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From [http://www.backports.org www.backports.org]: #language en
~-[[DebianWiki/EditorGuide#translation|Translation(s)]]: English - [[de/Backports|Deutsch]] - [[es/Backports|Español]] - [[fr/Backports|Français]] - [[it/Backports|Italiano]] - [[ru/Backports|Русский]] - [[zh_CN/Backports|简体中文]]-~
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You are running Debian stable, because you prefer the stable Debian tree. It runs great, there is just one problem: the software is a little bit outdated compared to other distributions. That is where backports come in.
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Backports are recompiled packages from testing (mostly) and unstable (in a few cases only, e.g. security updates), so they will run without new libraries (wherever it is possible) on a stable Debian distribution. It is recommended to pick out single backports which fits your needs, and not to use all backports available. You are running [[DebianStable|Debian stable]] because you prefer the stable Debian tree. It runs great, there is just one problem: The software is a little bit outdated compared to other distributions. That is where backports come in.
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== Backporting - Best practise == Backports are recompiled packages from [[DebianTesting|testing]] (mostly) and [[DebianUnstable|unstable]] (in a few cases only, e.g. security updates), so they will run without new libraries (wherever it is possible) on a stable Debian distribution. It is recommended to pick out single backports which fit your needs, and not to use all backports available.
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Here is a (incomplete) list of rules you should follow to get a package into backports.org. This article illustrates how to:
 * configure your stable system to use the Backports repository
 * find a specific backport
 * install packages from the repository
 * have your backports upgraded automatically
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=== Basic rules === For official instructions on how to use Debian Backports, visit [[https://backports.debian.org/Instructions/]].
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1. Backport packages only from testing, not unstable (except when updating already existing backports, backports from unstable are accepted for security fixes). If you want to create a non-official backport of a package you need, have a look at SimpleBackportCreation.
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2. Use 'sarge-backports' as distribution, not stable or unstable. If you want to build a backport with the intent of sharing it with others within Debian, see the BuildingFormalBackports page.
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3. Reduce the revision by one and append bpo${build_int}, e.g. 1.2.3-4 becomes 1.2.3-3bpo1. ----
## If your page gets really long, uncomment this Table of Contents
<<TableOfContents(3)>>
= Configuring your stable system =
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4. Backport no Build-Depends if not absolutely needed. In the following example, we will use <<DebianCodename(stable)>> as the current codename for Debian Stable.
Please adjust the codename accordingly if you are using a different version of Debian.
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5. Always build against plain sarge (and include other backports only if absolutely needed). If you're setting up backports for a system that isn't running the latest version of Debian
(e.g. a <<DebianCodename(oldstable)>> system while the latest is <<DebianCodename(stable)>>)
then you will also want to add a line for the "sloppy" backports section.
Currently that is <<DebianCodename(oldstable)>>-backports-sloppy,
but after the release of <<DebianCodename(testing)>>,
you'll want to add a line for <<DebianCodename(stable)>>-backports-sloppy.
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6. If there is no previous Debian revision of your package in the backports
   archive (same upstream version), don't forget to include the source
   tarball by passing -sa to dpkg-buildpackage or dpkg-genchanges.
== Adding the repository ==
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=== Uploading === === Using Synaptic ===
 * Open Synaptic
 * Go to "''Settings -> Repositories''":
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 * If you are a Debian Developer, ask Norbert Tretkowski to add your key to the keyring of backports.org in order to upload your package directly. On 2005-12-07, Norbert posted a message to the Backport user mailinglist with instructions for uploading; it's archived at http://lists.backports.org/lurker/message/20051207.140929.3a97ba5c.en.html. If you're using dupload, you can add || {{attachment:backports_synaptic_1.png}} ||

 * In the following dialog box, select the tab "''Third-Party Software''" and click on the "''Add...''" button in the lower left corner:

|| {{attachment:backports_synaptic_2.png}} ||

 * Copy the repository below, then hit the "''Add Source''" button:

{{{deb http://deb.debian.org/debian bullseye-backports main contrib non-free}}}

|| {{attachment:backports_synaptic_3.png}} ||

 * Finally, hit the "''Reload''" button in Synaptic's main panel to update the repository information on your system.


=== Using the command line ===
As root, or using sudo, open your sources.list file (Nano is the recommended editor for new users):
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package config;
$cfg{'bpo'} = {
    fqdn => "www.backports.org",
    incoming => "/",
};
1
# apt edit-sources
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to your ~/.dupload.conf file. For dput, use the following in ~/.dput.cf: Append the following line to the bottom of the file:
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[bpo]
method = ftp
fqdn = ftp.backports.org
login = anonymous
incoming = /
#passive_ftp = 1
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian bullseye-backports main contrib non-free
}}}
If you are a free software enthusiast, you might want to remove the {{{contrib}}} and {{{non-free}}} sections.
(See [[https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch02.html|Debian package management]] for details.)

Now that you have added the repository, update APT's cache to include the backports in the list of available packages:
{{{
# apt update
}}}
Done.

= Using backports =

== Finding backports ==

There are a several different ways to find out if a backport of a certain Debian package exists. A pretty convenient one is using Debian's web-based package search ([[https://packages.debian.org|packages.debian.org]]).

Backported versions of packages will also appear when searching their names with the {{{apt search}}} command, or one can view all available versions of a package by running:
{{{
apt show package-name -a
}}}
Replacing {{{package-name}}} with the name of the package you wish to view.

== Installing backports on the command line ==

The backports repository is deactivated by default. So, if you want to install a backported package, you will have to state that explicitly.

For example:
{{{
# apt -t bullseye-backports install cockpit}}}
The {{{-t}}} option here specifies {{{bullseye-backports}}} as the target release. This would install a newer version of Cockpit and all its reverse dependencies from bullseye-backports instead of the older one from Debian stable release.

= FAQ =
== Reporting bugs ==
Because of limitations in the Debian Bug Tracking System, any bugs
relevant to backported packages still have to be reported to the
[[https://lists.debian.org/debian-backports/|debian-backports]] list.

<<Anchor(migrate-to-bdo)>>
== Migrate from backports.org to backports.debian.org ==
On Sept. 5th, 2010, Backports became an official service (see [[https://www.debian.org/News/2010/20100905|announcement]]).

Systems configured to use backports.org should be reconfigured to use the new
repository/URL (in {{{/etc/apt/sources.list*}}}), since backports.org
service is already stopped.

 1. replace {{{backports.org}}} with {{{http://deb.debian.org/debian}}} in {{{/etc/apt/sources.list*}}}.
 2. run {{{apt update}}}
 3. remove the backports.org key from your keyring. Depending how you installed it...
  * {{{apt purge debian-backports-keyring}}}<<BR>>''or''
  * {{{apt-key del 16BA136C}}}

== List installed backports ==
Out of all installed packages, which ones are backports? One way to tell is by version: all backports are tagged with ''~bpo'', for example, `24.5+1-6~bpo8+1`, so at the command line you might say:{{{
    dpkg-query -W | grep '~bpo'
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 * If you are not a Debian Developer, please upload your backport somewhere (binaries and sources), post a link to it on backports-user@lists.backports.org and ask for review and upload. Please note, that you are responsible for this backport from the time on when it was accepted on backports.org. This means, you have to keep track of the changes in unstable, update your backport when a new version enters testing and provide security updates when needed. If you are not willing or capable of doing this, you better ask someone else (e.g. on the mentioned mailinglist) to create and maintain the backport. = External links =
 * [[https://backports.debian.org/|backports.debian.org]] for more information
 * [[http://doc.cliss21.com/index.php?title=Backports|Article about backports on cliss21.com]]: The article contains information on how to backport packages as well as some step-by-step simple examples to start with.
 * [[https://backports.debian.org/bullseye-backports/overview/|Diffs between bullseye-backports and bookworm]]: A useful comparison of package versions in {{{bullseye-backports}}} and {{{bookworm}}}.
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 * After (and sometimes even before) the backport was accepted, it may be a good idea to contact the maintainer of the package in Debian to tell him, that you backported his package.
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 * If there is already a backport of your package of choice, but it's outdated and you want to update it, inform the person who backported the last accepted version about your intensions. You can get the information from http://www.backports.org/~formorer/ ----------------------
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=== Miscellaneous ===

 * Do not convert a package to a lower debhelper version for creating the backport, debhelper 5 is already on backports.org, just use it.
CategoryPackageManagement CategoryRelease

Translation(s): English - Deutsch - Español - Français - Italiano - Русский - 简体中文

You are running Debian stable because you prefer the stable Debian tree. It runs great, there is just one problem: The software is a little bit outdated compared to other distributions. That is where backports come in.

Backports are recompiled packages from testing (mostly) and unstable (in a few cases only, e.g. security updates), so they will run without new libraries (wherever it is possible) on a stable Debian distribution. It is recommended to pick out single backports which fit your needs, and not to use all backports available.

This article illustrates how to:

  • configure your stable system to use the Backports repository
  • find a specific backport
  • install packages from the repository
  • have your backports upgraded automatically

For official instructions on how to use Debian Backports, visit https://backports.debian.org/Instructions/.

If you want to create a non-official backport of a package you need, have a look at SimpleBackportCreation.

If you want to build a backport with the intent of sharing it with others within Debian, see the BuildingFormalBackports page.


Configuring your stable system

In the following example, we will use bullseye as the current codename for Debian Stable. Please adjust the codename accordingly if you are using a different version of Debian.

If you're setting up backports for a system that isn't running the latest version of Debian (e.g. a buster system while the latest is bullseye) then you will also want to add a line for the "sloppy" backports section. Currently that is buster-backports-sloppy, but after the release of bookworm, you'll want to add a line for bullseye-backports-sloppy.

Adding the repository

Using Synaptic

  • Open Synaptic
  • Go to "Settings -> Repositories":

backports_synaptic_1.png

  • In the following dialog box, select the tab "Third-Party Software" and click on the "Add..." button in the lower left corner:

backports_synaptic_2.png

  • Copy the repository below, then hit the "Add Source" button:

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian bullseye-backports main contrib non-free

backports_synaptic_3.png

  • Finally, hit the "Reload" button in Synaptic's main panel to update the repository information on your system.

Using the command line

As root, or using sudo, open your sources.list file (Nano is the recommended editor for new users):

# apt edit-sources

Append the following line to the bottom of the file:

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian bullseye-backports main contrib non-free

If you are a free software enthusiast, you might want to remove the contrib and non-free sections. (See Debian package management for details.)

Now that you have added the repository, update APT's cache to include the backports in the list of available packages:

# apt update

Done.

Using backports

Finding backports

There are a several different ways to find out if a backport of a certain Debian package exists. A pretty convenient one is using Debian's web-based package search (packages.debian.org).

Backported versions of packages will also appear when searching their names with the apt search command, or one can view all available versions of a package by running:

apt show package-name -a

Replacing package-name with the name of the package you wish to view.

Installing backports on the command line

The backports repository is deactivated by default. So, if you want to install a backported package, you will have to state that explicitly.

For example:

# apt -t bullseye-backports install cockpit

The -t option here specifies bullseye-backports as the target release. This would install a newer version of Cockpit and all its reverse dependencies from bullseye-backports instead of the older one from Debian stable release.

FAQ

Reporting bugs

Because of limitations in the Debian Bug Tracking System, any bugs relevant to backported packages still have to be reported to the debian-backports list.

Migrate from backports.org to backports.debian.org

On Sept. 5th, 2010, Backports became an official service (see announcement).

Systems configured to use backports.org should be reconfigured to use the new repository/URL (in /etc/apt/sources.list*), since backports.org service is already stopped.

  1. replace backports.org with http://deb.debian.org/debian in /etc/apt/sources.list*.

  2. run apt update

  3. remove the backports.org key from your keyring. Depending how you installed it...
    • apt purge debian-backports-keyring
      or

    • apt-key del 16BA136C

List installed backports

Out of all installed packages, which ones are backports? One way to tell is by version: all backports are tagged with ~bpo, for example, 24.5+1-6~bpo8+1, so at the command line you might say:

    dpkg-query -W | grep '~bpo'

External links


CategoryPackageManagement CategoryRelease