Differences between revisions 1 and 25 (spanning 24 versions)
Revision 1 as of 2015-03-27 09:08:46
Size: 29721
Editor: ?PetterReinholdtsen
Comment:
Revision 25 as of 2020-02-06 15:10:34
Size: 29822
Editor: ?WolfgangSchweer
Comment: codeblocks: add whitespace to avoid splitting upon docbook export
Deletions are marked like this. Additions are marked like this.
Line 3: Line 3:
[[Image:https://wiki.debian.org//htdocs/debwiki/img/alert.png|/!\]] Grafikk i dokumentet må legges inn og oppdaters /!\ This setup MUST be reviewed, this is historic information.

/!\ Do NOT use this. Coyote Linux has not been updated since at least 2015. Modern Linux kernels simply are too big to fit on a floppy disk.

/!\ Graphics in the document must be inserted and updated
Line 7: Line 11:
Skolelinux har en arkitektur som både passer sentralisert drift, med plassering av tjenester sentralt, og kan driftes lokal på hver skole. En brannmur gjør det enklere å starte med Skolelinux om man vil prøve ut en liten installasjon.

== Enkel brannmur med floppy (Coyote) ==

Brukertilfelle: For å komme igang med Skolelinux trenger vi og lage en enkel brannmur. Hensikten er å dele Skolelinux-nettet fra det andre nettet som er satt opp.

Hovedforfatter Klaus Ade Johnstad

 * Uavhengig om du velger å Coyote Linux-floppy på en Linux eller Windows-maskin, må følgende konfigurasjon bli burkt. Dette gjelder alle andre firewall/router enn Coyote Linux
 * lokal nettverksgrensesnitt:

<pre> IP adresse (IP Address): 10.0.2.1
      Nettmaske (Netmask): 255.255.254.0
      Kringkasting (Broadcast): 10.0.3.255
      Nettverk (Network): 10.0.2.0</pre>
Debian Edu's architecture suits centralized operations with the placement of services centrally, and can be operated locally at each school. A firewall makes it easier to start with Debian Edu's if you want to try out a small installation.

== Simple firewall with floppy (Coyote) ==

Use Case: To get started with Debian Edu's we need to make a simple firewall. The purpose is to separate Debian Edu's network from the second network that is set up.

Main author Klaus Ade Johnstad

 * Regardless of whether you choose to Coyote Linux floppy on a Linux or Windows machine, the following configuration must be used. This applies to any other firewall router than Coyote Linux
 * Local network interface: {{{
     IP Address: 10.0.2.1
     Netmask: 255.255.254.0
     Broadcast: 10.0.3.255
     Network: 10.0.2.0
}}}
Line 24: Line 29:
Press &quot;n&quot;

Dette refererer til noe av de ekstra tingene som man trenger om man vil ha tilgang fra tilbyderen Big Pond, men er ikke sikker. Er det noen som vet?
Press "n"

This refers to some extra stuff you need if you want to have access from the provider Big Pond, but we are not sure. Is there anyone who knows that for sure?
Line 30: Line 35:
Press &quot;n&quot;

 * Bruk 10.0.2.2 som en syslog-tjener. Dette er ip-adressen til hovedtjener

Varsel: Siden Skolelinux/Debian-edu allerede har DHCP-tjener kjørende, må du skru av DHCP-tjeneren på egen firewall/router. Det samme gjelder alle andre maskiner som eventuelt kobles til et Skolelinux/Debian-edu-nett. Å ha to DHCP-tjenere på samme nett fører som regel bare til trøbbel

Eksisterer en ny utgave av Coyote Linux når dette leses, kan den erstatte versjon 2.24 med kommandoene over med versjonsnummeret som ble lastet ned.

 1. Etter Coyote Linux er lastet ned må filene pakkes ut. Man må være root-bruker for å pakke ut.
Press "n"

 * Use 10.0.2.2 as a syslog server. This is the IP address of the main server

Warning: Since Skolelinux/Debian-Edu already has a DHCP server running, you must disable the DHCP server on your firewall/router. The same applies to all other machines that may be connected to a Skolelinux/Debian-Edu network. Having two DHCP servers on the same network usually just leads to trouble

If a new version of Coyote Linux exists when you read this, it might replace the version 2.24 in the commands above with the version downloaded.

 1. After that the Coyote Linux was downloaded, the files must be unpacked. One must be the root user to unpack.
Line 46: Line 51:
 1. When creating Coyote Linux on a Linux machine, one need to answer several questions. Here is a summary of the answers that can be supplied:

<pre>a. Coyote floppy builder script v2.9
 1. When creating Coyote Linux on a Linux machine, one needs to answer several questions. Here is a summary of the answers that can be supplied:

{{{
a. Coyote floppy builder script v2.9
 
Line 56: Line 62:

    Enter selection:2</pre>
Valget s
om anbefales er «1.68MB»

<pre>b. Please select the type of Internet connection that your system uses.
 
    Enter selection:2
}}}
The
recommended choice is «1.68MB»

{{{
b. Please select the type of Internet connection that your system uses.
 
Line 64: Line 72:
    3) PPP Dialup Connection\n\nEnter Selection:</pre>     3) PPP Dialup Connection\n\nEnter Selection:
}}}
Line 67: Line 76:
<pre>c. Configuring system for Ethernet based Internet connection. {{{
c. Configuring system for Ethernet based Internet connection.
Line 70: Line 80:
 
Line 75: Line 85:
 
Line 80: Line 90:
    Enter local network number [192.168.0.0]: 10.0.2.0</pre>
Disse nettverksinstilingene for lokalt nettverk må endres. Se [[#ExtraConfiguration--fwconf|A]]

 * Brukes denne utgaven av Coyote Linux fra [http://www.skolelinux.no/~kl%20%20%20%20%20aus/coyote-2.24-slx.tar.gz http://www.skolelinux.no/~klaus/coyote-2.24-slx.tar.gz] vil man se et skjermbilde med korrekte nett-instillinger:

<pre> IP Address: 10.0.2.1
    Enter local network number [192.168.0.0]: 10.0.2.0
}}}
These network settings for local network must be changed. See [[#!ExtraConfiguration--fwconf|A]]

 * Is this version of Coyote Linux used from http://www.skolelinux.no/~klaus/coyote-2.24-slx.tar.gz you will see a screen with the correct network values:

{{{
   IP Address: 10.0.2.1
Line 89: Line 101:
   e. Does your Internet connection get its IP via DHCP? [y/n]:</pre>
Svar yes(y) eller no(n) i samsvar med hva som er nett-oppsettet.

Får man IP via DHCP fyller man inn følgende informasjon:

<pre> Please enter the information for your static IP configuration
  e. Does your Internet connection get its IP via DHCP? [y/n]:
}}}
Answer yes(y) or no(n) in accordance with what the network configuration is.

If one gets an IP via DHCP, the following information should be filled out:

{{{
   Please enter the information for your static IP configuration
Line 101: Line 115:

    DNS Server 2 (optional):</pre>
 * Skriv inn DHCP vertsnavn:

Vanligvis kan denne være blank
 
    DNS Server 2 (optional):
}}}

 * Enter the DHCP hostname:

Usually, this one can be blank
Line 109: Line 124:
Vi tror dette refererer til noen ekstra ting som kommer fra leverandøren Big Pond, men er ikke sikre. Er det noen som vet så send oss en e-post.

<pre>
h. Do you want to enable the Coyote DHCP server? [y/n]: n</pre>
Her ''må'' svaret være «n»!

<pre>i. If you don't know what a DMZ is, just answer NO\nDo you want to configure a De-Militarized Zone? [Y/N]: n</pre>
Bare velg «n»

<pre>
j. You now need to specify the module name and parameters for your
We think that this refers to some extra stuff that comes from the provider Big Pond, but is not sure. If anyone who knows better then send us an email.

{{{
h. Do you want to enable the Coyote DHCP server? [y/n]: n
}}}

Here ''must'' the answer be «n»!

{{{
i. If you don't know what a DMZ is, just answer NO\nDo you want to configure a De-Militarized Zone? [Y/N]: n
}}}
Just choose "n"

{{{
j. You now need to specify the module name and parameters for your
Line 119: Line 139:
 
Line 122: Line 142:

  Enter the module name for you local network card:</pre>
Dette er den vanskelige delen. Å vite hvilken modul som skal brukes for nettverkskorte er av og til vanskelig. Se på [[#ExtraConfiguration--clmodules|Seksjon 3.12]] for å få et overblikk over tilgjengelige moduler. Husk, bruk ikke .o på slutten av modulnavnet. Bruk bare «fornavnet» på modulen.

Mange foretrekker 3Com. Nesten alle bruker modulen '''3c59x'''.

<pre>k. The default language of the Coyote Web Administrator is English
    Do you like to configure a different language ? [Y/N]: n</pre>
Bruk engelsk. Det er mye enklere å få hjelp. Søk gjerne i Google for å finne løsning på problemer.

<pre>l. Syslog server address:</pre>
Her kan man bruke hovedtjener som syslog-tjener. Bruk 10.0.2.2

 1. Du må sette inn en floppydisk i maskinen. Husk å skru av skrivebeskyttelsen. Det tar et par minutter å skrive til disketten.
 1. Vær sikker på at det ikke kommer noen feilmeldinger til ukjente NIC-moduler som dette:

<pre> Checking module deps for (wrong,bad)...
    Enter the module name for you local network card:
}}}
This is the tricky part. Knowing which module to use for network cards is sometimes difficult. See [[#!ExtraConfiguration--clmodules|Section 3.12]] to get an overview of the available modules. Remember to not use .o at the end of the module name. Use only "first name" of the module.

Many prefer 3Com. Almost all use this module '''3c59x'''.

{{{
k. The default language of the Coyote Web Administrator is English
    Do you like to configure a different language ? [Y/N]: n
}}}
Use English. It is much easier to get help. Search for example using Google to find solutions to problems.

{{{
l. Syslog server address:
}}}
Here you can use the main server as syslog server. Use 10.0.2.2

 1. You must insert a floppy disk in the machine. Remember to turn the write protection. It takes a few minutes to write to the disk.
 1. Be sure not to get any error messages to unknown NIC modules, like this:

{{{
    Checking module deps for (wrong,bad)...
Line 140: Line 166:

    Unable to copy module (drivers/wrong.o): No such file or directory</pre>
Vær
sikker på at man får noe lignende dette isteden:

<pre> Checking module deps for (e100,3c59x)...
 
    Unable to copy module (drivers/wrong.o): No such file or directory
}}}
Be su
re you get something like this instead:

{{{
Checking module deps for (e100,3c59x)...
Line 148: Line 176:
    Copying module: drivers/3c59x.o</pre>
=== Løsning 2 Lag en Coyote Linux-diskett på en Windows-maskin ===

Å lager du en diskett på en Windows-maskin er nesten det samme som på Linux.

Last ned kildefilene for Windows. De kan hentes fra [http://www.coyotelinux.com/downloads/channel.php?ChannelID=5 Disk Creation Wizard v2.24.0]
    Copying module: drivers/3c59x.o
}}}
=== Solution 2 Create a Coyote Linux Floppy on a Windows machine ===

To create a floppy on a Windows machine is done almost the same way as on Linux.

Download the source files for Windows. They can be obtained from [[http://www.coyotelinux.com/downloads/channel.php?!ChannelID=5|Disk Creation Wizard v2.24.0]]
Line 159: Line 188:
Here you can just press &quot;Next&quot;

'''Figur 3-3. Lokalt nettverksoppsett av LAN'''
Here you can just press "Next"

'''Figure 3-3. Local LAN network setup'''
Line 165: Line 194:
Fyll inn nødvendig informasjon om nettverket her: Se [[#ExtraConfiguration--fwconf|A]]

Fyll ut de rette IP-adressene og nettmaske (Netmask) gjør at Coyote Linux vil gi korrekt beregning av kringkastingsadresse (Broadcast) og nettadresse (Network)

'''Figur 3-4. Legg inn passord på Coyote Linux-disketten'''
Fill in the necessary network information here: See [[#!ExtraConfiguration--fwconf|A]]

Fill in the correct IP address and subnet mask (Netmask) and Coyote Linux will give the correct calculation of the broadcast address (Broadcast) and the network address (Network)

'''Figure 3-4. Insert a password on the Coyote Linux floppy disk'''
Line 173: Line 202:
Uten dette passordet kan du ikke logge inn Coyote Linux ved en senere anledning. Se [[#ExtraConfiguration--cllogin|Seksjon 3.6]]

'''Figur 3-5. Syslog-tjener'''
Without this password you can't log into the Coyote Linux on a later occasion. See [[#!ExtraConfiguration--cllogin|Section 3.6]]

'''Figur 3-5. Syslog-server'''
Line 179: Line 208:
La feltet stå blankt, eller se [[#ExtraConfiguration--clsyslog|2.l]]

'''Figur 3-6. Type Internett-tilknytning (WAN)'''
Leave the field blank, or look at [[#!ExtraConfiguration--clsyslog|2.l]]

'''Figure 3-6. Type of Internet connection (WAN)'''
Line 185: Line 214:
Velg hva som passer for deg. Har du tilgang til DCHP-tjener, som er svært sannsynlig, da trenger du ikke mer informasjon.

'''Figur 3-7. Fast IP-oppsett'''
Choose what suits you. Do you have access to DHCP server, which is very likely, then you do not need more information.

'''Figure 3-7. Static IP configuration'''
Line 191: Line 220:
Har du en fast adresse, fyll ut de passende verdier her.

'''Figur 3-8. Ikke skrup på Coyote Linux DHCP-tjener!'''
Do you have a fixed address, fill in the appropriate values here.

'''Figure 3-8. Do not enable the Coyote Linux DHCP server!'''
Line 197: Line 226:
Ikke skru på Coyote Linux DHCP-tjener. Det er allerede en som kjører på [[#ExtraConfiguration--mainserver|hovedtjener]]

'''Figur 3-9. Velg en drivermodul til nettverkskortet (NIC)'''
Do not turn on the Coyote Linux DHCP server. There is already one running on [[#!ExtraConfiguration--mainserver|main server]]

'''Figure 3-9. Select a driver module for the network card (NIC)'''
Line 203: Line 232:
Dra og slipp for å velge riktig nettverkskort på Coyote Linux-maskinen.

I dette bestemte skjermbildet brukes modulen for 3Com på LAN-siden av nettet (Skolelinux), og Intel pro 100 kort for WAN-tilkoblingen (Internett).

'''Figur 3-10. Velg språk'''
Drag and drop to choose the correct network card at the Coyote Linux machine.

In this particular screen, we use the module for 3Com on the LAN side of the grid (Debian Edu's) and Intel pro 100 card for the WAN (Internet) connection.

'''Figure 3-10. Select language'''
Line 211: Line 240:
Ønsker du å god støtte på Internett, velge engelsk.

'''Figur 3-11. Lag disken'''
If you want to get good support from the Internet, choose English.

'''Figure 3-11. Make the disc'''
Line 217: Line 246:
Plasser en floppydisk i diskettstasjonen, og trykk «Next».

=== Unntakshåndtering ===

Vårt klare råd er å lage minst 2 kopier av floppydisken. Det er kjekt å et par kopier klar om noe skulle skje.

=== Verifikasjon ===

&lt; FIXME&gt;

=== Oppdater konfigurasjonsdatabase ===

== Enkel brannmur med CD ==

Brukertilfelle: For å komme igang med Skolelinux trenger vi og lage en enkel brannmur. Hensikten er å dele Skolelinux-nettet fra det andre nettet som er satt opp.

Hovedforfatter Klaus Ade Johnstad

=== Løsning ===

Coyote Linux er et produkt i stadig utvikling og vedlikehold. Akkurat som Skolelinux/Debian-edu. Det betyr at nye versjoner blir utgitt stadig vekk, med nye funksjoner og sikkerhetsrettelser. Spesielt grunnet sikkerhetsfikser burde du alltid bruke nyeste stabile utgave Coyote Linux

Siden Coyote Linux kjøer kun fra en floppydisk så er det ikke noe system å oppgradere. Man må lage en ny floppy som beskrevet i [[#ExtraConfiguration--makefloppy|Seksjon 3.3]]. For å gjøre denne prosessen så enkel som mulig er det noen ting å huske på.

 1. Finn ut hva slags nettverkskort du har. Om dette er ukjent kan man bruke kommandoen '''lsmod''' for å liste alle lastede moduler (drivere) som er i bruk. Kanskje dette vil gi en ide om hva slags nettverskort som er i bruk.

<pre>coyote# lsmod
Place a floppy disk in the disc station and press 'Next'.

=== Exception handling ===

Our clear advice is to make at least two copies of the floppy disk. It is nice to have a couple copies ready if anything should happen.

=== Verification ===

< FIXME>

=== Update the configuration database ===

< FIXME>

== Simple firewall with CD ==

Use Case: To get started with Debian Edu's we need to make a simple firewall. The purpose is to separate Debian Edu's network from the second network that is set up.

Main author Klaus Ade Johnstad

=== Solution ===

Coyote Linux is a product in constant development and maintenance. Just like Skolelinux / Debian-edu. Meaning that new versions are released constantly, with new features and security fixes. Especially due to security fixes, you should always use the latest stable version of Coyote Linux

Since Coyote Linux runs solely from a floppy disk, there is no system to upgrade. You must create a new floppy as described in [[#!ExtraConfiguration--makefloppy|Section 3.3]]. To make this process as simple as possible, there are some things to remember.

 1. Find out what kind of network you have. If this is unknown, one can use the command '''lsmod''' to list all loaded modules (drivers) in use. Maybe this will give an idea of what kind of network cards are used.

{{{
coyote# lsmod
Line 258: Line 290:
ip_conntrack_ftp 3440 1</pre>
I denne listen med moduler som er lastet er nettverkskortet 3Com509 på plass to ganger. For en liste med tilgjengelige moduler, se på

Det vil være best å skrive ned på selve maskinen hva slags nettverkskort som er i den.

 1. Hva slags «port forwarding» er det?

Informasjon om «port forwarding»-reglene, om det er laget noen, er i fila <tt>/etc/coyote/portforwards</tt>

<pre> coyote# more /etc/coyote/portforwards\nport Y 10.0.2.2 tcp 2333 22 # Example - Secondary SSH</pre>
=== Unntakshåndtering ===

=== Verifikasjon ===

=== Oppdater konfigurasjonsdatabase ===

== Oppstart av Coyote brannmur ==

Brukertilfelle: Etter enkel brannmur er installert skal den installeres i nettet og virke.

Forfatter: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

=== Løsning ===

Det er to network card i Coyote Linux, en (LAN) er tilkoblet til Skolelinux/Debian-edu-tjeneren, den andre er koblet med en krysset kabel, eller via en sitsj til et annet nett (WAN). Noen ganger kan det være litt vanskelig å bestemme hvilke network card som er koblet hvor, spesielt om de begge er koblet til nett med lik adresse. Fremgangsmåten vi bruker for å bestemme hvilket kort som går hvor, er å bruke krysset kabel og først koble denne til network card i Skolelinux/Debian-edu-hovedtjener.

 1. Først starter man Coyote Linux uten noen kabel til network card
 1. Så brukes den kryssede kabelen for å koble Coyote Linux med Skolelinux/Debian-edu-hovedtjener (vær sikker på at den går i nettverkskortet merket eth0 om hovedtjener er en kombinert tjener).
 1. Logg inn på hovedtjener. Forsøk å bruke '''pinge'''l Coyote Linux-maskinen. Bruk kommandoen '''ping -c10 10.0.2.1''', eller alternativt forsøk å pinge hovedtjener fra Coyote Linux med kommandoen '''ping -c10 10.0.2.2'''.
 1. Da får du et svar som dette om det virker:

<pre>ping -c10 10.0.2.1
ip_conntrack_ftp 3440 1
}}}
In this list of modules that are loaded, the module for the network card 3com509 is loaded twice. For a list of available modules, look at

It is best practice to write on the machine itself what kind of network card it contains.

 1. What kind of "port forwarding" is it?

Information about the "port forwarding" rules, if you have made any, is in the file`/etc/coyote/portforwards`

{{{
   coyote# more /etc/coyote/portforwards\nport Y 10.0.2.2 tcp 2333 22 # Example - Secondary SSH
}}}
=== Exception handling ===

< FIXME>

=== Verification ===

< FIXME>

=== Update the configuration database ===

< FIXME>

== Starting the Coyote firewall ==

User case: After a simple firewall is installed, it shall be installed on the network and be effective.

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

=== Solution ===

There are two network cards in Coyote Linux, one (LAN) is connected to the Skolelinux/Debian-edu server, the other is connected with a crossed cable, or via a switch to another network (WAN). Sometimes it can be a bit difficult to decide which network card is which, especially if they are both connected to the same address. The method we use to determine which card is which, is to use a crossed cable and connect it to the network card in the Skolelinux/Debian-edu main server.

 1. First you start Coyote Linux without any wired network card
 1. Then use the crossed cable to connect Coyote Linux with the Skolelinux / Debian-edu main server (make sure it goes to the NIC labeled eth0 if the main server is a combined server).
 1. Login to the main server. Try to '''ping''' the Coyote Linux machine. Use the command '''ping -c10 10.0.2.1''', or alternatively, try to ping the main server from Coyote Linux with the command '''ping -c10 10.0.2.2'''.
 1. Then you get a response like this if it works:

{{{
ping -c10 10.0.2.1
Line 293: Line 335:
64 bytes from 10.0.2.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=0.3 ms</pre>
Da har du funnet network card på Coyote Linux som må merkes LAN. Da vet vi at den andre network card er WAN. Denne fremgangsmåten vil bare virke sålenge network card-et på LAN-et er satt opp riktig. Som vist under oppstarten på linen

<pre>LAN network: UP</pre>
=== Er normalt det som vises ===

<pre>WAN network:
    down</pre>
Siden du har startet uten noen kabler i network card-en.

Når det er bestemt hvilken rolle det er for hver av network card-ene, da kan man omstarte brannmuren med alle kablene på plass.

Forskjellige navn på network card-ene

De to network card-ene har fote forskjellige navn i Coyote Linux. Det blir litt forvirrende og lite konsistent. Her følger en oversikt:

De forskjellige navn brukt på network cards i Coyote Linux

<table>
<tbody>
<tr class="odd">
<td align="left">''Denne går til eksisterende nett''
</td>
<td align="left">''Internett''
</td>
<td align="left">''Eth1''
</td>
<td align="left">''WAN''
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="even">
<td align="left">Denn går til Skolelinux-nettet
</td>
<td align="left">LAN nettverket
</td>
<td align="left">Eth0
</td>
<td align="left">LAN
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>

Start Coyote Linux-maskinen omigjen og vær sikker på at floppydisken til Coyote Linux står i diskettstasjonen. Pass også på at maskinen er satt opp til å starte fra floppydisk.

'''Figur 3-12. Coyote Linux Login'''
64 bytes from 10.0.2.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=0.3 ms
}}}
When you have found the network card on the Coyote Linux that must be labelled LAN, then we know that the other network card is WAN. This procedure will only work as long as the network card on the LAN is set up properly. As shown during startup on the line

{{{
LAN network: UP
}}}
=== That is normal what is shown ===

{{{
WAN network:
    down
}}}
Since you have started without any wires connected to the network card.

When the role of each of the network cards is decided, it is time to reboot the firewall with all the cables in place.

Different names for the network cards

The two network cards got two different names in Coyote Linux. This is a bit confusing and not very consistent. Here is a summary:

The various names used for network cards in Coyote Linux

||''This is connected to the existing network''||''Internet''||''Eth1''||''WAN''||
||This goes to the Debian Edu network||LAN network||Eth0||LAN||

Reboot the Coyote Linux machine and make sure the Coyote Linux floppy disk is present in the floppy station. Ensure that the machine is configured to boot from floppy drive.

'''Figure 3-12. Coyote Linux Login'''
Line 342: Line 367:
Du kan logge inn. Bruk brukernavnet «root» og passordet som ble bestemt når floppydisken ble laget (om dette ble gjort fra Windows). Eller trykk '''Enter''' (tomt passord) for innlogging på disketten laget med Linux

Notat: Det er vanlig at det ikke følger med noen tilbakemelding når man trykker passord i et Linux-system. Dette er for å avsløre så lite som mulig om passordet.

=== Unntakshåndtering ===

'''meny, status til nettveket, nede'''
You can log in. Use the user name "root" and the password you set when you created the floppy (if this was done from Windows). or press '''Enter''' (blank password) for logging on floppy disk created by Linux

Note: It is normal that you don't get any visible response when you type a password in a Linux system. This is to reveal as little information as possible about the password.

=== Exception handling ===

'''menu, status of the network, down'''
Line 352: Line 377:
Når du har kommet inn, trykk «c» for å få statusen til nettverket. I tilfelle det er et problem:

'''Figur 3-14. meny, status til nettverket, opp'''
Once you have entered, press 'c' to get the status of the network. In case there is a problem:

'''Figure 3-14. menu, status of the network, up'''
Line 358: Line 383:
Om alt har gått bra vil begge være «oppe»

Q: [[#ExtraConfiguration--AEN698|Det ser ut som network card (LAN) som går til Skolelinux/Debian-edu-nettet ikke virker: DOWN]]

Q: [[#ExtraConfiguration--AEN704|Det ser ut som network card (WAN) som er tilkoblet Internett ikke virker: DOWN]]

Q: [[#ExtraConfiguration--AEN724|Vi har satt opp brannmurer med mange forskjellige nettverkskort og driver-moduler for mange network card. Vi har til gode å finne noe som ikke virker riktig.]]

'''Q:'''Det ser ut som network card (LAN) som går til Skolelinux/Debian-edu-nettet ikke virker: DOWN

'''A:'''Har du satt opp network card i henhold til [[#ExtraConfiguration--fwconf|A]], men fortsatt virker det ikke. Det kan hende at man har valgt feil driver for network card

'''Q:'''Det ser ut som network card (WAN) som er tilkoblet Internett ikke virker: DOWN

'''A:'''Det er vanligvis to grunner til at WAN network card ikke er oppe (UP):

 1. Du bruker en tilkobling med feil Internett-tilkobling. Så du må ta en titt på ny på [[#ExtraConfiguration--clconnectiontype|2.b]]

Om du har en tilkobling med en adresse tildelt av DHCP, som ikke er statisk. Da må det være en fysisk tilkobling med en nettverkskabel mellom Coyote Linux og nettkontakten.

 1. Du har valgt feil driver-modul for dette network card.

Du bør forsøke å logge inn på Coyote Linux og velge '''q) quit''' for å gå ut av Coyote Linux-menyen. Så bør du kjøre kommandoen
If everything went well, both will be "up"

Q: [[#!ExtraConfiguration--AEN698|It looks like the network card (LAN) going to to the Skolelinux/Debian-edu network is not working: DOWN]]

Q: [[#!ExtraConfiguration--AEN704|It looks like the network card (WAN) connected to the Internet, is not working: DOWN]]

Q: [[#!ExtraConfiguration--AEN724|We have set up firewalls with many different driver modules for many network cards. We have yet to find anything not working properly.]]

'''Q:'''It looks like the network card (LAN) going to to the Skolelinux/Debian-edu network is not working: DOWN

'''A:'''If you set up your network card according to [[#!ExtraConfiguration--fwconf|A]], but it still does not work. That may mean the wrong driver has been chosen for your network card

'''Q:'''It looks like the network card (WAN) connected to the Internet, is not working: DOWN

'''A:'''There are usually two reasons why the WAN network card is not up (UP):

 1. You're using a connection with the wrong Internet configuration. Take another look at [[#!ExtraConfiguration--clconnectiontype|2.b]]

If you have a connection with a DHCP-assigned address, which is not static. Then it must be a physical connection through a network wire between Coyote Linux and the network socket.

 1. You have chosen the wrong driver module for this network card.

You should attempt to login to Coyote Linux and choose '''q) quit''' to leave the Coyote Linux menu. Then you should run the command
Line 384: Line 409:
bruk så '''mellomrom''' for å bla. Se på referansene til '''eth0''' og '''eth1'''. Se på [[#ExtraConfiguration--clnicnames|Forskjellige navn på network card-ene]] for en påminnelse om hva eth0 og eth1 betyr. Det er vanligvis en indikator for hva problemet er.

'''Q:'''Vi har satt opp brannmurer med mange forskjellige nettverkskort og driver-moduler for mange network card. Vi har til gode å finne noe som ikke virker riktig.

'''A:'''Har du sett på dette nettstedet for mer informasjon om network card og passende driver-moduler for Coyote Linux? [http://www.dalantech.com/ http://www.dalantech.com]

=== Verifikasjon ===

Brannmuren virker om du kommer ut på Internett via nettleseren på hovedtjener eller en tilkoblet klient.

=== Oppdater konfigurasjonsdatabase ===

== Administrasjon av brannmur i nettleser (Coyote) ==

Brukertilfelle: Vi trenger å endre innstillingene i brannmuren. Brannmuren står innelåst på datarommet. Kan jeg gjøre endringen over nettverket.

Forfatter: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Medforfatter: Knut Yrvin

Coyote Linux har en pen og et velfungerende administrasjonsverktøy via en nettside. Her kan man gjøre det meste. Skriv [http://10.0.2.1:8180/ http://10.0.2.1:8180] i adressefeltet til nettleseren. Adressen vil gi vev-administrasjon av Coyote Linux. Klikk på lenken, og skriv brukernavnet '''root''' og passordet du har laget for brannmuren.

'''Coyote Linux vev-administrasjon'''
then use '''space''' to scroll. Look for references to '''eth0''' and '''eth1'''. Look at [[#!ExtraConfiguration--clnicnames|Different names to the network cards]] for a reminder of what eth0 and eth1 means. Usually it is an indicator of what the problem is.

'''Q:'''We have set up firewalls with many different driver modules for many network cards. We have yet to find one that doesn't work properly.

'''A:'''Have you looked at this website for more information about network cards and corresponding driver modules for Coyote Linux? [[http://www.dalantech.com/|http://www.dalantech.com]]

=== Verification ===

The firewall works if you try to reach the Internet through the web browser on the main server or through a connected client.

=== Update the configuration database ===

< FIXME>

== Firewall administration through the browser (Coyote) ==

Use Case: We need to change the settings in the firewall. The firewall is locked in the computer room. Can I make the change over the network?

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Co-author: Knut Yrvin

Coyote Linux has a pretty and practical administration tool through a web portal. Here you can do everything. Type [[http://10.0.2.1:8180/|http://10.0.2.1:8180]] in the address field of your browser. The address will provide web administration for Coyote Linux. Click on the link and enter your user name '''root''' and the password you created for the firewall.

'''Coyote Linux web administration'''
Line 410: Line 437:
Alle valg og innstillinger kan gjøres i Main Menu venstresiden.

'''Coyote Linux hovedmeny'''
All options and settings can be done in Main Menu on the left side.

'''Coyote Linux Main Menu'''
Line 415: Line 442:
 * Informasjon

Å velge denne gir status for network card-er, IP-adressene som er på plass, oppetid til Coyote Linux, lst og lignende.

 * LAN oppsett

Her har du mulighet til å endre oppsettet til LAN network card. Det er denne som går til Skolelinux/Debian-edu-nettet. Behold verdiene som de er. Viser til [[#ExtraConfiguration--fwconf|A]].

Varsel: Ikke gjør endringer her! Å gjøre det kan redusere ytelsen til Skolelinux/Debian-edu-nettet

&lt; FIXME: Bør vise inneholdet av change_ip_setup her, senere&gt;

 * Internett oppsett

Her har man muligheten til å endre veridene i WAN network card til det som går til Internett. Har du fått en ny Internett-leverandør, eller endrer dynamisk IP med DHCP til fast IP-adresse, så er dette stedet å endre informasjonen uten behov av å lage ny Coyote Linux-floppy fra bunnen av. Se [[#ExtraConfiguration--clconnectiontype|2.b]]

 * DHCP oppsett. Varsel: Ikke sett opp DCHP-tjener i Coyote Linux!

Dette gir muligheten til å sette opp DHCP-tjener som en del av Coyote Linux

 * Administrative innstillinger

Her kan man skru på og av tjenester som navnetjener (DNS), ssh og vev-admin.
 * Information

Choosing this gives the status of your network cards, active IP addresses, uptime for Coyote Linux, Ist and the like.

 * LAN setup

Here you have the possibility to reconfigure the LAN network card. It goes to the Skolelinux/Debian-edu network. Leave the values as they are. Referring to [[#!ExtraConfiguration--fwconf|A]].

Warning: Do not make changes here! Doing so may reduce the performance of Skolelinux/Debian-edu network

<FIXME: Should describe the contents of change_ip_setup here, later>

 * Internet setup

Here you have the possibility to change the values in the WAN network card connected to the Internet. If you have got a new ISP, or changed a dynamically assigned IP address by DHCP to a fixed one, this is the place to change the information without the need of creating a new Coyote Linux floppy from scratch. See [[#!ExtraConfiguration--clconnectiontype|2.b]]

 * DHCP setup. Warning: Do not enable the DHCP server in Coyote Linux!

This provides the possibility to configure DHCP server as part of Coyote Linux

 * Administrative settings

Here it is possible to turn on and off services like the name server (DNS), ssh and web administration.
Line 441: Line 468:
Her kan man endre og skru på port forwarding i Coyote Linux. Dette er en kjekk funksjon i et Skolelinux/Debian-edu-nett. Siden Coyote Linux stopper og blokkerer de fleste tilkoblinger som f.eks. ssh, er det kjekt å bruke port forwarding. Dette er en måte å slippe ssh-tilknytninger gjennom Coyote Linux til et Skolelinux/Debian-edu-nettverk.

Bruk denne regelen for port forwarding

<pre> Yes TCP Any 22 10.0.2.2 22 No SSH straight into Mainserver</pre>
alle ssh-tilkytninger som kommer til Coyote Linux vil bli videresendt til Skolelinux/Debian-edu hovedtjener. Du må bestemme om dette er ønsket.

 * Forenklet oppsett av brannmur

Her kan man sette opp og stille inn brannmurregler i Coyote Linux. Det er mange regler som er klar til bruk, og kan brukes som eksempel.

 * Avansert brannmuroppsett
 * QOS oppsett

Her kan man sette opp begrensninger på nettkapasiteten

 * Systempassord

Her kan man endre root-passordet Coyote Linux, også kjent som system-passordet. Dette er på samme måte som å bruke kommandolinja [[#ExtraConfiguration--cllogin|Seksjon 3.6]].

 * Konfigurasjonsfiler

Dette er filer som inneholder alle innstillinger.

 * Diagnoseverktøy

Her finner man nyttige verktøy som ping, testing av porter (gateway), testing av navnetjener (DNS), og status for nettverket.

 * Backup nå

Er det gjort endringer Coyote Linux ''må'' disse lagres på disketten. Ved å velge Main Menu i Coyote Linux så kan man velge å lagre oppsettet. Alternativet er at alle endringer går tapt ved omstart av Coyote Linux.

 * Omstart av systemet

Når man trenger å starte Coyote Linux på nytt kan dette gjøres fra «Main Menu». Når man velger omstart må dette bekreftes.

'''Omstart eller skru av Coyote Linux?'''
Here you may change and enable port forwarding in Coyote Linux. This is a neat feature in a Skolelinux/Debian-edu network. Since Coyote Linux stops and blocks most connections for example ssh, it's nice to use port forwarding. This is a way to let ssh connections through Coyote Linux to a Skolelinux/Debian-edu- network.

Use this rule for port forwarding

{{{
   Yes TCP Any 22 10.0.2.2 22 No SSH straight into Mainserver
}}}
all ssh-connections coming to Coyote Linux will be forwarded to the Skolelinux/Debian-edu main server. You need to decide if this is as wished.

 * Simplified firewall configuration

Here you can set up and configure the firewall rules in Coyote Linux. There are many rules ready to use and can be used as an example.

 * Advanced firewall configuration
 * QOS configuration

Here you can set up restrictions on network capacity

 * System password

Here you can change the root password for Coyote Linux, also known as the system password. This is the same as using the command line [[#!ExtraConfiguration--cllogin|Section 3.6]].

 * Configuration files

These are files that contain all settings.

 * Diagnostic tools

Here you would find useful tools like ping, testing ports (gateway), testing nameserver (DNS), and the status of the network.

 * Backup now

Are there any changes in Coyote Linux then those ''must'' be saved on the diskette. By selecting Main Menu in Coyote Linux users can choose to save the setup. The alternative is that all changes are lost when you reboot Coyote Linux

 * Reboot the system

When you need to start again the Coyote Linux, this can be done from the "Main Menu". When choosing restart this must be confirmed.

'''Restart or turn off Coyote Linux?'''
Line 481: Line 510:
=== Unntakshåndtering ===

=== Verifikasjon ===

=== Oppdater konfigurasjonsdatabase ===

== Brannmur som DHCP-tjener (Coyote) ==

Brukertifelle: Ønsker å sette opp en god DHCP-tjener med høy stabilitet uavhengig av operativsystem i nettverket. Varsel: vanlig DHCP-tjener i et ikke-Skolelinux/Debian-edu-nettverk

Forfatter: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Coyote Linux er en god løsning om man bare trenger en DHCP-tjener på nettverket uavhengig av hva slags maskiner som brukes, være seg Linux, Windows eller Mac.

Den eneste tingen som må konfigureres anderledes, er å skru på DHCP-tjeneren. &lt; FIXME: lag lenke til skjermbilde&gt;

En kort oppsummering om å gjøre om Coyote Linux til DHCP-tjener:

'''Coyote Linux som en standard DHCP-tjener'''

 * Husk å svar «Yes» på spørsmålet «Do you want to enable the Coyote DHCP-server [y/n]:»
 * Straks en DHCP-tjener kjører på Coyote Linux, må man sannsynligvis bruke en annen adresse å logge på den, om man ikke endret noe på LAN-oppsettet:

<pre>Configuring system for Ethernet based Internet connection

=== Exception handling ===

< FIXME>

=== Verification ===

< FIXME>

=== Update the configuration database ===

< FIXME>

== Firewall as a DHCP server (Coyote) ==

Use case: Want to set up a good DHCP server with high stability regardless of the operating system. Notification: normal DHCP server in a non-Skolelinux/Debian-edu network

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Coyote Linux is a good solution if you just need a DHCP server on the network regardless of what type of machines, be it Linux, Windows or Mac.

The only thing that needs to be configured differently, is to enable the DHCP server. < FIXME: create link to screenshot>

A brief summary about changing a Coyote Linux to a DHCP-server:

'''Coyote Linux as the default DHCP server'''

 * Remember to answer "yes" to the question "Do you want to enable the Coyote DHCP-server [y/n]:"
 * Once a DHCP server runs on Coyote Linux, you will probably need to use a different address for login, if you did not change the LAN setup:

{{{
Configuring system for Ethernet based Internet connection
 
 
Line 509: Line 545:
 
Line 514: Line 550:

Would you like to change these settings? [Y/N]: n</pre>
så bør du bruke adressen 192.168.0.1 i steden for 10.0.2.1 når man logger inn på Coyote Linuxs vev-administrasjon. Se [[#ExtraConfiguration--clgui|Seksjon 3.7]] og

'''Ny adresse i dette tilfellet er:'''
  Would you like to change these settings? [Y/N]: n
}}}
then you should use the address 192.168.0.1 instead of 10.0.2.1 when logging into the Coyote Linux web administration. See [[#!ExtraConfiguration--clgui|Section 3.7]] and

'''In this case the new address is:'''
Line 521: Line 558:
 * [http://192.168.0.1:8180/ http://192.168.0.1:8180]

=== Verifikasjon ===

=== Oppdater konfigurasjonsdatabase ===

== Coyote brannmur og Internett-operatører ==

Brukertilfelle: Vi har en brannmur med Coyote Linux. Lar den seg koble til vår Internett-leverandør?

Forfatter: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Notat: Det har enda ikke vært en situasjon hvor Coyote ikke virker mot Internett-leverandører i Norge. Fortell oss om du har erfart problemer med en.

Dette er en liste med Internett-tilbydere som fungerer godt med Coyote Linux
 * [[http://192.168.0.1:8180/|http://192.168.0.1:8180]]

=== Verification ===

< FIXME>

=== Update the configuration database ===

< FIXME>

== Coyote firewall and Internet operators ==

User Case: We have a firewall with Coyote Linux. Does it allow itself to connect to our ISP?

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Note: We've seen no case where Coyote didn't work with an ISP in Norway. Tell us if you experience problems with an ISP.

This is a list of Internet providers that work well with Coyote Linux
Line 541: Line 582:
 * Utdanningsetaten i Oslo (The Department of Education). Ikke testet på skoler koblet til Simens sin InnsIKT-løsning for Oslo-skolene

Grunnet anderledes nettverkspolitikk på Utdanningsetaten i Oslo ''må'' man gjøre følgende endringer på [[#ExtraConfiguration--mainserver|hovedtjeneren]]:

Endre følgende i filen <tt>/etc/bind/named.conf</tt> [[#ExtraConfiguration--FTN.AEN983|[5]]]

<pre> // forwarders {
 * The Department of Education in Oslo. Not tested on schools connected to Simens' !InnsIKT-solution for Oslo schools

Due to different network policies in The Department of Education in Oslo, you ''must'' make the following changes in [[#!ExtraConfiguration--mainserver|the main server]]:

Change the following in the file`/etc/bind/named.conf` [[#!ExtraConfiguration--FTN.AEN983|[5]]]

{{{
       // forwarders {
Line 554: Line 596:
        // };</pre>
endre dette til

<pre> forwarders {
        // };
}}}
cha
nge this to

{{{
forwarders {
Line 564: Line 608:
           };</pre>
Det betyr å fjerne kommentator-merker (#) foran «forwarders».

Gjør du ikke dette vil man ikke være i stand til å koble utstyret til Internett som skyldes problemer med navnetjeneren (DNS) hos Utdanningsetaten i Oslo. Driftspersonalet vil også engasjere flere til å få dette endret til slik etaten vil ha det.

Etter endringene er lagt inn i <tt>/etc/bind/named.conf</tt> må man omstarte bind med '''/etc/init.d/bind9 restart'''
           };
}}}
This means to remove the comment marker (#) in front of "forwarders".

If you don't do this, you will not be able to connect to the Internet due to problems with the name server (DNS) in The Department of Education in Oslo. Operating staff will also engage more people to get this changed to such as this service wants it.

After the changes are inserted in `/etc/bind/named.conf` one needs to restart bind with '''service bind9 restart'''
Line 572: Line 617:
 * Høgskolen i Oslo (Oslo College)

Her må man gjøre samme bind-endringer som for Utdanningsetaten i Oslo.

=== Unntakshåndtering ===

=== Verifikasjon ===

=== Oppdater konfigurasjonsdatabase ===

== Støtte for nettverkskort i brannmuren ==

Brukertilfelle: Er de to nettverkskortene vi har i maskinen støttet av Coyote?

Forfatter: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Dette er en liste med moduler som følger med Coyote Linux. Alle driver-moduler for network carder er listet opp.

<pre>tjener:~/coyote# ls data/kernel/drivers/
 * Oslo University College (Høgskolen i Oslo)

Here, you must make the same bind-changes as the Department of Education in Oslo.

=== Exception handling ===

< FIXME>

=== Verification ===

< FIXME>

=== Update the configuration database ===

< FIXME>

== Support for network cards in the firewall ==

Use case: Are the two network cards in the machine supported by Coyote?

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

This is a list of modules included in Coyote Linux. All driver modules for network cards are listed.

{{{
tjener:~/coyote# ls data/kernel/drivers/
Line 620: Line 672:
epic100.o ne2k-pci.o</pre>
=== Unntakshåndtering ===

=== Verifikasjon ===

=== Oppdater konfigurasjonsdatabase ===
epic100.o ne2k-pci.o
}}}

=== Exception handling ===

< FIXME>


=== Verification ===

< FIXME>

=== Update the configuration database ===

< FIXME>
Line 629: Line 688:
Use case: We want to try to use some network cards in the firewall that is almost 20 years old. They are using the so called ISA bus. Is this possible?

Forfatter: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Medforfatter: Knut Yrvin

Nettverkskot med typebetegnelsen 3c509 fra 3Com har vært en svært populær serie. Flere har Coyote Linux med slike nettverkskort produsert i f.eks. 1989, snart 20 år siden. Vi har kjørt disse kortene i tre år med Coyote brannmur uten problemer. Straks man har fått kortene opp å kjøre, vil de sannsynligvis kjøre i lang tid. Men det er noen ganger vanskelig å få kortene til å virke. Dette er fordi de har ISA-buss. Det betyr at viktige adresser (IO) og avbruddsmeldinger (IRQ) må håndteres manuelt. Dette gjøres helt automatisk med PCI-kort. Men bruker man ISA-kort krever det ekstra innsats. IO og IRQ på disse kortene kan håndteres av et gammelt DOS-program. Dette kan være litt vanskelig å få tak i, siden dette er nesten 20 år gammel programvare.

DOS-programmet for oppsett kalles <tt>3c5x9cfg.exe</tt>, og det brukes på følgende måte:

 1. Start the machine with DOS. One can use FreeDOS or a boot floppy created with Windows 95 or 98.
 1. Straks maskinen er startet med DOS, sett inn en diskett med programmet <tt>3c5x9cfg.exe</tt>. Kjør programmet 3c5x9cfg.exe fra kommandolinja i DOS.
 1. Straks 3c5x9cfg.exe er startet, så kan hver av 3c509 network cardene settes opp med valget «auto»

<tt>3c5x9cfg.exe</tt> finner man hos Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg: [http://www.urz.uni-heidelberg.de/Netzdienste/nm/misc/3comnic/ ]

FreeDOS can be found on: [http://www.freedos.org/ ]

=== Unntakshåndtering ===

Varsel: Flere rapporter viser at det er problemer med å bruke to 3c509-kort på samme maskin om ett av kortene er av combo-typen. Det er en korttype med forskjellige typer nettverkskontakter.
Use case: We want to try to use some network cards in the firewall that are almost 20 years old. They are using the so called ISA bus. Is this possible?

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Co-author: Knut Yrvin

Network cards with model number 3c509 from 3Com have been a very popular series. Many have Coyote Linux with such a network card built in which could have been produced for example in 1989, over 25 years ago. We've run these cards for three years with Coyote firewall without any problems. Once you have managed to get one running, it will probably run for a long time. But it is sometimes difficult to get the cards to work in the first place. This is because they have an ISA bus. This means that important addresses (I/O) and termination messages (IRQ) must be handled manually. This is done automatically with PCI cards, but using an ISA card requires extra effort. I/O and IRQ on these cards can be handled by an old DOS program. This can be somewhat difficult to obtain, since this software is over 25 years old.

The DOS configuration program is called `3c5x9cfg.exe`, and it is used in the following way:

 1. Start the machine with DOS. One can use !FreeDOS or a boot floppy created with Windows 95 or 98.
 1. As soon as the machine is booted using DOS, insert a floppy disk with the program `3c5x9cfg.exe`. Run the program 3c5x9cfg.exe from the command line in DOS.
 1. When 3c5x9cfg.exe is started, each of the 3c509 network cards can be configured with the "auto" option

`3c5x9cfg.exe` can be found at Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg: http://www.urz.uni-heidelberg.de/Netzdienste/nm/misc/3comnic/

!FreeDOS can be found on: http://www.freedos.org/

=== Exception handling ===

Warning: Many reports show problems with using two 3c509 card on the same machine if one of the cards is a combo type. This is a card type with different types of network cable plugs.
Line 653: Line 712:
=== Verifikasjon ===

=== Oppdater konfigurasjonsdatabase ===

== Nyttige linker om brannmuren Coyote ==

Brukertilfelle: Jeg har ikke fått nok hjelp om bruk av brannmuren på disse sidene. Hvor får jeg mere hjelp?

Forfatter: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Medforfatter: Knut Yrvin

 * [http://www.coyotelinux.com/ Coyote Linux home page]
 * [http://www.vortech.net/phorums/list.php?8 Coyote Linux brukerforum, høy aktivitet]
 * [http://www.coyotelinux.com/faq Coyote Linux, FAQ, velg 2.x - General]
 * [http://rzero.com/coyote/faq.html En annen FAQ av Todd VerBeek]

=== Unntakshåndtering ===

=== Verifikasjon ===

=== Oppdater konfigurasjonsdatabase ===
=== Verification ===

< FIXME>

=== Update the configuration database ===

< FIXME>

== Useful links about the Coyote firewall ==

User case: I have not gotten enough help with using the firewall on these pages. Where can I get more help?

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Co-author: Knut Yrvin

 * [[http://www.coyotelinux.com/|Coyote Linux home page]]
 * [[http://www.vortech.net/phorums/list.php?8|Coyote Linux user forum, high activity]]
 * [[http://www.coyotelinux.com/faq|Coyote Linux, FAQ, choose 2.x - General]]
 * [[http://rzero.com/coyote/faq.html|Another FAQ by Todd !VerBeek]]

=== Exception handling ===

< FIXME>

=== Verification ===

< FIXME>

=== Update the configuration database ===

< FIXME>
Line 678: Line 747:
Brukertilfelle: Hva ønskes konfigurert

=== Løsning ===

=== Unntakshåndtering ===

=== Verifikasjon ===

=== Oppdater konfigurasjonsdatabase ===
User case: What's should be configured

=== Solution ===

< FIXME>

=== Exception handl
ing ===

< FIXME>

=== Verification ===

< FIXME>

=== Update the configuration database ===

< FIXME>

Extra configurations

/!\ This setup MUST be reviewed, this is historic information.

/!\ Do NOT use this. Coyote Linux has not been updated since at least 2015. Modern Linux kernels simply are too big to fit on a floppy disk.

/!\ Graphics in the document must be inserted and updated

Simple firewall

Debian Edu's architecture suits centralized operations with the placement of services centrally, and can be operated locally at each school. A firewall makes it easier to start with Debian Edu's if you want to try out a small installation.

Simple firewall with floppy (Coyote)

Use Case: To get started with Debian Edu's we need to make a simple firewall. The purpose is to separate Debian Edu's network from the second network that is set up.

Main author Klaus Ade Johnstad

  • Regardless of whether you choose to Coyote Linux floppy on a Linux or Windows machine, the following configuration must be used. This applies to any other firewall router than Coyote Linux
  • Local network interface:

         IP Address:   10.0.2.1
         Netmask:      255.255.254.0
         Broadcast:    10.0.3.255
         Network:      10.0.2.0
  • Install the Big Pond login software? [y/n]:n

Press "n"

This refers to some extra stuff you need if you want to have access from the provider Big Pond, but we are not sure. Is there anyone who knows that for sure?

  • Do you want to enable the Coyote DHCP-server [y/n]: n

Press "n"

  • Use 10.0.2.2 as a syslog server. This is the IP address of the main server

Warning: Since Skolelinux/Debian-Edu already has a DHCP server running, you must disable the DHCP server on your firewall/router. The same applies to all other machines that may be connected to a Skolelinux/Debian-Edu network. Having two DHCP servers on the same network usually just leads to trouble

If a new version of Coyote Linux exists when you read this, it might replace the version 2.24 in the commands above with the version downloaded.

  1. After that the Coyote Linux was downloaded, the files must be unpacked. One must be the root user to unpack.

tar zvxf coyote-2.24.tar.gz

cd coyote

./makefloppysh

  1. When creating Coyote Linux on a Linux machine, one needs to answer several questions. Here is a summary of the answers that can be supplied:

a.   Coyote floppy builder script v2.9
 
    Please choose the desired capacity for the created floppy:
    1) 1.44MB (Safest and most reliable but may lack space needed for
           some options)
    2) 1.68MB (Good reliability with extra space) - recommended
    3) 1.72MB (Most space but may not work on all systems or with all
           diskettes)
 
    Enter selection:2

The recommended choice is «1.68MB»

b.   Please select the type of Internet connection that your system uses.
 
    1) Standard Ethernet Connection
    2) PPP over Ethernet Connection
    3) PPP Dialup Connection\n\nEnter Selection:

Here it is best to select 1)

c.   Configuring system for Ethernet based Internet connection.
    By default, Coyote uses the following settings for the local network
    interface:
 
    IP Address: 192.168.0.1
    Netmask:    255.255.255.0
    Broadcast:  192.168.0.255
    Network:    192.168.0.0
 
    Would you like to change these settings? [Y/N]: y
    Enter local IP Address [192.168.0.1]: 10.0.2.1
    Enter local Netmask [255.255.255.0]: 255.255.254.0
    Enter local Broadcast [192.168.0.255]: 10.0.3.255
    Enter local network number [192.168.0.0]: 10.0.2.0

These network settings for local network must be changed. See A

   IP Address: 10.0.2.1
    Netmask:    255.255.254.0
    Broadcast:  10.0.3.255
    Network:    10.0.2.0
 
e.   Does your Internet connection get its IP via DHCP? [y/n]:

Answer yes(y) or no(n) in accordance with what the network configuration is.

If one gets an IP via DHCP, the following information should be filled out:

   Please enter the information for your static IP configuration
    Internet IP Address:\nInternet Subnet Mask [255.255.255.0]:
    Internet Broadcast [Enter = Default]:
    Internet Gateway Address:
    Domain Name:
    DNS Server 1:
 
    DNS Server 2 (optional):
  • Enter the DHCP hostname:

Usually, this one can be blank

  • Install the Big Pond login software? [y/n]:

We think that this refers to some extra stuff that comes from the provider Big Pond, but is not sure. If anyone who knows better then send us an email.

h.   Do you want to enable the Coyote DHCP server? [y/n]: n

Here must the answer be «n»!

i.   If you don't know what a DMZ is, just answer NO\nDo you want to configure a De-Militarized Zone? [Y/N]: n

Just choose "n"

j. You now need to specify the module name and parameters for your
  network cards.
 
  If you are using PCI or EISA cards, leave the IO and IRQ lines
  blank.
 
  Enter the module name for you local network card:

This is the tricky part. Knowing which module to use for network cards is sometimes difficult. See Section 3.12 to get an overview of the available modules. Remember to not use .o at the end of the module name. Use only "first name" of the module.

Many prefer 3Com. Almost all use this module 3c59x.

k.   The default language of the Coyote Web Administrator is English
    Do you like to configure a different language ? [Y/N]: n

Use English. It is much easier to get help. Search for example using Google to find solutions to problems.

l.   Syslog server address:

Here you can use the main server as syslog server. Use 10.0.2.2

  1. You must insert a floppy disk in the machine. Remember to turn the write protection. It takes a few minutes to write to the disk.
  2. Be sure not to get any error messages to unknown NIC modules, like this:

    Checking module deps for (wrong,bad)...
    Copying module: drivers/wrong.o
 
    Unable to copy module (drivers/wrong.o): No such file or directory

Be sure you get something like this instead:

   Checking module deps for (e100,3c59x)...
    Module 3c59x dep =
    Module e100 dep =
    Copying module: drivers/e100.o
    Copying module: drivers/3c59x.o

Solution 2 Create a Coyote Linux Floppy on a Windows machine

To create a floppy on a Windows machine is done almost the same way as on Linux.

Download the source files for Windows. They can be obtained from Disk Creation Wizard v2.24.0

Figur 3-2. Coyote Linux Windows Creator Welcome Image

  • [ATTACH]

Here you can just press "Next"

Figure 3-3. Local LAN network setup

  • [ATTACH]

Fill in the necessary network information here: See A

Fill in the correct IP address and subnet mask (Netmask) and Coyote Linux will give the correct calculation of the broadcast address (Broadcast) and the network address (Network)

Figure 3-4. Insert a password on the Coyote Linux floppy disk

  • [ATTACH]

Without this password you can't log into the Coyote Linux on a later occasion. See Section 3.6

Figur 3-5. Syslog-server

  • [ATTACH]

Leave the field blank, or look at 2.l

Figure 3-6. Type of Internet connection (WAN)

  • [ATTACH]

Choose what suits you. Do you have access to DHCP server, which is very likely, then you do not need more information.

Figure 3-7. Static IP configuration

  • [ATTACH]

Do you have a fixed address, fill in the appropriate values here.

Figure 3-8. Do not enable the Coyote Linux DHCP server!

  • [ATTACH]

Do not turn on the Coyote Linux DHCP server. There is already one running on main server

Figure 3-9. Select a driver module for the network card (NIC)

  • [ATTACH]

Drag and drop to choose the correct network card at the Coyote Linux machine.

In this particular screen, we use the module for 3Com on the LAN side of the grid (Debian Edu's) and Intel pro 100 card for the WAN (Internet) connection.

Figure 3-10. Select language

  • [ATTACH]

If you want to get good support from the Internet, choose English.

Figure 3-11. Make the disc

  • [ATTACH]

Place a floppy disk in the disc station and press 'Next'.

Exception handling

Our clear advice is to make at least two copies of the floppy disk. It is nice to have a couple copies ready if anything should happen.

Verification

< FIXME>

Update the configuration database

< FIXME>

Simple firewall with CD

Use Case: To get started with Debian Edu's we need to make a simple firewall. The purpose is to separate Debian Edu's network from the second network that is set up.

Main author Klaus Ade Johnstad

Solution

Coyote Linux is a product in constant development and maintenance. Just like Skolelinux / Debian-edu. Meaning that new versions are released constantly, with new features and security fixes. Especially due to security fixes, you should always use the latest stable version of Coyote Linux

Since Coyote Linux runs solely from a floppy disk, there is no system to upgrade. You must create a new floppy as described in Section 3.3. To make this process as simple as possible, there are some things to remember.

  1. Find out what kind of network you have. If this is unknown, one can use the command lsmod to list all loaded modules (drivers) in use. Maybe this will give an idea of what kind of network cards are used.

coyote# lsmod
Module                  Size  Used by
3c509                   7732   2
ip_nat_quake3           1768   0 (unused)
ip_nat_mms              2608   0 (unused)
ip_nat_h323             2060   0 (unused)
ip_nat_amanda            876   0 (unused)
ip_nat_irc              1904   0 (unused)
ip_nat_ftp              2384   0 (unused)
ip_conntrack_quake3     1848   1
ip_conntrack_mms        2704   1
ip_conntrack_h323       2065   1
ip_conntrack_egg        2280   0 (unused)
ip_conntrack_amanda     1488   1
ip_conntrack_irc        2672   1
ip_conntrack_ftp        3440   1

In this list of modules that are loaded, the module for the network card 3com509 is loaded twice. For a list of available modules, look at

It is best practice to write on the machine itself what kind of network card it contains.

  1. What kind of "port forwarding" is it?

Information about the "port forwarding" rules, if you have made any, is in the file/etc/coyote/portforwards

   coyote# more /etc/coyote/portforwards\nport Y 10.0.2.2 tcp 2333 22 # Example - Secondary SSH

Exception handling

< FIXME>

Verification

< FIXME>

Update the configuration database

< FIXME>

Starting the Coyote firewall

User case: After a simple firewall is installed, it shall be installed on the network and be effective.

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Solution

There are two network cards in Coyote Linux, one (LAN) is connected to the Skolelinux/Debian-edu server, the other is connected with a crossed cable, or via a switch to another network (WAN). Sometimes it can be a bit difficult to decide which network card is which, especially if they are both connected to the same address. The method we use to determine which card is which, is to use a crossed cable and connect it to the network card in the Skolelinux/Debian-edu main server.

  1. First you start Coyote Linux without any wired network card
  2. Then use the crossed cable to connect Coyote Linux with the Skolelinux / Debian-edu main server (make sure it goes to the NIC labeled eth0 if the main server is a combined server).
  3. Login to the main server. Try to ping the Coyote Linux machine. Use the command ping -c10 10.0.2.1, or alternatively, try to ping the main server from Coyote Linux with the command ping -c10 10.0.2.2.

  4. Then you get a response like this if it works:

ping -c10 10.0.2.1
PING 10.0.2.1 (10.0.2.1): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 10.0.2.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=63 time=0.6 ms
64 bytes from 10.0.2.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=0.3 ms
64 bytes from 10.0.2.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=0.3 ms

When you have found the network card on the Coyote Linux that must be labelled LAN, then we know that the other network card is WAN. This procedure will only work as long as the network card on the LAN is set up properly. As shown during startup on the line

LAN network: UP

That is normal what is shown

WAN network: 
    down

Since you have started without any wires connected to the network card.

When the role of each of the network cards is decided, it is time to reboot the firewall with all the cables in place.

Different names for the network cards

The two network cards got two different names in Coyote Linux. This is a bit confusing and not very consistent. Here is a summary:

The various names used for network cards in Coyote Linux

This is connected to the existing network

Internet

Eth1

WAN

This goes to the Debian Edu network

LAN network

Eth0

LAN

Reboot the Coyote Linux machine and make sure the Coyote Linux floppy disk is present in the floppy station. Ensure that the machine is configured to boot from floppy drive.

Figure 3-12. Coyote Linux Login

  • [ATTACH]

You can log in. Use the user name "root" and the password you set when you created the floppy (if this was done from Windows). or press Enter (blank password) for logging on floppy disk created by Linux

Note: It is normal that you don't get any visible response when you type a password in a Linux system. This is to reveal as little information as possible about the password.

Exception handling

menu, status of the network, down

  • [ATTACH]

Once you have entered, press 'c' to get the status of the network. In case there is a problem:

Figure 3-14. menu, status of the network, up

  • [ATTACH]

If everything went well, both will be "up"

Q: It looks like the network card (LAN) going to to the Skolelinux/Debian-edu network is not working: DOWN

Q: It looks like the network card (WAN) connected to the Internet, is not working: DOWN

Q: We have set up firewalls with many different driver modules for many network cards. We have yet to find anything not working properly.

Q:It looks like the network card (LAN) going to to the Skolelinux/Debian-edu network is not working: DOWN

A:If you set up your network card according to A, but it still does not work. That may mean the wrong driver has been chosen for your network card

Q:It looks like the network card (WAN) connected to the Internet, is not working: DOWN

A:There are usually two reasons why the WAN network card is not up (UP):

  1. You're using a connection with the wrong Internet configuration. Take another look at 2.b

If you have a connection with a DHCP-assigned address, which is not static. Then it must be a physical connection through a network wire between Coyote Linux and the network socket.

  1. You have chosen the wrong driver module for this network card.

You should attempt to login to Coyote Linux and choose q) quit to leave the Coyote Linux menu. Then you should run the command

dmesg|more

then use space to scroll. Look for references to eth0 and eth1. Look at Different names to the network cards for a reminder of what eth0 and eth1 means. Usually it is an indicator of what the problem is.

Q:We have set up firewalls with many different driver modules for many network cards. We have yet to find one that doesn't work properly.

A:Have you looked at this website for more information about network cards and corresponding driver modules for Coyote Linux? http://www.dalantech.com

Verification

The firewall works if you try to reach the Internet through the web browser on the main server or through a connected client.

Update the configuration database

< FIXME>

Firewall administration through the browser (Coyote)

Use Case: We need to change the settings in the firewall. The firewall is locked in the computer room. Can I make the change over the network?

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Co-author: Knut Yrvin

Coyote Linux has a pretty and practical administration tool through a web portal. Here you can do everything. Type http://10.0.2.1:8180 in the address field of your browser. The address will provide web administration for Coyote Linux. Click on the link and enter your user name root and the password you created for the firewall.

Coyote Linux web administration

  • [ATTACH]

All options and settings can be done in Main Menu on the left side.

Coyote Linux Main Menu

  • [ATTACH]

  • Information

Choosing this gives the status of your network cards, active IP addresses, uptime for Coyote Linux, Ist and the like.

  • LAN setup

Here you have the possibility to reconfigure the LAN network card. It goes to the Skolelinux/Debian-edu network. Leave the values as they are. Referring to A.

Warning: Do not make changes here! Doing so may reduce the performance of Skolelinux/Debian-edu network

<FIXME: Should describe the contents of change_ip_setup here, later>

  • Internet setup

Here you have the possibility to change the values in the WAN network card connected to the Internet. If you have got a new ISP, or changed a dynamically assigned IP address by DHCP to a fixed one, this is the place to change the information without the need of creating a new Coyote Linux floppy from scratch. See 2.b

  • DHCP setup. Warning: Do not enable the DHCP server in Coyote Linux!

This provides the possibility to configure DHCP server as part of Coyote Linux

  • Administrative settings

Here it is possible to turn on and off services like the name server (DNS), ssh and web administration.

  • Port Forwarding

Here you may change and enable port forwarding in Coyote Linux. This is a neat feature in a Skolelinux/Debian-edu network. Since Coyote Linux stops and blocks most connections for example ssh, it's nice to use port forwarding. This is a way to let ssh connections through Coyote Linux to a Skolelinux/Debian-edu- network.

Use this rule for port forwarding

   Yes         TCP         Any         22         10.0.2.2         22         No           SSH straight into Mainserver

all ssh-connections coming to Coyote Linux will be forwarded to the Skolelinux/Debian-edu main server. You need to decide if this is as wished.

  • Simplified firewall configuration

Here you can set up and configure the firewall rules in Coyote Linux. There are many rules ready to use and can be used as an example.

  • Advanced firewall configuration
  • QOS configuration

Here you can set up restrictions on network capacity

  • System password

Here you can change the root password for Coyote Linux, also known as the system password. This is the same as using the command line Section 3.6.

  • Configuration files

These are files that contain all settings.

  • Diagnostic tools

Here you would find useful tools like ping, testing ports (gateway), testing nameserver (DNS), and the status of the network.

  • Backup now

Are there any changes in Coyote Linux then those must be saved on the diskette. By selecting Main Menu in Coyote Linux users can choose to save the setup. The alternative is that all changes are lost when you reboot Coyote Linux

  • Reboot the system

When you need to start again the Coyote Linux, this can be done from the "Main Menu". When choosing restart this must be confirmed.

Restart or turn off Coyote Linux?

  • [ATTACH]

Exception handling

< FIXME>

Verification

< FIXME>

Update the configuration database

< FIXME>

Firewall as a DHCP server (Coyote)

Use case: Want to set up a good DHCP server with high stability regardless of the operating system. Notification: normal DHCP server in a non-Skolelinux/Debian-edu network

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Coyote Linux is a good solution if you just need a DHCP server on the network regardless of what type of machines, be it Linux, Windows or Mac.

The only thing that needs to be configured differently, is to enable the DHCP server. < FIXME: create link to screenshot>

A brief summary about changing a Coyote Linux to a DHCP-server:

Coyote Linux as the default DHCP server

  • Remember to answer "yes" to the question "Do you want to enable the Coyote DHCP-server [y/n]:"
  • Once a DHCP server runs on Coyote Linux, you will probably need to use a different address for login, if you did not change the LAN setup:

Configuring system for Ethernet based Internet connection
 
 
By default, Coyote uses the following settings for the local network
interface:
 
IP Address: 192.168.0.1
Netmask:    255.255.255.0
Broadcast:  192.168.0.255
Network:    192.168.0.0
 
Would you like to change these settings? [Y/N]: n

then you should use the address 192.168.0.1 instead of 10.0.2.1 when logging into the Coyote Linux web administration. See Section 3.7 and

In this case the new address is:

Verification

< FIXME>

Update the configuration database

< FIXME>

Coyote firewall and Internet operators

User Case: We have a firewall with Coyote Linux. Does it allow itself to connect to our ISP?

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Note: We've seen no case where Coyote didn't work with an ISP in Norway. Tell us if you experience problems with an ISP.

This is a list of Internet providers that work well with Coyote Linux

  • Nextgentel, Norway
  • Tele2 ADSL Privat, Norway
  • Tele2 ADSL Bedrift, Norway
  • UPC Chello Classis, Norway
  • The Department of Education in Oslo. Not tested on schools connected to Simens' !InnsIKT-solution for Oslo schools

Due to different network policies in The Department of Education in Oslo, you must make the following changes in the main server:

Change the following in the file/etc/bind/named.conf [5]

       // forwarders {
        // By special request from the good people inside the Dept of Education in
        // Oslo:
        //      193.156.192.40;
        //      193.156.192.50;
        // Dept. of Education in Oslo  end of block
        //      0.0.0.0;
        // };

change this to

          forwarders {
        // By special request from the good people inside the Dept of Education in
        // Oslo:
                193.156.192.40;
                193.156.192.50;
        // Dept. of Education in Oslo end of block
        //      0.0.0.0;
           };

This means to remove the comment marker (#) in front of "forwarders".

If you don't do this, you will not be able to connect to the Internet due to problems with the name server (DNS) in The Department of Education in Oslo. Operating staff will also engage more people to get this changed to such as this service wants it.

After the changes are inserted in /etc/bind/named.conf one needs to restart bind with service bind9 restart

  • Telenor ADSL, Norway
  • Oslo University College (Høgskolen i Oslo)

Here, you must make the same bind-changes as the Department of Education in Oslo.

Exception handling

< FIXME>

Verification

< FIXME>

Update the configuration database

< FIXME>

Support for network cards in the firewall

Use case: Are the two network cards in the machine supported by Coyote?

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

This is a list of modules included in Coyote Linux. All driver modules for network cards are listed.

tjener:~/coyote# ls  data/kernel/drivers/
3c501.o     eth16i.o               ne.o
3c503.o     ewrk3.o                ni5010.o
3c505.o     fealnx.o               ni52.o
3c507.o     forcedeth.o            ni65.o
3c509.o     hp100.o                pcnet32.o
3c515.o     hp.o                   ppp_async.o
3c59x.o     hp-plus.o              ppp_deflate.o
8139cp.o    ip_conntrack_amanda.o  ppp_generic.o
8139too.o   ip_conntrack_egg.o     pppoe.o
82596.o     ip_conntrack_ftp.o     pppox.o
8390.o      ip_conntrack_h323.o    ppp_synctty.o
ac3200.o    ip_conntrack_irc.o     sch_htb.o
amd8111e.o  ip_conntrack_mms.o     sch_ingress.o
at1700.o    ip_conntrack_quake3.o  sch_sfq.o
b44.o       ip_conntrack_rtsp.o    sis900.o
bridge.o    ip_conntrack_tftp.o    slhc.o
bsd_comp.o  ip_nat_amanda.o        smc9194.o
cls_fw.o    ip_nat_cuseeme.o       smc-ultra.o
cls_u32.o   ip_nat_ftp.o           softdog.o
cs89x0.o    ip_nat_h323.o          starfire.o
de4x5.o     ip_nat_irc.o           sundance.o
depca.o     ip_nat_mms.o           tlan.o
dgrs.o      ip_nat_quake3.o        tulip.o
dmfe.o      ip_nat_rtsp.o          typhoon.o
e100.o      ip_nat_tftp.o          via-rhine.o
e2100.o     lance.o                wd.o
eepro100.o  lp486e.o               winbond-840.o
eepro.o     mii.o                  zlib_deflate.o
eexpress.o  natsemi.o              zlib_inflate.o
epic100.o   ne2k-pci.o

Exception handling

< FIXME>

Verification

< FIXME>

Update the configuration database

< FIXME>

Particularly old network cards in the firewall (ISA)

Use case: We want to try to use some network cards in the firewall that are almost 20 years old. They are using the so called ISA bus. Is this possible?

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Co-author: Knut Yrvin

Network cards with model number 3c509 from 3Com have been a very popular series. Many have Coyote Linux with such a network card built in which could have been produced for example in 1989, over 25 years ago. We've run these cards for three years with Coyote firewall without any problems. Once you have managed to get one running, it will probably run for a long time. But it is sometimes difficult to get the cards to work in the first place. This is because they have an ISA bus. This means that important addresses (I/O) and termination messages (IRQ) must be handled manually. This is done automatically with PCI cards, but using an ISA card requires extra effort. I/O and IRQ on these cards can be handled by an old DOS program. This can be somewhat difficult to obtain, since this software is over 25 years old.

The DOS configuration program is called 3c5x9cfg.exe, and it is used in the following way:

  1. Start the machine with DOS. One can use !FreeDOS or a boot floppy created with Windows 95 or 98.
  2. As soon as the machine is booted using DOS, insert a floppy disk with the program 3c5x9cfg.exe. Run the program 3c5x9cfg.exe from the command line in DOS.

  3. When 3c5x9cfg.exe is started, each of the 3c509 network cards can be configured with the "auto" option

3c5x9cfg.exe can be found at Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg: http://www.urz.uni-heidelberg.de/Netzdienste/nm/misc/3comnic/

!FreeDOS can be found on: http://www.freedos.org/

Exception handling

Warning: Many reports show problems with using two 3c509 card on the same machine if one of the cards is a combo type. This is a card type with different types of network cable plugs.

Do not use combo type ISA bus cards!

Verification

< FIXME>

Update the configuration database

< FIXME>

User case: I have not gotten enough help with using the firewall on these pages. Where can I get more help?

Author: Klaus Ade Johnstad.

Co-author: Knut Yrvin

Exception handling

< FIXME>

Verification

< FIXME>

Update the configuration database

< FIXME>

Config:

User case: What's should be configured

Solution

< FIXME>

Exception handling

< FIXME>

Verification

< FIXME>

Update the configuration database

< FIXME>