Differences between revisions 28 and 131 (spanning 103 versions)
Revision 28 as of 2007-02-16 04:24:21
Size: 3548
Editor: ?StanislavVlasov
Comment: change link to Russian translation
Revision 131 as of 2021-07-03 14:05:48
Size: 10691
Editor: ?AdamBaxter
Comment: No, Rufus doesn't modify ISO files.
Deletions are marked like this. Additions are marked like this.
Line 1: Line 1:
== Translations: ==
 * DebianInstallGerman: Deutsch
 * DebianInstallFrench: French
 * DebianInstallDutch: Dutch
 * DebianRussian/DebianInstall: Russian
 * DebianInstallPolish: Polski
 * DebianInstallSpanish: Spanish, español
#language en
~-[[DebianWiki/EditorGuide#translation|Translation(s)]]: [[de/DebianInstall|Deutsch]] - [[el/DebianInstall|Ελληνικά]] - English - [[es/DebianInstall|Español]] - [[fr/DebianInstall|Français]] - [[it/DebianInstall|Italiano]] - [[ko/DebianInstall|Korean]] - [[DebianInstallDutch|Nederlands]] - [[DebianInstallPolish|Polski]] - [[pt_BR/DebianInstall|Brasileiro]] - [[ru/DebianInstall|Русский]] - [[si/DebianInstall|සිංහල-(Sinhala)]] - [[zh_CN/DebianInstall|简体中文]]-~
----


{{{#!wiki debian
https://www.debian.org/releases/stable/amd64/ - Debian GNU/Linux installation guide<<BR>>
https://debian-handbook.info/browse/stable/sect.installation-steps.html - Debian Administrator's Handbook - Installing Debian, Step by Step
}}}

<<TableOfContents>>
Line 11: Line 15:
Debian GNU/Linux is distributed freely over the Internet. If you simply want to install Debian, these are your options: == Getting Familiar With Debian Releases ==
Line 13: Line 17:
== Buy a set of CDs == Refer to [[DebianReleases|Debian Releases]] for more information about the Debian versions, but the following ideas may guide your decision.
Line 15: Line 19:
The easiest way to install Debian is with a set of CDs bought from a vendor. There are a number of places you can obtain these CDs, such as:
    
 * http://www.osdisc.com/
 * http://www.aboutdebian.com/
 * http://www.elx.com.au/
 * http://www.lsl.com.au/
 * http://www.bsd-systems.co.uk/
 * http://www.easylinuxcds.com/
 * http://www.ledge.co.za/index.php
=== Stable ===
Line 25: Line 21:
== Download files over the Internet and make a CD set yourself == The whole point of Debian from day one was "Stable", in reaction to what else was extant at the time: !SoftLandingSystems "''SLS''" and ''Slackware''. Debian chose stability, as administrators needed for servers. Choose Debian "[[DebianStable|Stable]]" if you want the computer to just work for a prolonged period of time, without the risk of new packages breaking your habits or workflow. In most cases, when people talk about Debian, they are referring to Debian "Stable". The network install images for stable (<<DebianCodename(stable)>>) can be found at https://www.debian.org/CD/netinst/
Line 27: Line 23:
The biggest advantage of downloading the .iso files and burning them yourself is not having to wait for CDs to arrive. The full 14 CD set can be downloaded in .iso format from [http://www.debian.org/CD/http-ftp/ one of the Debian mirrors], or better yet, using the [http://www.debian.org/CD/jigdo-cd/ jigdo] tool to do a distributed download of the images. === Testing ===
Line 29: Line 25:
''Note only the first CD is required to install debian. The extra CDs are optional and include extra packages. See also ["DebianCDContents"] to find out what is on what cd.'' If it is important to you
to have recent packages of ''all'' the installed software continuously rolling through Debian, and you are fine with constantly downloading and installing updates that will stir up a bug at times, and you want to help squash bugs threatening to get into ''Stable'', you may choose Debian "[[DebianTesting|Testing]]". The network install images for testing (<<DebianCodename(testing)>>) can be found at https://www.debian.org/devel/debian-installer/.
Line 31: Line 28:
If you do want to download one or more of the full 650 MB iso images, please use the ["jigdo"] tool which spreads out the load among various Debian servers, lightening their load as well as giving you a faster download. === Unstable ===
Line 33: Line 30:
== Download the Network Install CD == If it is important to you to have the absolute latest packages available in Debian, you should learn about Debian "[[DebianUnstable|Unstable]]". There are currently no network install images for Unstable. If you want to install Unstable, download the image for Stable and upgrade through Testing to Unstable by editing /etc/apt/sources.list.
----
Line 35: Line 33:
For folks with broadband internet access, it's quite rare to download a full set of 650 MB iso images to install Debian. Instead, it's most common to just use a minimal network install CD instead. This network install iso (called "netinst") contains just enough packages to install a very basic Debian system. During the install procedure, it downloads the rest from the Internet as needed. A netinst iso image is around 180 MB. Also available is the so-called "businesscard" image that is around 40 MB. [http:DebianNetworkInstall read more: ] == Choosing The Appropriate Installation Media ==
Line 37: Line 35:
== Net Boot == Be sure you have downloaded the installer for your [[https://www.debian.org/ports/|hardware architecture]]. (The [[https://www.debian.org/ports/i386/|i386]] architecture is for both Intel and AMD 32 bit CPUs. The [[https://www.debian.org/ports/amd64/|amd64]] architecture is for both Intel and AMD 64 bit CPUs.) The [[https://www.debian.org/ports/amd64/|amd64]] architecture is appropriate for most common hardware.
Line 39: Line 37:
There is also the possibility to boot from another computer without needing to use CD/floppy media at all. All you need is a TFTPD and a DHCPD running on the install-from computer. This is called installing via "netboot". See the installation manual for more info on netboot installation. There are two main choices of installation media to meet your needs:
Line 41: Line 39:
 * NetworkBooting === The Network Install Image ===
Line 43: Line 41:
== See Also == For those with reliable Internet access using a network install image often saves time, compared with downloading some of the 650 MB ISO images. This network install ISO (called "netinst") contains only a near-minimal Debian system. During installation as many packages as you request are downloaded from the Internet. A netinst ISO image is several hundred MB but the CD or DVD images are much larger and will almost surely contain packages which are downloaded but not installed by default.
Line 45: Line 43:
 * DebianInstaller
 * DebianDisc
 * IsoImage
 * DebianLive, a Live Debian that you can try in a CD-rom or install in your hard disk or ["usb stick"].
== External Links ==
If your wireless network card is not recognized by the installer you might consider performing the installation using a wired (Ethernet cable) connection or installing using a different network card. In any case it may be preferable to install with a wired connection for bandwidth reasons or simply to defer wireless setup until after the initial installation.
Line 51: Line 45:
 * http://www.debian.org/releases/stable/installmanual
 * http://linuxmafia.com/faq/Debian/installers.html
 * [http://protoplazm.com/debian/debian_d945.html Install Debian Sarge on Intel D945 Chipset-based Systems]
 * [http://protoplazm.com/debian/debian_ati_sb450.html Install Debian Sarge on Intel Boards with ATI SB450 Chipsets]
 * [http://protoplazm.com/debian/debian_d915gm.html Install Debian Sarge on Intel 915GM Mobile Platforms]
 * [http://protoplazm.com/debian/debian_sarge_on_965.html Install Debian Sarge on Intel 965 Chipset-based (ICH8 Bus) Systems]
 * [http://mirror.home-dn.net/d-i/ Backported Debian Installer Images Archive] This directory provides Debian GNU/Linux Stable installer ISO images with a modification by [http://kmuto.jp/ Kenshi Muto] to support newer hardware, mainly SATA and Ethernet devices.
If you have no way of establishing a network connection while installing then you will need to install using at least a partial set of the installation CDs or DVDs (at least Disc 1).

=== The Full "CD/DVD" Image ===

These images are for those who need all available packages that are in the current "[[DebianStable|stable]]" release of Debian.

Although there are over 30 CDs (or 5 DVDs) in a full set, only the first CD or DVD is required to install Debian. The additional images are optional and include extra packages, that can be downloaded individually during the installation, or later.

== Non-Free Firmware ==

Please refer to the [[Firmware]] Page to determine if and how you may need to download firmware for a successful installation.

You can use one of the parallel installer image builds that also include all the non-free firmware packages directly. We have "netinst" CD images and also DVD installer images - see https://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/unofficial/non-free/cd-including-firmware/

== Creating a Bootable Debian USB Flashdrive ==

After downloading the .iso file, the next step is to create some form of bootable media that you can use to install Debian. The most common form of installation is from a USB flash drive. If you wish to use a CD or DVD, you can use that method as well.

To create a bootable USB drive from Microsoft Windows or Mac OS a reliable choice is [[https://rufus.ie/|Rufus]].
As of Debian 10.10, ISO mode (recommended by Rufus) should work fine for machines booting with UEFI. Older machines may need to use dd mode.

To create a bootable USB drive on Linux follow the installation
[[https://www.debian.org/releases/stable/amd64/ch04s03.en.html|instructions]].
[TL;DR `cp debian.iso /dev/sdX` Be cautious!]

To burn the .iso to a CD on Microsoft Windows use [[https://www.imgburn.com/|IMGBurn]] or, if using Windows 10, the builtin "Burn to disc" option when right clicking an ISO file.

== Booting From a USB Flash Drive ==

If you plan to dual-booting with another OS, both OSes' need to be installed with the same boot mode. Most computers built after 2012 boot in UEFI mode, so this configuration dictates use of UEFI mode when installing and booting Debian. If the other system of your computer are installed in BIOS(legacy) mode, then you must install Debian in BIOS mode as well.

You should be able to check the current boot mode in the first few seconds of your computer starting up. Some common options include the "F2", "F8", "F12", and "Del" keys.

Debian supports Secure Boot since the Debian buster release. If problems arise during the Debian installation or the first boot process (such as failing to boot the Linux Kernel at all and/or refusing to start Debian) turn off Secure Boot before attempting anything else.
Moreover, a number of devices (commonly laptop computers) present subtle bugs/limitations when operating Linux under SecureBoot, which are not present otherwise. Make sure to check your device manufacturer's support pages. <<BR>>
Example: [[https://support.lenovo.com/us/en/solutions/ht103400-linux-operating-system-limitations-when-secure-boot-is-enabled|Lenovo Linux SecureBoot limitations]]

Once the proper boot mode is set, you are ready to start your installation. If the Debian Installer does not load, you may have to change your boot options and specify booting from USB.

== Installation ==

'''Prior to making any major change to your computer you should ALWAYS backup all of your work. While the Debian Installer has been extensively tested, it cannot prevent you from making mistakes nor prevent a power failure while you are installing your new operating system.
<<BR>>
Also, ALWAYS double check the disk you are formatting to install Debian on. Formatting another disk/partition results in unrecoverable data loss on that disk/partition.'''

###To use sudo and your regular password for system administration, leave the root password empty during installation.

== Installation FAQ ==

'''''Q:''''' I am at the Software Selection screen in the Debian Installer, where I can choose a selection of desktop environments.
<<BR>>What is '''Debian desktop environment''' (the first choice)?
<<BR>>
'''''A:''''' If you do NOT select any desktop environment and leave the default Debian desktop environment checkbox ticked, <<BR>> you will install the '''GNOME''' desktop environment on your machine. <<BR>>
If you choose "Debian desktop environment" AND a specific desktop, the specific choice overrides the '''GNOME''' default.
<<BR>>
<<BR>>
'''''Q:''''' Why does my Wi-Fi not work during the installation process ?
<<BR>>
'''''A:''''' If you are using a laptop computer, you might need proprietary firmware for your wireless network card to function, which Debian does not include by default.
<<BR>> Please refer to the "Non-Free Firmware" section above OR install Debian using a wired connection, if possible, and setup wireless after installing.

== Post-Install Tips ==

 *Sudo behaviour <<BR>><<BR>>

 If you set up a root password during install, you will find your user without sudo privileges. This is intended behaviour.<<BR>>
 To enable sudo after a fresh install of Debian:
~-{{{#!plain
$ su -l
# adduser USERNAME sudo
# exit
}}}-~
 Then, log out of the desktop environment and log in again.
 You can check the success of the above by entering
~-{{{#!plain
$ groups
}}}-~

 *SSD performance <<BR>><<BR>>

 The default scheduler/IO settings for Debian are optimised for maximum stability and good throughput.
 More SSD performance may be achieved, by performing some steps to [[SSDOptimization|optimise your system for SSDs]].

== See also ==

 * [[DebianDesktopHowTo]]
 * [[DebianSoftware#kmuto|An updated installer]] that supports the newest hardware
 * [[DebianLive]] - Debian Live CD / DVD / USB
 * [[InstallFAQ]] - Including how to install unstable (sid).
 * [[Installation+Archive+USBStick|A Portable Installer and Package Archive]]
 * [[FAI]], Fully Automatic Installation
 * [[DebianInstaller/Loader|Install From Windows]]
 * [[FromWindowsToDebian|Switching from Windows to Debian]]
 * [[Debootstrap|How to install from within an existing system]]
 * [[PackageManagement]] - Managing your system
 * [[ForcedethNetInstall|Netinst with nVidia nForce onboard Ethernet]] (old?)
 * [[https://www.debian.org/releases/stable/installmanual|Debian GNU/Linux Installation Guide]] (all architectures, stable branch)
 * [[PXEBootInstall]] - The manual for setting up a netboot server.
 * https://www.debian.org/CD/vendors
 * [[https://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/|All Debian images]]

----
ToDo | CategoryObsolete - this page needs a thorough rewrite

Translation(s): Deutsch - Ελληνικά - English - Español - Français - Italiano - Korean - Nederlands - Polski - ?Brasileiro - Русский - සිංහල-(Sinhala) - 简体中文


https://www.debian.org/releases/stable/amd64/ - Debian GNU/Linux installation guide
https://debian-handbook.info/browse/stable/sect.installation-steps.html - Debian Administrator's Handbook - Installing Debian, Step by Step


Getting Familiar With Debian Releases

Refer to Debian Releases for more information about the Debian versions, but the following ideas may guide your decision.

Stable

The whole point of Debian from day one was "Stable", in reaction to what else was extant at the time: SoftLandingSystems "SLS" and Slackware. Debian chose stability, as administrators needed for servers. Choose Debian "Stable" if you want the computer to just work for a prolonged period of time, without the risk of new packages breaking your habits or workflow. In most cases, when people talk about Debian, they are referring to Debian "Stable". The network install images for stable (bullseye) can be found at https://www.debian.org/CD/netinst/

Testing

If it is important to you to have recent packages of all the installed software continuously rolling through Debian, and you are fine with constantly downloading and installing updates that will stir up a bug at times, and you want to help squash bugs threatening to get into Stable, you may choose Debian "Testing". The network install images for testing (bookworm) can be found at https://www.debian.org/devel/debian-installer/.

Unstable

If it is important to you to have the absolute latest packages available in Debian, you should learn about Debian "Unstable". There are currently no network install images for Unstable. If you want to install Unstable, download the image for Stable and upgrade through Testing to Unstable by editing /etc/apt/sources.list.


Choosing The Appropriate Installation Media

Be sure you have downloaded the installer for your hardware architecture. (The i386 architecture is for both Intel and AMD 32 bit CPUs. The amd64 architecture is for both Intel and AMD 64 bit CPUs.) The amd64 architecture is appropriate for most common hardware.

There are two main choices of installation media to meet your needs:

The Network Install Image

For those with reliable Internet access using a network install image often saves time, compared with downloading some of the 650 MB ISO images. This network install ISO (called "netinst") contains only a near-minimal Debian system. During installation as many packages as you request are downloaded from the Internet. A netinst ISO image is several hundred MB but the CD or DVD images are much larger and will almost surely contain packages which are downloaded but not installed by default.

If your wireless network card is not recognized by the installer you might consider performing the installation using a wired (Ethernet cable) connection or installing using a different network card. In any case it may be preferable to install with a wired connection for bandwidth reasons or simply to defer wireless setup until after the initial installation.

If you have no way of establishing a network connection while installing then you will need to install using at least a partial set of the installation CDs or DVDs (at least Disc 1).

The Full "CD/DVD" Image

These images are for those who need all available packages that are in the current "stable" release of Debian.

Although there are over 30 CDs (or 5 DVDs) in a full set, only the first CD or DVD is required to install Debian. The additional images are optional and include extra packages, that can be downloaded individually during the installation, or later.

Non-Free Firmware

Please refer to the Firmware Page to determine if and how you may need to download firmware for a successful installation.

You can use one of the parallel installer image builds that also include all the non-free firmware packages directly. We have "netinst" CD images and also DVD installer images - see https://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/unofficial/non-free/cd-including-firmware/

Creating a Bootable Debian USB Flashdrive

After downloading the .iso file, the next step is to create some form of bootable media that you can use to install Debian. The most common form of installation is from a USB flash drive. If you wish to use a CD or DVD, you can use that method as well.

To create a bootable USB drive from Microsoft Windows or Mac OS a reliable choice is Rufus. As of Debian 10.10, ISO mode (recommended by Rufus) should work fine for machines booting with UEFI. Older machines may need to use dd mode.

To create a bootable USB drive on Linux follow the installation instructions. [TL;DR cp debian.iso /dev/sdX Be cautious!]

To burn the .iso to a CD on Microsoft Windows use IMGBurn or, if using Windows 10, the builtin "Burn to disc" option when right clicking an ISO file.

Booting From a USB Flash Drive

If you plan to dual-booting with another OS, both OSes' need to be installed with the same boot mode. Most computers built after 2012 boot in UEFI mode, so this configuration dictates use of UEFI mode when installing and booting Debian. If the other system of your computer are installed in BIOS(legacy) mode, then you must install Debian in BIOS mode as well.

You should be able to check the current boot mode in the first few seconds of your computer starting up. Some common options include the "F2", "F8", "F12", and "Del" keys.

Debian supports Secure Boot since the Debian buster release. If problems arise during the Debian installation or the first boot process (such as failing to boot the Linux Kernel at all and/or refusing to start Debian) turn off Secure Boot before attempting anything else. Moreover, a number of devices (commonly laptop computers) present subtle bugs/limitations when operating Linux under SecureBoot, which are not present otherwise. Make sure to check your device manufacturer's support pages.
Example: Lenovo Linux SecureBoot limitations

Once the proper boot mode is set, you are ready to start your installation. If the Debian Installer does not load, you may have to change your boot options and specify booting from USB.

Installation

Prior to making any major change to your computer you should ALWAYS backup all of your work. While the Debian Installer has been extensively tested, it cannot prevent you from making mistakes nor prevent a power failure while you are installing your new operating system.
Also, ALWAYS double check the disk you are formatting to install Debian on. Formatting another disk/partition results in unrecoverable data loss on that disk/partition.

Installation FAQ

Q: I am at the Software Selection screen in the Debian Installer, where I can choose a selection of desktop environments.
What is Debian desktop environment (the first choice)?
A: If you do NOT select any desktop environment and leave the default Debian desktop environment checkbox ticked,
you will install the GNOME desktop environment on your machine.
If you choose "Debian desktop environment" AND a specific desktop, the specific choice overrides the GNOME default.

Q: Why does my Wi-Fi not work during the installation process ?
A: If you are using a laptop computer, you might need proprietary firmware for your wireless network card to function, which Debian does not include by default.
Please refer to the "Non-Free Firmware" section above OR install Debian using a wired connection, if possible, and setup wireless after installing.

Post-Install Tips

  • Sudo behaviour

    If you set up a root password during install, you will find your user without sudo privileges. This is intended behaviour.
    To enable sudo after a fresh install of Debian:

$ su -l
# adduser USERNAME sudo
# exit

  • Then, log out of the desktop environment and log in again. You can check the success of the above by entering

$ groups

  • SSD performance

    The default scheduler/IO settings for Debian are optimised for maximum stability and good throughput.

    More SSD performance may be achieved, by performing some steps to optimise your system for SSDs.

See also


ToDo | CategoryObsolete - this page needs a thorough rewrite