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Revision 64 as of 2008-11-27 23:11:56
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Editor: FranklinPiat
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Revision 116 as of 2020-12-27 05:24:03
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Editor: ?djringjr
Comment: Rufus is NOT available for Linux. belenaEtcher will work and prevents the error using dd that makes installs fail
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||<tablestyle="width: 100%;" style="border: 0px hidden">~-Translation(s): [:pt_BR/DebianInstall:Brasileiro] - [:DebianInstallGerman:Deutsch] - [:DebianInstall:English] - [:DebianInstallSpanish:Español] - [:DebianInstallFrench:Français] - [:DebianInstallDutch:Nederlands] - [:DebianInstallPolish:Polski] - [:DebianRussian/DebianInstall:Русский (Russkij)] - [:el_GR/DebianInstall:Ελληνικά] -~||<style="text-align: right;border: 0px hidden"> (!) [:DebianInstall/Discussion:Discussion]|| ~-[[DebianWiki/EditorGuide#translation|Translation(s)]]: [[de/DebianInstall|Deutsch]] - [[el/DebianInstall|Ελληνικά]] - English - [[es/DebianInstall|Español]] - [[fr/DebianInstall|Français]] - [[it/DebianInstall|Italiano]] - [[ko/DebianInstall|Korean]] - [[DebianInstallDutch|Nederlands]] - [[DebianInstallPolish|Polski]] - [[pt_BR/DebianInstall|Brasileiro]] - [[ru/DebianInstall|Русский]] - [[si/DebianInstall|සිංහල-(Sinhala)]] - [[zh_CN/DebianInstall|简体中文]]-~
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'''Introduction'''
 Debian GNU/Linux is distributed freely over the Internet. Debian had the reputation for being harder to install than other Linux distributions. That the reputation isn't deserved anymore. Others point out that installation is something that typically only happens once in the lifetime of a Debian GNU/Linux system. Once the initial install has been done, further upgrades and maintenance happen on the fly. It's possible to upgrade major software components, or even transition between releases of Debian without rebooting the system. Other than kernel or hardware upgrades, there are few if any routine maintenance reasons to take down a Debian system.

'''Features'''
 The Debian install is also particularly versatile. It's possible to install from CDROM/DVD/Blueray disk, over a network, bootstrapped from within another Linux distribution, or from MS Windows system.

 [[TableOfContents(2)]]

= Get Debian =

||<tablestyle="width:100%;" style="width:32px;border-color:#ff9ec2" >inline:Portal/IDB/official-doc.png||<style="border-color:#ff9ec2;background-color:#ffe4f1" >http://www.debian.org/releases/stable/i386/ Official Installation guides ~-([http://www.debian.org/releases/stable/installmanual other arch])-~ ||

== Download and burn full CD/DVD set ==
The biggest advantage of downloading the .iso files and burning them yourself is not having to wait for CDs to arrive. The full CD set can be downloaded in .iso format from:

 * http://www.debian.org/distrib - Official download page
  * http://www.debian.org/CD/http-ftp - one of the Debian mirrors

If you want to download one or more of the full 650 MB iso images, please use the ["jigdo"] tool which spreads out the load among various Debian servers, lightening their load as well as giving you a faster download.

  * http://www.debian.org/CD/jigdo-cd - ["jigdo"] ''(better)''

Although there are over 20 CDs (or 3 DVDs) in a full set, only the first CD is required to install Debian. The additional CDs are optional and include extra packages, that can be downloaded individually during the installation, or later.

 * ["DebianCDContents"] to find out what is on each CD.

== Download and burn network install CD ==
For folks with broadband Internet access, it's quite rare to download a full set of 650 MB iso images to install Debian. Instead, it's most common to just use a minimal network install CD instead. This network install iso (called "netinst") contains just enough packages to install a very basic Debian system. During the install procedure, it downloads the rest from the Internet as needed. A netinst iso image is around 180 MB. Also available is the so-called "businesscard" image that is around 40 MB.

 * DebianNetworkInstall

== Buy a set of CDs ==
The easiest way to install Debian is with a set of CDs bought from a vendor. There is a list of CD vendors:

 * http://www.debian.org/CD/vendors
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= Net Boot via another Debian system =
There is also the possibility to boot from another computer without needing to use CD/floppy media at all. All you need is a TFTPD and a DHCPD running on the install-from computer. This is called installing via "netboot".
{{{#!wiki debian
https://www.debian.org/releases/stable/amd64/ - Debian GNU/Linux installation guide<<BR>>
https://debian-handbook.info/browse/stable/sect.installation-steps.html - Debian Administrator's Handbook - Installing Debian, Step by Step
}}}
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 * NetworkBooting - the installation manual for more info on netboot installation.

= Installation =
The most useful thing you can do is to [http://www.debian.org/releases/stable/installmanual read the installation instructions]. For most of you, that's the [http://www.debian.org/releases/stable/i386/install Installing Debian GNU/Linux 4.0 For Intel x86], particularly Sections 4, 5 and 6, which describe how to install Debian and point to downloadable resources.
= See also =
 * InstallFromWindows
 * ["QuickPackageManagement"] - Managing your system
----
ToDo: this page needs a major rewrite.
<<TableOfContents>>
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||<-2 style="border-top:0;border-left:0">||<-5>''Source for those components''||
|| '''Media Name''' ||'''Boot''' ||'''udeb'''||'''Core system'''||'''XWindow'''||'''Desktop'''||'''on demand pkg'''||
||<-7 style="background-color:#aaccff; font-size:8pt; margin:2pt">CDs (optical medium)||
|| '''Business card CD'''|| CD || CD || Net || Net || Net || Net ||
|| '''Netinst CD card'''|| CD || CD || CD || Net || Net || Net ||
|| '''CD-1''' || CD || CD || CD || CD || CD or Net || CD or Net ||
|| '''DVD''' || DVD || DVD || DVD || DVD || DVD || DVD or Net ||
|| '''Blueray disk''' || BD || BD || BD || BD || BD || BD ||
||<-7 style="background-color:#aaccff; font-size:8pt; margin:2pt"> Usb keychain ||
|| '''hd-media''' || USB || iso ||<-4> iso or Net ||
||<-7 style="background-color:#aaccff; font-size:8pt; margin:2pt"> Floppy ||
|| '''Floppy''' || Floppy || '''CD??''' || Net || Net || Net || Net ||
||<-7 style="background-color:#aaccff; font-size:8pt; margin:2pt"> Netboot ||
|| '''Netboot''' || TFTP || Net || Net || Net || Net || Net ||
|| '''mini-iso''' || CD || Net || Net || Net || Net || Net ||
||<-7 style="background-color:#aaccff; font-size:8pt; margin:2pt"> DOS / MS Windows ||
|| '''win32-loader''' || Windows[[FootNote(win32-loader don't actually boot from windows: It adds a boot menu entry, in boot.ini, that loads Debian-Installer's kernel an initrd from the NTFS partition)]] || Net || Net || Net || Net || Net ||
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CategoryQuickInstall
== Getting Familiar With Debian Releases ==
Refer to [[DebianReleases|Debian Releases]] for more information about the Debian versions, but the following ideas may guide your decision.

=== Stable ===
The whole point of Debian from day one was "Stable", in reaction to what else was extant at the time: !SoftLandingSystems "''SLS''" and ''Slackware''. Debian chose stability, as administrators needed for servers. Choose Debian "[[DebianStable|Stable]]" if you want the computer to just work for a prolonged period of time, without the risk of new packages breaking your habits or workflow. In most cases, when people talk about Debian, they are referring to Debian "Stable". The network install images for stable (<<DebianCodename(stable)>>) can be found at http://www.debian.org/CD/netinst/

=== Testing ===
If it is important to you to have recent packages of ''all'' the installed software continuously rolling through Debian, and you are fine with constantly downloading and installing updates that will stir up a bug at times, and you want to help squash bugs threatening to get into ''Stable'', you may choose Debian "[[DebianTesting|Testing]]". The network install images for testing (<<DebianCodename(testing)>>) can be found at http://www.debian.org/devel/debian-installer/.

=== Unstable ===
If it is important to you to have the absolute latest packages available in Debian, you should learn about Debian "[[DebianUnstable|Unstable]]". There are currently no network install images for unstable. If you want to install unstable, download the image for stable and upgrade through testing to unstable by editing /etc/apt/sources.list.
----

== Choosing The Appropriate Installation Media ==
Be sure you have downloaded the installer for your [[http://www.debian.org/ports/|hardware architecture]]. (The [[http://www.debian.org/ports/i386/|i386]] architecture is for both Intel and AMD 32 bit CPUs. The [[http://www.debian.org/ports/amd64/|amd64]] architecture is for both Intel and AMD 64 bit CPUs.) The [[http://www.debian.org/ports/amd64/|amd64]] architecture is appropriate for most common hardware.

There are two main choices of installation media to meet your needs.

=== The Network Install Image ===
For those with broadband Internet access it is often preferable to use a minimal network install image, rather than download a full set of 650 MB ISO images. This network install ISO (called "netinst") contains just enough packages to install a basic Debian system. During the install procedure only the required packages are downloaded from the Internet, making it more efficient overall. A netinst iso image is around 180 MB.

If your wireless network card is not recognized by the installer you might consider doing the installation using a wired (ethernet cable) connection or installing using a different network card. In any case it may be preferable to install with a wired connection for bandwidth reasons or simply to defer wireless setup until after the initial installation.

If you have no way of establishing a network connection during the installation, then you will need to install using full installation CDs or DVDs.

=== The Full "CD/DVD" Image ===
These images are for those who need all available packages that are in the current "[[DebianStable|stable]]" release of Debian.

Although there are over 30 CDs (or 5 DVDs) in a full set, only the first CD or DVD is required to install Debian. The additional images are optional and include extra packages, that can be downloaded individually during the installation, or later.
----

== Non-Free Firmware ==Rufus
Please refer to the [[Firmware]] Page to determine if and how you may need to download firmware for a successful installation.

You can use one of the parallel installer image builds that also include all the non-free firmware packages directly. We have "netinst" CD images and also DVD installer images - see http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/unofficial/non-free/cd-including-firmware/
----


== Creating a Bootable Debian USB Flashdrive ==
Once the .iso is finished downloading, the next step is to create some form of bootable media that you can use to install Debian. The most common form of installation is from a USB flash drive. If you wish to use a CD or DVD, you can still use that method as well. To burn the .iso to a CD, use [[http://www.imgburn.com/|IMGBurn]]

To create a bootable USB drive from Windows, Mac OS, a reliable choice is to use [[https://rufus.ie/|Rufus]]. Rufus is not available for Linux, but a good substitute is [[https://github.com/balena-io/etcher#debian-and-ubuntu-based-package-repository-gnulinux-x86x64|balenaEtcher]].
----

== Booting From a USB Flash Drive ==
If you plan to dual-booting with another OS, both OSes' need to be installed with the same boot mode. Most computers built after 2012 boot in UEFI mode, so this configuration dictates use of UEFI mode when installing and booting Debian. If the other system of your computer are installed in BIOS(legacy) mode, then you must install Debian in BIOS mode as well.

You should be able to check the current boot mode in the first few seconds of your computer starting up. Some common options include the "F2", "F8", "F12", and "Del" keys.

Currently, Secure Boot is not available in Debian "Stretch". For a successful installation, make sure that Secure Boot is turned off. The next stable release of Debian, code named "[[DebianBuster|Buster]]", features Secure Boot.

Once the proper boot mode is set, you are ready to start your installation. If the Debian Installer does not load, you may have to change your boot options and specify booting from USB.
----

== Installation ==
'''Prior to making any major change to your computer you should ALWAYS backup all of your work. While the Debian Installer has been extensively tested, it cannot prevent you from making mistakes nor a prevent a power failure in your city while you are installing your new operating system.'''

###To use sudo and your regular password for system administration, leave the root password empty during installation.
----

== Installation FAQ ==
ToDo
----

== Post-Install Tips ==
ToDo
----


== See also ==

 * [[DebianDesktopHowTo]]
 * [[DebianSoftware#kmuto|An updated installer]] that supports the newest hardware
 * [[DebianLive]] - Debian Live CD / DVD / USB
 * [[InstallFAQ]] - Including how to install unstable (sid).
 * [[Installation+Archive+USBStick|A Portable Installer and Package Archive]]
 * [[FAI]], Fully Automatic Installation
 * [[DebianInstaller/Loader|Install From Windows]]
 * [[FromWindowsToDebian|Switching from Windows to Debian]]
 * [[Debootstrap|How to install from within an existing system]]
 * [[PackageManagement]] - Managing your system
 * [[ForcedethNetInstall|Netinst with nVidia nForce onboard Ethernet]] (old?)
 * [[http://www.debian.org/releases/stable/installmanual|Debian GNU/Linux Installation Guide]] (all architectures, stable branch)
 * [[PXEBootInstall]] - The manual for setting up a netboot server.
 * http://www.debian.org/CD/vendors
 * [[http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/|All Debian images]]


----

ToDo | CategoryObsolete - this page needs a thorough rewrite

Translation(s): Deutsch - Ελληνικά - English - Español - Français - Italiano - Korean - Nederlands - Polski - ?Brasileiro - Русский - සිංහල-(Sinhala) - 简体中文


https://www.debian.org/releases/stable/amd64/ - Debian GNU/Linux installation guide
https://debian-handbook.info/browse/stable/sect.installation-steps.html - Debian Administrator's Handbook - Installing Debian, Step by Step


Getting Familiar With Debian Releases

Refer to Debian Releases for more information about the Debian versions, but the following ideas may guide your decision.

Stable

The whole point of Debian from day one was "Stable", in reaction to what else was extant at the time: SoftLandingSystems "SLS" and Slackware. Debian chose stability, as administrators needed for servers. Choose Debian "Stable" if you want the computer to just work for a prolonged period of time, without the risk of new packages breaking your habits or workflow. In most cases, when people talk about Debian, they are referring to Debian "Stable". The network install images for stable (buster) can be found at http://www.debian.org/CD/netinst/

Testing

If it is important to you to have recent packages of all the installed software continuously rolling through Debian, and you are fine with constantly downloading and installing updates that will stir up a bug at times, and you want to help squash bugs threatening to get into Stable, you may choose Debian "Testing". The network install images for testing (bullseye) can be found at http://www.debian.org/devel/debian-installer/.

Unstable

If it is important to you to have the absolute latest packages available in Debian, you should learn about Debian "Unstable". There are currently no network install images for unstable. If you want to install unstable, download the image for stable and upgrade through testing to unstable by editing /etc/apt/sources.list.


Choosing The Appropriate Installation Media

Be sure you have downloaded the installer for your hardware architecture. (The i386 architecture is for both Intel and AMD 32 bit CPUs. The amd64 architecture is for both Intel and AMD 64 bit CPUs.) The amd64 architecture is appropriate for most common hardware.

There are two main choices of installation media to meet your needs.

The Network Install Image

For those with broadband Internet access it is often preferable to use a minimal network install image, rather than download a full set of 650 MB ISO images. This network install ISO (called "netinst") contains just enough packages to install a basic Debian system. During the install procedure only the required packages are downloaded from the Internet, making it more efficient overall. A netinst iso image is around 180 MB.

If your wireless network card is not recognized by the installer you might consider doing the installation using a wired (ethernet cable) connection or installing using a different network card. In any case it may be preferable to install with a wired connection for bandwidth reasons or simply to defer wireless setup until after the initial installation.

If you have no way of establishing a network connection during the installation, then you will need to install using full installation CDs or DVDs.

The Full "CD/DVD" Image

These images are for those who need all available packages that are in the current "stable" release of Debian.

Although there are over 30 CDs (or 5 DVDs) in a full set, only the first CD or DVD is required to install Debian. The additional images are optional and include extra packages, that can be downloaded individually during the installation, or later.


== Non-Free Firmware ==Rufus Please refer to the Firmware Page to determine if and how you may need to download firmware for a successful installation.

You can use one of the parallel installer image builds that also include all the non-free firmware packages directly. We have "netinst" CD images and also DVD installer images - see http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/unofficial/non-free/cd-including-firmware/


Creating a Bootable Debian USB Flashdrive

Once the .iso is finished downloading, the next step is to create some form of bootable media that you can use to install Debian. The most common form of installation is from a USB flash drive. If you wish to use a CD or DVD, you can still use that method as well. To burn the .iso to a CD, use IMGBurn

To create a bootable USB drive from Windows, Mac OS, a reliable choice is to use Rufus. Rufus is not available for Linux, but a good substitute is balenaEtcher.


Booting From a USB Flash Drive

If you plan to dual-booting with another OS, both OSes' need to be installed with the same boot mode. Most computers built after 2012 boot in UEFI mode, so this configuration dictates use of UEFI mode when installing and booting Debian. If the other system of your computer are installed in BIOS(legacy) mode, then you must install Debian in BIOS mode as well.

You should be able to check the current boot mode in the first few seconds of your computer starting up. Some common options include the "F2", "F8", "F12", and "Del" keys.

Currently, Secure Boot is not available in Debian "Stretch". For a successful installation, make sure that Secure Boot is turned off. The next stable release of Debian, code named "Buster", features Secure Boot.

Once the proper boot mode is set, you are ready to start your installation. If the Debian Installer does not load, you may have to change your boot options and specify booting from USB.


Installation

Prior to making any major change to your computer you should ALWAYS backup all of your work. While the Debian Installer has been extensively tested, it cannot prevent you from making mistakes nor a prevent a power failure in your city while you are installing your new operating system.


Installation FAQ

ToDo


Post-Install Tips

ToDo


See also


ToDo | CategoryObsolete - this page needs a thorough rewrite