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Driverless printing with CUPS and Google Cloud Print.


Driverless printing with CUPS requires at least CUPS 2.2.2 and version 1.13.0 of cups-filters. On 19.01.17 the packages are available only in the experimental distribution.

The Concept of Driverless Printing

Driverless printing is targeted at the client side of printing and refers to the ability of the client device (computer, smartphone, tablet, laptop etc) to print without having to install any static capability files or drivers (manufacturer-specific or otherwise) on the client.

There is a variety of methods for a client to submit a job to a driverless printing system:

This page is intended to highlight and explain driverless printing using packages provided by Debian so not all these methods will receive attention here. Furthermore, details for using iOS and Android mobile clients are not treated.

Driverless Printing and Printers

A traditional printing system based on CUPS, cups-filters and cups-browsed generally obtains information about printer features and capabilities from what is stored in a static capability file such as a PostScript Printer Description (PPD) file. This static file is stored on the client device (desktop computer, laptop, tablet etc) itself. If the PPD on the client requires the sending of a job using a non-standardised Page Description Language (PDL) a driver would be required for converting to the printer-specific PDL and that driver too would have to be on the client. A client which regularly connected to different printers would have to maintain static capability files and drivers for each printer.

This is not seen as an acceptable situation for mobile clients, which may have limited storage for PPDs and drivers and which may lack resources, such as battery power. Neither is it deemed particularly realistic for a user to have to set up or reconfigure a mobile device for each printer which is encountered. This requires a level of expertise and a time and effort commitment which cannot be assumed to be possessed.

The response of printer manufacturers to the desire for driverless printing has been to enhance their printers in the following way:

Note that we are talking here about sending a job directly to a printer, not to a print queue being advertised by CUPS.

PDLs for Driverless Printing

Two raster formats, Apple raster and PWG raster, have been developed to implement driverless printing.

In the case of PWG raster the raster format was chosen because it is a simpler format than that of the high-level languages, which also require significant resources on the printer. Printer-embedded PostScript interpreters can be buggy and/or slow and PostScript also has the disadvantage that it makes interoperability between client and printer difficult because PostScript does not fit cleanly with the IPP and PWG models. Streaming was chosen to send a job to a printer rather than generating a file which which is downloaded and then printed. This way large jobs don't take up too much memory or storage space on the printer and printing commences with minimum delay.

CUPS: PWG and Apple Raster

The abilitity to create Apple raster files has been added to the existing PWG raster support in CUPS and made its appearence in CUPS 2.2.2; this enhancement was soon applied in version 1.13.0 of cups-filters and cups-browsed. Complete support for IPP Everywhere printers was already in Debian, so, with CUPS 2.2.2, AirPrint printers joined the class of printers which will work driverless with Debian.

With the incorporation of the two raster formats as a PDL in CUPS, IPP 2.0 to allow for querying the capabilities information from the printer and Bonjour/DNS-SD to find the printers in the network, Debian has everything needed for driverless printing to an IPP printer.

The processing of a job to create an Apple raster file is taken care of by CUPS' rastertopwg filter. The file produced by the filter is sent directly to the printer with IPP so no vendor-specific filters are involved. This opens up the possibilty of avoiding the use of non-free drivers on the server used for printing.

Creating a Driverless Print Queue with lpadmin

Some familiarity with a device-uri is assumed in this section.

With a single AirPrint printer on the network a partial output from lpinfo -v could be:

network dnssd://HP%20ENVY%204500%20series%20%5BFAFAC2%5D._ipp._tcp.local/?uuid=1c852a4d-b800-1f08-abcd-308d99fafac2
network socket://
network ipp://envy4500.local:631/ipp/print

There are three device-uris for the printer. The ENVY 4500 has been discovered from the printer's Bonjour broadcasts using the dnssd://... backend. The snmp backend has also found the printer will accept jobs on port 9100 (socket://192...). Queues using either of these two device-uris would need to be set up with a PPD specified with the -m or -P option of lpadmin so would not be driverless. The URI for driverless printing is ipp://envy4500....

The device-uri for the printer can also be found with either of the ippfind or driverless utilities.

ippfind                         (Shows IPP printers and print queues).
ippfind -T 5                    (Possibly more reliable).
ippfind ! --txt printer-type    (Show IPP printers only).

driverless                  (To get the device-uri).
driverless list             (For the device-uri and printer metadata).
driverless device-uri       (Generate a PPD for the printer at device-uri).

A queue for driverless printing from a client is now set up with

lpadmin -p <print_queue_name> -v <device-uri> -E -m everywhere

The everywhere directive will cause the printer referred to by the -v option to be queried. A list of printer capabilities is returned and a PPD is automatically generated for use by command line programs and applications.

Creating a Driverless Print Queue with the CUPS Web Interface

Some familiarity with the CUPS web interface is assumed in this section.

Creating a Driverless Print Queue with system-config-printer

Some familiarity with system-config-printer is assumed in this section.

Creating a Driverless Print Queue with cups-browsed

This method leads to a fully automatic discovery of an AirPrint or IPP Everywhere printer, sets up a print queue and creates a PPD for it. The PPD is used to display printer options for command line programs and in applications. There are just two operations a user has to carry out.

CreateIPPPrinterQueues all
CreateIPPPrinterQueues driverless

systemctl restart cups-browsed

lpstat -t
lpoptions -p <queue_name> -l

CUPS and Driverless Printing: Miscellaneous

http://<IP_address or host name of the printer>

The hostname can be obtained from the output of avahi-browse (see below). Make sure that IPP support and Bonjour broadcasting are enabled. The configuration options will probably be accessed under a Networking link and it could be that activating AirPrint is sufficient to activate both services.

                                     ->|--------------------------------------------> Printer
text -> texttopdf -> pdftopdf -> PDF ->| gstoraster -> rastertopwg -> PWG raster ---> Printer
                                     ->| gstoraster -> rastertopwg -> Apple raster -> Printer

avahi-browse -art | less

Identify your Bonjour-advertised IPP printer and look for entries beginning URF=... and pdl=... . If URF=... exists and pdl=... contains image/urf you have an AirPrint printer.

For an HP Envy 4502:


For a Brother MFC-J650DW:

URF = SRGB24,W8,CP1,IS1,MT1-8-11,OB9,PQ4-5,RS300,OFU0,V1.2,DM3
pdl = application/octet-stream,application/,image/pwg-raster,image/urf,image/jpeg

The pdl contains an additional image/pwg-raster. This printer will accept and print PWG raster files. It could be an IPP Everywhere printer, but that all depends on whether it fulfills all the criteria necessary for the manufacturer to self-certify it with the Printer Working Group (PWG). However, it is possible the printer IPP implementation is sufficient for driverless printing to be used with CUPS.

Google Cloud Print (GCP) and CUPS

The conditions for setting up and using GCP with CUPS are

We will be dealing in the remaining sections of this page with adding only CUPS print queues (not cloud-enabled printers) to the Google account.

A connector (or proxy) maintains a connection between GCP and the server running cupsd. A persistent XMPP channel is established over port 5222 or port 443 to Messages over this channel can inform GCP about changes to the CUPS print queues and GCP can notify the server when there is a job submitted to it from a client. The job can then be downloaded and printed. Remember that this client can be anywhere in the world and must have the credentials to authenticate to the Google account or permission to use the printers it offers.

A user registers the print queue with GCP and claims the printer by providing a registration token from Google in an authenticated request to a specified URL via a browser. GCP responds with the credentials necessary for printing to take place. Added print queues can be shared by following the instructions here.

Note that GCP will not register a CUPS print queue which does not have a PPD associated with it because no printer capabilities can be found. A connector will see such a queue as invalid and refuse to add it to the Google account.

On receiving notification of a pending job the connector downloads the document and submits it to the printing system. The MIME media type of the file will be application/pdf.

Debian provides connectors with

Closing down a connector results in added queues becoming offline.

The Chromium Web Browser

From customize and control in Chromium's interface:


Install the cloudprint package and, as a user, do

cloudprint -d

to daemonise the service, or

cloudprint &

to have it run in the background.

You will be given a URL to go to and the program will output trying for the win while it waits for you to claim the print queues and complete their registration.

Go to to claim this printer
trying for the win
trying for the win
trying for the win
Printer claimed by
Polling for jobs on HP-ENVY-4500-series
Polling for jobs on LaserJet-300
Polling for jobs on DotMatrix
Establishing connection to xmpp server
xmpp connection established

Delete queues from the default set with

cloudprint -x HP -x Dot

cloudprint does not recognise when the creation or deletion of a CUPS queue takes place on the server so the event is not communicated to GCP. Include a newly created queue, wf2530, with

cloudprint -i wf -i HP -i Dot -i Las

Automatic registration of selected queues when cloudprint is started can be accomplished from a .cloudprint.conf file in the home directory:

include = [Las, DotMatrixT]  # Excludes all other queues.
# exclude = [HP, Las]        # Includes all other queues.


Install google-cloud-print-connector. There are two programs, gcp-cups-connector-util and gcp-cups-connector, in the package.

gcp-cups-connector-util contains options for utility tools to create a configuration file, delete all print queues associated with the particular connector instance and manage print jobs. See all options with

gcp-cups-connector-util -h

To produce a configuration file, gcp-cups-connector.config.json, in your home directory do

gcp-cups-connector-util init

Then start the connector in the foreground or background with

gcp-cups-connector &


Didier "Odyx" Ramboud <> for guiding and supporting CUPS 2.2.2, cups-filters and cups-browsed through the experimental archive and into unstable. Till Kamppeter <> for his integration of cups-filters and cups-browsed with CUPS 2.2.2. Michael R. Sweet <> for developing the rastertopwg filter to support Apple raster.

See Also