Logos can be found on the Debian logo guidelines page at: https://www.debian.org/logos/
The official logos have been selected by vote of the Debian developers in Mid 1999.
They have been created by Raul M. Silva (http://www.silva.com)
The red color
The red color has defined pantone values as you can read at this page archived in the WayBackMachine.
The red used in the font is nominally PANTONE Rubine Red 2X CVC, however PANTONE has deprecated both double-impression (inked, dried, inked again) samples, indicated by the 2X, and Computer Video/Coated samples indicated by the CVC, replacing them with just Coated (C) swatches.
Therefore, the up-to-date equivalent is either PANTONE Strong Red C (rendered in RGB as #CE0056) or PANTONE Rubine Red C (the C is perhaps not necessary, as all materials [C, HC, PC, U, UP, CP, EC, M] render in RGB as #CE0058).
Please note that Strong Red C and Rubine Red C are more pink than red, PANTONE 199 C (in RGB as #D50032) is suggested instead as it is more red than pink.
The official SVG at https://www.debian.org/logos/openlogo-nd.svg uses RGB as #A80030 as filling color.
- Other equivalents of the red include:
CMYK: 15%, 96%, 67%, 1% - conversion by Adobe Illustrator 8.0 from Pantone color name, taken from this message archived in the WayBackMachine. I (Dima Kogan) made some stickers using this red, and it's OK, but looks a bit too pink to my eye. I'll try some of the others next time, and will report back here.
The font used to write "Debian" in the logo is a commercial paid font (see this discussion in the debian-desktop mailing-list) called Poppl Laudatio Condensed. The i-Dot has been manually replaced by a red diamond. Julien Blache annotated that the text has been condensed horizontally and stretched vertically. The "debian" text can be found in vector format here (GPL licensed - source).
The Debian Logo is Open Source Brand, (Wikpedia page on Open-source brands). So there are several versions adapted from the Debian Swirl. You can use the spiral in color and style that you feel satisfied or your community Debian.
- Debian subproject logos: