CubieBoard is an ARM board.
System on a chip: Allwinner A10
CPU: 1Ghz ARM Cortex A8
Can I put Debian on my CubieBoard?
Jessie should be installable using u-boot 2014.04+dfsg1-2, linux-image-*-armmp 3.16.7-2, and the daily builds of the netboot or hd-media installer (20141124). Ethernet, USB, MMC and serial console all work out of the box. Instructions using debian-installer are available on the Allwinner page.
Unofficial images are also available, e.g. Cubian (see links section), which may have additional features enabled.
The SoC on the Cubieboards (and Cubietruck) is produced by Allwinner, which is known for several GPL violations.
Cubieboard manufacturer website
Debian prepared armhf based Debian image build and installation guide from the Sunxi wiki
Cubieboard main page on the Sunxi wiki