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Comment: some further (final) polishing around libdvdcss2; added regionset issue
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## Auto-converted by kwiki2moinmoin v2005-10-07
["Hardware"]
-------
You can use many video players on Debian to read video DVDs, including ["Xine"] (or players with a Xine backend, such as totem-xine) or ["MPlayer"] . Most DVDs will require the installation of libdvdread3, either using ["Synaptic"] or ["Apt"]:
#language en
~-[[DebianWiki/EditorGuide#translation|Translation(s)]]: English - [[fr/CDDVD|Français]] - [[it/CDDVD|Italiano]]-~
----
<<TableOfContents(2)>>

== Devices ==

CD/DVD units are generally detected as /dev/sr*, where * is a number starting at 0. So your first drive will be /dev/sr0, second drive /dev/sr1, etc.

[[SymLink|Symlinks]] /dev/cdrom, /dev/cdrw, /dev/dvd, or /dev/dvdrw (pointing to /dev/sr0) may also be created depending on the detected capabilities of your device.

== DVD ==
You can use many video players on Debian to read video DVDs, including Xine (or players with a Xine backend, such as totem-xine) or [[MPlayer]]. Since most DVDs are protected by CSS (Content Scramble System) you will require the installation of DebianPkg:libdvdread4:
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# apt-get install libdvdread3 # apt-get install libdvdread4
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libdvdcss2 is often required for decryption of many DVDs. This cannot be obtained from the Debian repositories due to the licence restrictions in various countries. It can be downloaded from other sources, such as debian-multimedia.org. However, the easiest way is to execute the following command as ["root"]: <<Anchor(libdvdcss2)>>
=== libdvdcss2 ===
WikiPedia:libdvdcss is required for the decryption of CSS protected-DVDs. This cannot be obtained from the Debian repositories due to the licence restrictions in various countries. Please also read the {{{/usr/share/doc/libdvdread4/README.css}}} file.
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There are various sources for ''libdvdcss2'':
 1. as deb directly from the project's homepage videolan: see http://download.videolan.org/debian/
 1. compiled from source from videolan http://download.videolan.org/pub/libdvdcss/
  
  Read the file INSTALL and follow the instructions, e.g.
  {{{
    ./configure --prefix=/usr
    make
    sudo make install
  }}}
 1. from the '''[[UnofficialRepositories|unofficial repository]]''' deb-multimedia.org

=== setting the region ===
Some DVD players require the region to be set before they are able to play encrypted DVDs. This has to be done manually with DebianPkg:regionset. The man-pages provide help in choosing the propoer country-code.

== CD ==
=== CDROM ===
<!> Beware! Much of this is '''old information'''. In the age of ''devfs'' and ''udev'' (or kernel version 2.6), you may not even have an (eg.) {{{/dev/hdc}}} if your drive isn't in the machine when you boot. As of Sarge, they're intended to be used as so:{{{
(1) infidel /home/keeling_ ls -al /media
total 4
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 1024 2005-11-08 15:49 .
drwxr-xr-x 23 root root 1024 2005-11-03 19:24 ..
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 6 2005-11-03 18:12 cdrom -> cdrom0
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 1024 2005-11-03 18:12 cdrom0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 6 2005-11-08 15:49 cdrom1 -> cdrom0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 2005-11-03 18:12 floppy -> floppy0
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 1024 2005-11-03 18:12 floppy0
}}}
Furthermore, use of ''SCSI'' emulation drivers for ''ATAPI'' interfaces is ''deprecated''. Instead, you can (and should) use the correct device name directly:{{{
wodim speed=8 dev=/dev/hdc -eject -tao -data /scratch/iso/track_01.img
}}}
----

=== Detecting and mounting ===
Use to detect your CD/DVD units:
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# /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/install-css.sh wodim -scanbus
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See also:
 * ["Burner"] (CD/DVD).
 * ["CDROM"]

To check which special file /dev/cdrom is a [[SymLink|symlink]] to (i.e. /dev/sr0, /dev/hdc or /dev/scd0), type:
{{{
ls -al /dev/cdrom*
}}}

Users need to be members of the "cdrom" group to use an optical device on Debian.

You can allow any user mount cdrom adding to [[fstab]]:
{{{
/dev/cdrom /mnt/auto/cdrom iso9660 noauto,users,ro 0 0
}}}

You can see if fstab points to the right device typing:
{{{
dmesg | grep ATAPI
}}}

== FAQ ==
==== 4GB per File limitation ====
Writing ''file'' larger than 4GB on an iso-9660 dvd is tricky (read [[WikiPedia:ISO_9660#The_2.2F4_GiB_file_size_limit|wikipedia]]). The easiest way might be to use UDF.
 * Debian's mkisofs (genisoimage) might be limited to 4GB (read [[http://www.linuxquestions.org/questions/debian-26/genisoimage-cant-make-iso-with-file-4g-581814/|this]]).

<<Anchor(ConvertingDVD)>>
==== Converting DVD ====
 * [[http://lucasmanual.com/mywiki/DVD9toDVD5]] Dual layer (9G) Video DVD into single layer DVD (4.7G)
 * [[http://lucasmanual.com/mywiki/DVD9toAVI]] Convert DVD Video into AVI file.


== See also ==
 * [[Burner|CD/DVD Burner]]
 * [[CDDVDTools|CD/DVD Tools]]

== External links ==
 * http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialSysAdmin.html#MOUNTCD
 * http://www.justlinux.com/nhf/Hardware/Adding_an_IDE_CD-Writer_to_Linux.html
 * http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/CDROM-HOWTO/ The Linux CD-ROM !HowTo
 * http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Hardware-HOWTO/cdrom.html Compatibility !HowTo
 * http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Filesystems-HOWTO-8.html 9660 [[FileSystem]].
 * http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Bootdisk-HOWTO/cd-roms.html Bootable CD-ROM !HowTo

Translation(s): English - Français - Italiano


Devices

CD/DVD units are generally detected as /dev/sr*, where * is a number starting at 0. So your first drive will be /dev/sr0, second drive /dev/sr1, etc.

Symlinks /dev/cdrom, /dev/cdrw, /dev/dvd, or /dev/dvdrw (pointing to /dev/sr0) may also be created depending on the detected capabilities of your device.

DVD

You can use many video players on Debian to read video DVDs, including Xine (or players with a Xine backend, such as totem-xine) or MPlayer. Since most DVDs are protected by CSS (Content Scramble System) you will require the installation of libdvdread4:

# apt-get install libdvdread4

libdvdcss2

libdvdcss is required for the decryption of CSS protected-DVDs. This cannot be obtained from the Debian repositories due to the licence restrictions in various countries. Please also read the /usr/share/doc/libdvdread4/README.css file.

There are various sources for libdvdcss2:

  1. as deb directly from the project's homepage videolan: see http://download.videolan.org/debian/

  2. compiled from source from videolan http://download.videolan.org/pub/libdvdcss/

    • Read the file INSTALL and follow the instructions, e.g.
          ./configure --prefix=/usr
          make
          sudo make install
  3. from the unofficial repository deb-multimedia.org

setting the region

Some DVD players require the region to be set before they are able to play encrypted DVDs. This has to be done manually with regionset. The man-pages provide help in choosing the propoer country-code.

CD

CDROM

<!> Beware! Much of this is old information. In the age of devfs and udev (or kernel version 2.6), you may not even have an (eg.) /dev/hdc if your drive isn't in the machine when you boot. As of Sarge, they're intended to be used as so:

(1) infidel /home/keeling_ ls -al /media    
total 4
drwxr-xr-x   4 root root 1024 2005-11-08 15:49 .
drwxr-xr-x  23 root root 1024 2005-11-03 19:24 ..
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root root    6 2005-11-03 18:12 cdrom -> cdrom0
drwxr-xr-x   2 root root 1024 2005-11-03 18:12 cdrom0
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root root    6 2005-11-08 15:49 cdrom1 -> cdrom0
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root root    7 2005-11-03 18:12 floppy -> floppy0
drwxr-xr-x   2 root root 1024 2005-11-03 18:12 floppy0

Furthermore, use of SCSI emulation drivers for ATAPI interfaces is deprecated. Instead, you can (and should) use the correct device name directly:

wodim speed=8 dev=/dev/hdc -eject -tao -data /scratch/iso/track_01.img


Detecting and mounting

Use to detect your CD/DVD units:

wodim -scanbus

To check which special file /dev/cdrom is a symlink to (i.e. /dev/sr0, /dev/hdc or /dev/scd0), type:

ls -al /dev/cdrom*

Users need to be members of the "cdrom" group to use an optical device on Debian.

You can allow any user mount cdrom adding to fstab:

/dev/cdrom /mnt/auto/cdrom iso9660 noauto,users,ro 0 0

You can see if fstab points to the right device typing:

dmesg | grep ATAPI

FAQ

4GB per File limitation

Writing file larger than 4GB on an iso-9660 dvd is tricky (read wikipedia). The easiest way might be to use UDF.

  • Debian's mkisofs (genisoimage) might be limited to 4GB (read this).

Converting DVD

See also