebs) are called Binary Packages Indices. They consist of multiple paragraphs, where each paragraph has the format defined in Policy 5.3 (Binary package control files -- DEBIAN/control), and the additional fields defined in this section, precisely:
- Filename (mandatory)
- Size (mandatory)
- MD5sum, SHA1, SHA256 (recommended)
- Description-md5 (optional)
If the following fields exist in the control file of a .deb file they also must exist in the record about the package in the Packages file and the value must match exactly or a client might recognize a metadata mismatch and redownloads/reinstalls a package:
- Depends et al
Note that the control file of .deb files may contain additional fields not yet documented by policy or not yet documented here which then might also be found in this file.
Each paragraph shall begin with a "Package" field. Clients may also accept files where this is not the case.
The Packages file for architecture $ARCH should include only paragraphs concerning packages of the architecture $ARCH. It may also include packages of the architecture all depending on the value of the Architectures field in the Release file.
The mandatory Filename field shall list the path of the package archive relative to the base directory of the repository. The path should be in canonical form, that is, without any components denoting the current or parent directory ("." or ".."). It also should not make use of any protocol-specific components, such as URL-encoded parameters.
Size, MD5sum, SHA1, SHA256, SHA512
The mandatory Size field describes the size of the package, in its compressed form, in units of bytes. Its value shall be a strictly positive integer, given in decimal notation, without any leading zeroes.
The MD5sum (lower case s), SHA1, SHA256, SHA512 fields provide cryptographic hashes for verifying the file integrity. Their values shall be given in hexadecimal notation, including any leading zeroes, and using lower case letters. At least one field providing a SHA2 hash shall be provided. Providing SHA256 is highly recommended.
Size: 1158196 MD5sum: 2519c8c1afd27e70cf4ac10a5fa46e32 SHA1: 646eda5b6d51190181c15f5537428161f6f04c1d SHA256: 3183eff291d1e9d905e78a6b467bbfb90b20fc2808d50b5e91bf55158b4c18be
Clients may not use the MD5Sum and SHA1 fields for security purposes, and must require a SHA256 or a SHA512 field.
An MD5 checksum of the complete English language description. If not specified, the checksum can be computed starting with the second byte after the colon following the field name containing the English language description (Description in the binary package) and includes the trailing newline of the field. The field value is processed as-is, without any formatting such as removing the indentation done.
If the value is specified, it must be a hex MD5 digest and must consist solely of the digits 012345679, and the lowercase characters abcdef. If the value contains any other character, such as uppercase characters, the behaviour is unspecified.
In the example given below, the checksum is calculated starting from the c in commandline up to (and including) the newline character before Description-md5.
Description: commandline package manager This package provides commandline tools for searching and managing as well as querying information about packages as a low-level access to all features of the libapt-pkg library. . These include: * apt-get for retrieval of packages and information about them from authenticated sources and for installation, upgrade and removal of packages together with their dependencies * apt-cache for querying available information about installed as well as installable packages * apt-cdrom to use removable media as a source for packages * apt-config as an interface to the configuration settings * apt-key as an interface to manage authentication keys Description-md5: 9fb97a88cb7383934ef963352b53b4a7
As an exception to Policy 5.6.13 (Description), the value of the Description field may omit the long description if the Description-md5 field is defined. In such a case, the description is found in the Translation-en.
A number between 0 and 100 (both inclusive) that defines a percentage of machines this update should be rolled out to.
To determine whether an update is applicable to a given machine, a client shall seed a random number generator (APT uses std::minstd_rand) with the string:
where sourcePackage is the name of the source package, version the version, and machineID the contents of /etc/machine-id.
It shall then extract an integer from a uniform integer distribution between 0 and 100.
The files dists/$DIST/$COMP/source/Sources are called Sources indices. They consist of multiple paragraphs, where each paragraph has the format defined in Policy 5.5 (5.4 Debian source control files -- .dsc), with the following changes and additional fields. The changes are:
- The "Source" field is renamed to "Package"
- A new mandatory field "Directory"
- A new optional field "Priority"
- A new optional field "Section"
(Note that any fields present in .dsc files can end here as well, even if they are not documented by Debian policy, or not yet documented yet).
Each paragraph shall begin with a "Package" field. Clients may also accept files where this is not the case.
Servers must provide Checksums-Sha256 and clients must fail if they cannot validate a file using that unless a stronger hash is available (clients may support a Checksums-Sha512 field). Clients must not use the Files or Checksums-Sha1 fields for security purposes.
The directory field shall list the location of the source package in the repository, relative to the base directory of the repository.
Shall contain one of the values specified in Policy 2.5 (Priorities), or the value "source". Implementation Notes: dak currently uses "source", reprepro uses one of the normal priority values.
Shall contain the section specified for the source package?? FIXME
The files dists/$DIST/$COMP/Contents-$SARCH.gz (and dists/$DIST/$COMP/Contents-udeb-$SARCH.gz for udebs) are so called Contents indices. The variable $SARCH means either a binary architecture or the pseudo-architecture "source" that represents source packages. They are optional indices describing which files can be found in which packages. Prior to Debian wheezy, the files were located below "dists/$DIST/Contents-$SARCH.gz".
Contents indices begin with zero or more lines of free form text followed by a table mapping filenames to one or more packages. The table SHALL have two columns, separated by one or more spaces. The first row of the table SHOULD have the columns "FILE" and "LOCATION", the following rows shall have the following columns:
- A filename relative to the root directory, without leading .
A list of qualified package names, separated by comma. A qualified package name has the form [[$AREA/]$SECTION/]$NAME, where $AREA is the archive area, $SECTION the package section, and $NAME the name of the package. Inclusion of the area in the name should be considered deprecated.
Clients should ignore lines not conforming to this scheme. Clients should correctly handle file names containing white space characters (possibly taking advantage of the fact that package names cannot include white space characters).
The directory dists/$DIST/$COMP/i18n/ contains the file index, with a SHA1 field listing the description indices in that directory, in the same format as used for Release files, and one or more description indices.
Each description index has the format Translation-$LANG.bz2, where $LANG is a language code corresponding to a locale.
A Translation index is like a Packages index, but has the following fields only:
The Package and Description-md5 fields have the same meaning as for Packages indices. The Description-$LANG field, where $LANG is the same value as that of $LANG in the filename, shall be a description as described in Policy 5.6.13 Description, localized for that language.
The file Translation-en.bz2 contains the English language descriptions, if those are not supplied in the Packages index.
Package: aspell-ca Description-md5: ac1a5e69d940eb04be1942837e419d62 Description-ca: Diccionari català per aspell Aquest paquet conté tots els fitxers necessaris per afegir suport per l'idioma català pel corrector ortogràfic GNU Aspell. . Va ser recollit per en Joan Moratinos utilitzant dades de diverses fonts.
indices acquisition via hashsums (by-hash)
For each of the indices previously defined, the specified canonical name of the index should be a link to the most recent version of the file stored with its hashsum as filename in the "by-hash" location specified in this paragraph. The current version must and two or more previous versions of a file should be available if support for by-hash is indicated with the Acquire-By-Hash in the Release file.
For example, if the Release file contains:
Acquire-By-Hash: yes MD5Sum: e9c66b2352c403a3387e240bae17f629 285 main/binary-i386/Packages f21914a78219561b7056b23c3a3b0235 237 main/binary-i386/Packages.gz
(Note that MD5Sum is used in this example only for briefness, real implementations should follow the previously defined requirements for hashsums in this specification)
The file main/binary-i386/Packages must be also available at main/binary-i386/by-hash/MD5Sum/e9c66b2352c403a3387e240bae17f629 (if the server provides uncompressed indexes) and the file main/binary-i386/Packages.gz at main/binary-i386/by-hash/MD5Sum/f21914a78219561b7056b23c3a3b0235. Servers must provide by-hash with the strongest hashsum they support (and include in the Release file) and should provide by-hash for all hashsums. Clients supporting by-hash must use the strongest hashsum they support and is provided in the Release file.
indices difference files (diffs)
For each of the indices previously defined, repositories may also provide indices difference files, that contain the differences to previous versions of the index.
If an (uncompressed) index is located at the path $I, then a directory called $I.diff can exist. This directory contains the following files:
- Compressed Difference files in the format "%Y-%m-%d-%H%M.%S.gz"
The index file shall be a file with the following fields:
here $(HASH) is a known hash algorithm like SHA1, SHA256 or SHA512. Multiple hashes can be specified in the same file and paragraph in this way. The first three fields are required, $(HASH)-Download is strongly recommend for servers and clients. Traditionally servers and clients only supported SHA1, but it is strongly advised to add support for at least SHA256, too. Clients should reject SHA1 and require and validate a stronger hash algorithm of the SHA2 family.
The hashsum of the current index $I. This is the same one as listed in a hashsum field of the Release file to make sure it is the right diff file.
$(HASH)-History, $(HASH)-Patches and $(HASH)-Download
These field are multi-line fields, where each line consists of the following columns, separated by a single space:
- A checksum
- A size
- The name of a patch file
For $(HASH)-History, the hashsum and the size describe the index to which the patch applies. For $(HASH)-Patches, the hashsum and the size refer to the uncompressed patch file. For $(HASH)-Download, the hashsum and the size apply to the compressed patch file.
Example for a Index file containing only SHA1 hashes:
SHA1-Current: 8d190506d0c20b20b3cee06956e2061f3c083281 29137603 SHA1-History: a3cc0e588a41662db61e432f8c174a0d29aa4a9b 29086963 2012-05-04-2025.35 SHA1-Patches: 351c97e091e10313eb7e2aeb8a1dd8088726cf20 91134 2012-05-04-2025.35 SHA1-Download: dd6804a1538f8fe20f3027582ddb4d838df87891 2903 2012-05-04-2025.35.gz
Each patch applied to the old version of the index file listed in SHA1-History creates a new file that either is the file looked for or some other old version that is also listed in SHA1-History.
DAK currently creates patches to be applied one by one. reprepro creates patches directly resulting in the final file. reprepro also adds a line
so clients wishing to optimize for one-by-one applying know that this is not possible.
Those files are in a format that is a subset of the "patch --ed" format. The supported ed commands are c (change), a (add), and d (delete). The records must be reverse sorted by line number and may not overlap. According to APT documentation, diff seems to produce this format, but no guarantee is made.
Debian installer files - udeb packages
The main repository also contains Debian installer files (.udeb packages) and their indices.
These are used only by the Debian installer and are not installed on a Debian system under normal circumstances.
Flat Repository Format
A flat repository does not use the dists hierarchy of directories, and instead places meta index and indices directly into the archive root (or some part below it) In sources.list syntax, a flat repository is specified like this:
deb uri directory/
Where uri specifies the archive root, and directory specifies the position of the meta index and the indices relative to the archive root. In Flat repositories, the following indices are supported:
Packages (under the location directory/Packages)
Sources (under the location directory/Sources)
InRelease, Release, Release.gpg meta-information, and indices differences are supported as well. Translations, and Contents indices are not defined for that repository format (TODO: APT support Translations in some format, need to look closer at this). Indices may be compressed just like in the standard Debian repository format.
No more “Hash Sum Mismatch” errors by Colin Watson for the reasons behind InRelease files and the by-hash directory
DebianRepository/Setup: instructions to setup such a repository and a review of the different tools available to do so
Copyright (C) 2012 various contributors
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
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