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##||<tablestyle="width: 100%;" style="border: 0px hidden">~-Translation(s): none-~ ||<style="text-align: right; border: 0px hidden"> (!) [:/Discussion:Discussion]||

## If your page gets really long, uncomment this Table of Contents
~-[[DebianWiki/EditorGuide#translation|Translation(s)]]: English - [[fr/CDDVD|Français]] - [[it/CDDVD|Italiano]] - [[pt_BR/CDDVD|Português (Brasil)]] -~
----
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CD/DVD units are generally detected as /dev/hd* (i.e. if you have two hard disk and a DVD unit, /dev/hdc can be the DVD). [[WikiPedia:Compact_disc|CDs]], [[WikiPedia:DVD|DVDs]],
and [[WikiPedia:Blu-ray_Disc|BDs]] are common types of
[[WikiPedia:Removable_media|removable media]].
Unlike other types of removable media (such as
[[WikiPedia:USB_flash_drive|flash drives]] or
[[WikiPedia:Hard_disk_drive#EXTERNAL|external hard drives]]),
they are normally used read-only and many of them require special
[[BurnCd|burn programs]].
I.e. they are not mounted for writing like "normal" [[FileSystem|filesystems]].
CD, DVD, and BD are [[WikiPedia:Optical_disc|optical discs]], so we can use
that term to refer to them collectively.
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== DVD ==
You can use many video players on Debian to read video DVDs, including [[Xine]] (or players with a Xine backend, such as totem-xine) or [[MPlayer]] . Most DVDs will require the installation of libdvdread3:
Your PC will offer device files to access your optical disc(s). Such devices
are typically called ''drives'', ''players'', or ''readers'', and are generally
detected as `/dev/sr*`, where `*` is a number starting at 0.
(Thus your first drive will be `/dev/sr0`, second `/dev/sr1`, etc.)
[[SymLink|Symlinks]] such as `/dev/cdrom`, `/dev/cdrw`, `/dev/dvd`,
or `/dev/dvdrw` (pointing to `/dev/sr0`) may also be created depending
on your OS version and the detected capabilities of your device.
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The sequence of device file numbers may change with each reboot.
The directory {{{/dev/disk/by-id}}} contains symbolic links with
names which show persistent name parts. Like:
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# apt-get install libdvdread3 /dev/disk/by-id/ata-HL-DT-ST_DVDRAM_GH24NSC0_K8AF33A3528
/dev/disk/by-id/usb-Optiarc_BD_RW_BD-5300S_306663601043-0:0
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libdvdcss2 is often required for decryption of many DVDs. This cannot be obtained from the Debian repositories due to the licence restrictions in various countries. It can be downloaded from other sources, such as debian-multimedia.org. Please read this file {{{/usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/README.Debian}}} and [[#libdvdcss2]] below.

== CD ==
=== CDROM ===
<!> Beware! Much of this is '''old information'''. In the age of ''devfs'' and ''udev'' (or kernel version 2.6), you may not even have an (eg.) {{{/dev/hdc}}} if your drive isn't in the machine when you boot. As of Sarge, they're intended to be used as so:{{{
(1) infidel /home/keeling_ ls -al /media
total 4
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 1024 2005-11-08 15:49 .
drwxr-xr-x 23 root root 1024 2005-11-03 19:24 ..
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 6 2005-11-03 18:12 cdrom -> cdrom0
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 1024 2005-11-03 18:12 cdrom0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 6 2005-11-08 15:49 cdrom1 -> cdrom0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 2005-11-03 18:12 floppy -> floppy0
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 1024 2005-11-03 18:12 floppy0
}}}
Furthermore, use of ''SCSI'' emulation drivers for ''ATAPI'' interfaces is ''deprecated''. Instead, you can (and should) use the correct device name directly:{{{
cdrecord speed=8 dev=/dev/hdc -eject -tao -data /scratch/iso/track_01.img
}}}
----
=== Naming ===
The IDE CD units are called /dev/scd0 (for the first unit) and /dev/scd1 (for the second) in linux
The name parts "HL-DT-ST_DVDRAM_GH24NSC0_K8AF33A3528" and
"Optiarc_BD_RW_BD-5300S_306663601043" are supposed to persist even
if you change the way the drives are attached to your computer.
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=== Detecting and mounting ===
Use to detect your CD/DVD units:
== Optical Media Formats ==

You will normally encounter two types of readable optical media
and one type that is writable:

=== CD-DA ===

CD-DA contains audio tracks in a low level format that can only be
read by music CD players or by specialized software like
[[DebianPkg:icedax]]
or {{{readom}}} from
[[DebianPkg:wodim]].
Writing is done by burn programs in [[BurnCd#Audio_CD|audio mode]].

=== CD-ROM ===

CD-ROM contains data which are readble by normal means as from
normal data files or block devices. This format is only one of several
CD sector formats. DVD and BD media always appear as CD-ROM. Their video
or audio content is wrapped in read-only filesystems.
Writing is done by burn programs in
[[BurnCd#Burn_the_image_file_to_CD.2C_DVD.2C_or_BD|data mode]].

=== Read-Write Media ===

DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, and BD-RE media may also be written as normal
block devices. Formatted CD-RW and formatted DVD-RW may be used
that way by help of device files {{{/dev/pktcdvd*}}} and
program {{{pktsetup}}} out of
[[DebianPkg:udftools]].
Their performance with random access writing is quite poor, though.
For larger amounts of data, you are better off with burn programs,
which are needed for CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R, and BD-R, anyway.

Read-write media may be used like CD-ROM media as long as only
reading is desired.

== Detecting and Mounting ==

To detect the device files of your CD/DVD/BD drives, use one of these commands
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cdrecord -scanbus cdrskin --devices
xorriso -devices
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from the Debian packages with the same names.
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To check which special file /dev/cdrom is a [[SymLink|symlink]] to (i.e. /dev/hdc or /dev/scd0), type:
To check which special file /dev/cdrom is a [[SymLink|symlink]] to
(i.e. /dev/sr0, /dev/hdc or /dev/scd0), type:
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To allow some users to play music CDs on the CD-ROM drive, do: 'chgrp cdrom /dev/hdc' ( If it is hdc) or if it is something else (i.e. /dev/scd0) do the corresponding thing. Then type 'addgroup USER_ID cdrom' to allow the user to play music CDs. Changing the group of /dev/hdc (or scd0 or whatever) is necessary, because otherwise you would need to add the user to group disk, which is bad for security. Mounting is often done automatically to a directory underneath
{{{/media/}}} when a readable medium gets inserted into a drive.
You should wait with accessing it, until the drive LED stops blinking.
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You can allow any user mount cdrom adding to [[fstab]]: If no automounting is enabled, then you may mount a data CD, DVD, or BD by
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/dev/cdrom /mnt/auto/cdrom iso9660 noauto,users,ro 0 0 sudo mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/iso
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Possibly you have to create directories {{{/mnt}}} and/or {{{/mnt/iso}}}
before you see success with this command.
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You can see if fstab points to the right device typing:
{{{
dmesg | grep ATAPI
}}}
== Watching Video DVDs ==
For unprotected DVDs, watching them is often as simple as installing [[VLC]] which has the function built-in and depends on the necessary libraries to watch and interact with DVDs. The same goes for others such as [[MPlayer]], DebianPkg:mpv, and DebianPkg:kaffeine

However, many DVDs use the CSS (Content Scrambling System) as a form of DRM to encrypt the content of Video DVDs. To play such discs, a special library is required to decode them, WikiPedia:libdvdcss.

Due to the legal limbo of libdvdcss in some particular jurisdictions, some
distributions including Debian do not distribute libdvdcss directly.

On [[DebianStretch|Debian 9/Stretch]] and newer versions, you can install the DebianPkg:libdvd-pkg package which automates the process of downloading and setting up the necessary library. This only requires you to have the "contrib" component enabled in your [[SourcesList]] file.

=== Setting the region ===
Some DVD players require the region to be set before they are able to play encrypted DVDs. This has to be done manually with DebianPkg:regionset. The man-pages provide help in choosing the proper country-code.


== Ripping ==

To almost quote [[WikiPedia:Ripping|Wikipedia]], ''ripping'' is the process of copying input audio or video content (typically from an optical disc) and outputting to a "normal" storage [[FileSystem|filesystems]]. Ripping is typically more difficult than simple file copying (as when copying files from a [[WikiPedia:USB_flash_drive|flash drive]] or [[WikiPedia:Hard_disk_drive#EXTERNAL|external hard drive]]) in that

 * the source content (i.e., the audio or video (or both) on the optical disc) typically is not formatted like data in a "normal" [[FileSystem|filesystem]].
 * the source content is often encrypted (e.g., with [[WikiPedia:Content_Scramble_System|CSS]])
 * writing output [[WikiPedia:Comparison_of_audio_coding_formats|audio]] and [[WikiPedia:Comparison_of_container_formats|video]] files may require particular [[MultimediaCodecs|codecs]].
 * the user may want to include metadata (aka ''tags'', e.g., artist name, work title, release date) in the output. This metadata will typically require some format, e.g., [[WikiPedia:ID3|ID3]].

This involves at least 3 separate problems (discussed in more detail [[Ripping|here]]):

 1. reading the optical disc (which this page is largely about)
 1. writing to the desired output format
 1. gathering or authoring metadata

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==== 4GB per File limitation ====
Writing _file_ larger than 4GB on an iso-9660 dvd is tricky (read [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_9660#The_4_GiB_.28or_2_GiB_depending_on_implementation.29_file_size_limit|wikipedia]]). The easiest way might be to use UDF.
 * Debian's mkisofs (genisoimage) might be limited to 4GB (read [[http://www.linuxquestions.org/questions/debian-26/genisoimage-cant-make-iso-with-file-4g-581814/|this]]).
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==== 4GB per File limitation in ISO 9660 ====
Optical media are often filled with an ISO 9660 aka ECMA-119 filesystem.
Data files of size 4 GiB or larger are allowed by the specification of
ECMA-119 Level of Interchange 3 (mkisofs option {{{-iso-level 3}}}).

Nevertheless, Solaris and the BSDs are unable to properly represent
such files when the filesystem is mounted.
On such systems one may extract large files from ISO 9660 filesystems
by help of program {{{osirrox}}} out of the source tarball of
[[https://www.gnu.org/software/xorriso/#download|GNU xorriso]].

<<Anchor(ConvertingDVD)>>
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<<Anchor(libdvdcss2)>>
==== Reading encrypted DVDs ====
Some Video DVD are scrambled, and you need a library (libdvdcss2) to read them:
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 * Add the repository from http://www.debian-multimedia.org/mirrors.html to your:
{{{
/etc/apt/source.list
}}}
 * Add mirror like deb http://mirrors.ecology.uni-kiel.de/debian/debian-multimedia {stable,etch,testing,lenny,unstable,sid} main (for my version it would be:
{{{
deb http://mirrors.ecology.uni-kiel.de/debian/debian-multimedia stable main
}}}
 * [Optional]Add the GPG key:
{{{
wget http://www.debian-multimedia.org/pool/main/d/debian-multimedia-keyring/debian-multimedia-keyring_2007.02.14_all.deb
dpkg -i debian-multimedia-keyring_2007.02.14_all.deb
}}}
 * Now install a dvd player called xine :
{{{
aptitude update
aptitude install xine-ui
}}}
 * Install library that helps programs read DVDs.
{{{
aptitude search libdvdcss2
}}}
 * Now install windows file format support:
{{{
aptitude install w32codecs
}}}
 * On amd64 (64 bit) architecture install:
{{{
aptitude install w64codecs
}}}
== See also ==
 * [[BurnCd]] - working with CD/DVD/BD burners
 * [[CDDVDTools|CD/DVD Tools]]
 * [[ManipulatingISOs]]
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== See also: ==
 * [[Burner|CD/DVD Burner]]
 * [[CDDVDTools|CD/DVD Tools]]
----
== External links ==
 * https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Optical_disc_drive - Optical Disc Drive on Arch Linux wiki
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 * http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/CDROM-HOWTO/ The Linux CD-ROM HowTo
 * http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Hardware-HOWTO/cdrom.html Compatibility HowTo
 * http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Filesystems-HOWTO-8.html 9660 [[filesystem]].
 * http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Bootdisk-HOWTO/cd-roms.html Bootable CD-ROM HowTo
 * http
://wiki.debian.org/DebianInstaller/SataAtapiHowto
GNU/Linux Laboratory
 * http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/CDROM-HOWTO/ The Linux CD-ROM !HowTo
 * http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Hardware-HOWTO/cdrom.html Compatibility !HowTo
 * http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Filesystems-HOWTO-8.html 9660 [[FileSystem]].
 * http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Bootdisk-HOWTO/cd-roms.html Bootable CD-ROM !HowTo

---------

CategoryHardware CategorySound CategoryVideo

----------

ToDo
: refactor, merge other CD/DVD related pagesq

Translation(s): English - Français - Italiano - Português (Brasil)


Devices

CDs, DVDs, and BDs are common types of removable media. Unlike other types of removable media (such as flash drives or external hard drives), they are normally used read-only and many of them require special burn programs. I.e. they are not mounted for writing like "normal" filesystems. CD, DVD, and BD are optical discs, so we can use that term to refer to them collectively.

Your PC will offer device files to access your optical disc(s). Such devices are typically called drives, players, or readers, and are generally detected as /dev/sr*, where * is a number starting at 0. (Thus your first drive will be /dev/sr0, second /dev/sr1, etc.) Symlinks such as /dev/cdrom, /dev/cdrw, /dev/dvd, or /dev/dvdrw (pointing to /dev/sr0) may also be created depending on your OS version and the detected capabilities of your device.

The sequence of device file numbers may change with each reboot. The directory /dev/disk/by-id contains symbolic links with names which show persistent name parts. Like:

/dev/disk/by-id/ata-HL-DT-ST_DVDRAM_GH24NSC0_K8AF33A3528
/dev/disk/by-id/usb-Optiarc_BD_RW_BD-5300S_306663601043-0:0

The name parts "HL-DT-ST_DVDRAM_GH24NSC0_K8AF33A3528" and "Optiarc_BD_RW_BD-5300S_306663601043" are supposed to persist even if you change the way the drives are attached to your computer.

Optical Media Formats

You will normally encounter two types of readable optical media and one type that is writable:

CD-DA

CD-DA contains audio tracks in a low level format that can only be read by music CD players or by specialized software like icedax or readom from wodim. Writing is done by burn programs in audio mode.

CD-ROM

CD-ROM contains data which are readble by normal means as from normal data files or block devices. This format is only one of several CD sector formats. DVD and BD media always appear as CD-ROM. Their video or audio content is wrapped in read-only filesystems. Writing is done by burn programs in data mode.

Read-Write Media

DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, and BD-RE media may also be written as normal block devices. Formatted CD-RW and formatted DVD-RW may be used that way by help of device files /dev/pktcdvd* and program pktsetup out of udftools. Their performance with random access writing is quite poor, though. For larger amounts of data, you are better off with burn programs, which are needed for CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R, and BD-R, anyway.

Read-write media may be used like CD-ROM media as long as only reading is desired.

Detecting and Mounting

To detect the device files of your CD/DVD/BD drives, use one of these commands

cdrskin --devices
xorriso -devices

from the Debian packages with the same names.

To check which special file /dev/cdrom is a symlink to (i.e. /dev/sr0, /dev/hdc or /dev/scd0), type:

ls -al /dev/cdrom*

Mounting is often done automatically to a directory underneath /media/ when a readable medium gets inserted into a drive. You should wait with accessing it, until the drive LED stops blinking.

If no automounting is enabled, then you may mount a data CD, DVD, or BD by

sudo mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/iso

Possibly you have to create directories /mnt and/or /mnt/iso before you see success with this command.

Watching Video DVDs

For unprotected DVDs, watching them is often as simple as installing VLC which has the function built-in and depends on the necessary libraries to watch and interact with DVDs. The same goes for others such as MPlayer, mpv, and kaffeine

However, many DVDs use the CSS (Content Scrambling System) as a form of DRM to encrypt the content of Video DVDs. To play such discs, a special library is required to decode them, libdvdcss.

Due to the legal limbo of libdvdcss in some particular jurisdictions, some distributions including Debian do not distribute libdvdcss directly.

On Debian 9/Stretch and newer versions, you can install the libdvd-pkg package which automates the process of downloading and setting up the necessary library. This only requires you to have the "contrib" component enabled in your SourcesList file.

Setting the region

Some DVD players require the region to be set before they are able to play encrypted DVDs. This has to be done manually with regionset. The man-pages provide help in choosing the proper country-code.

Ripping

To almost quote Wikipedia, ripping is the process of copying input audio or video content (typically from an optical disc) and outputting to a "normal" storage filesystems. Ripping is typically more difficult than simple file copying (as when copying files from a flash drive or external hard drive) in that

  • the source content (i.e., the audio or video (or both) on the optical disc) typically is not formatted like data in a "normal" filesystem.

  • the source content is often encrypted (e.g., with CSS)

  • writing output audio and video files may require particular codecs.

  • the user may want to include metadata (aka tags, e.g., artist name, work title, release date) in the output. This metadata will typically require some format, e.g., ID3.

This involves at least 3 separate problems (discussed in more detail here):

  1. reading the optical disc (which this page is largely about)
  2. writing to the desired output format
  3. gathering or authoring metadata

FAQ

4GB per File limitation in ISO 9660

Optical media are often filled with an ISO 9660 aka ECMA-119 filesystem. Data files of size 4 GiB or larger are allowed by the specification of ECMA-119 Level of Interchange 3 (mkisofs option -iso-level 3).

Nevertheless, Solaris and the BSDs are unable to properly represent such files when the filesystem is mounted. On such systems one may extract large files from ISO 9660 filesystems by help of program osirrox out of the source tarball of GNU xorriso.

Converting DVD

See also


CategoryHardware CategorySound CategoryVideo


ToDo: refactor, merge other CD/DVD related pagesq