This portal discusses Debian Development.
http://www.debian.org/devel - Official Debian Developers information
You think about helping the Debian poject.
You have already read some documentation.
You can join a team where your help will be welcome. There, you will find people eager to help you.
Once you have helped for some time you can become a Debian Maintainer.
Only DebianDeveloper have important privileges regarding the project's infrastructure.
the Debian Bug Tracking System is the first place to know
if you find a bug in Debian, you will use reportbug
if you want to help Debian, you have to know about BugTriage
you can also participate to Bug Squashing Parties
it's good if you can submit patches
Linux kernel development
Other project discussions
LSB - Linux Standard Base
L10n - Debian Localization