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This page describes how to use AppArmor on Debian.

Install software

AppArmor is available in Debian since Debian 7 "Wheezy".

Install AppArmor userspace tools:

Enable AppArmor

If you are using Debian 10 "Buster" or newer, AppArmor is enabled by default so you can skip this step.

Enable the AppArmor Linux Security Modules (LSM):

$ sudo mkdir -p /etc/default/grub.d
$ echo 'GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="$GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT apparmor=1 security=apparmor"' \
  | sudo tee /etc/default/grub.d/apparmor.cfg
$ sudo update-grub
$ sudo reboot

Inspect the current state

AppArmor profiles can be set to different modes:

Not that deny rules in profiles are enforced/blocked even in complain mode.

List all loaded AppArmor profiles for applications and processes and detail their status (enforced, complain, unconfined):

$ sudo aa-status

List running executables which are currently confined by an AppArmor profile:

$ ps auxZ | grep -v '^unconfined'

List of processes with tcp or udp ports that do not have AppArmor profiles loaded:

$ sudo aa-unconfined

Find / install more profiles

AppArmor profiles live in /etc/apparmor.d/. Some packages automatically install their own profiles in this directory. To find more profiles:

Enabling profiles

Files dropped by Debian packages in /etc/apparmor.d/ are automatically enabled. Other profiles need to be copied to this directory and manually set to complain or enforce mode.

For example to install an "extra" profile from the /usr/share/apparmor/extra-profiles/ directory provided by apparmor-profiles and set it to complain mode:

# list available profiles
$ ls /usr/share/apparmor/extra-profiles/

# install the profile
$ sudo cp /usr/share/apparmor/extra-profiles/usr.bin.example /etc/apparmor.d/

# set the profile to complain mode
sudo aa-complain /etc/apparmor.d/usr.bin.example

To set a profile to enforce mode, use aa-enforce instead of aa-complain. Beware though: many profiles are not up-to-date and will break functionality in enforce mode, be ready to debug!


AppArmor audit logs can be found in the systemd Journal or in /var/log/syslog.

For more detailed instructions, please read the dedicated documentation for debugging AppArmor.

Report a bug

If you think that you've found a bug in AppArmor or a software in Debian which ships its own profile, you might want to report a bug.

Learn more

Learn more or start contributing.

Disable AppArmor

First, you can disable individual profiles with aa-disable.

But if you want to entirely disable AppArmor on your system, run:

$ sudo mkdir -p /etc/default/grub.d
  | sudo tee /etc/default/grub.d/apparmor.cfg
$ sudo update-grub
$ sudo reboot

See also